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Professor Parmelee, of the College of the City of New York); War Issues in Russia and the Far East,by George Kennan ; An American Woman Flees from Paris ;" The Outlook Readers' View of the War" (extracts from many 'letters ); War Votes ;and the editorials, Fighting for the Mastery," 1870-1914," and " Why?" We shall print next week the best statement which we have seen in defense of the righteousness of the German cause. It is by an American, formerly a student in a German university, now actively engaged in the International Student movement, and a sincere sympathiser with German culture and the German people. He was in Germany at the outbreak of the war, and sends from London his defense of the German spirit at our request.THE EDITORS.



Mr. Scott readily admits that in the United IN PUBLICATION

States such intensive cultivation as is recorded Beginning with this issue the date of pub- by these German statistics is at present imposlication of The Outlook will hereafter be sible in the United States; "but,” he adds, Wednesday instead of Saturday. This change “ the German figures are interesting to us as is made to facilitate the work of going to showing what can be done by a diligent napress with the latest possible news of the war. tion on a naturally poor soil in a rigorous


GERMAN SUPREMACY: The August number of the “ Navy" con

IN COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY tains a paper by Mr. Frank A. Scott, an in- It is not merely in agriculture that GerAuential industrialist of Cleveland, Ohio, on many has made wonderful strides by applythe industrial progress of the German Em- ing the researches of the scientific laboratory pire since the Franco-Prussian War.

It was

to the daily work of commercial production. written and published before the present

In the production of pig iron Germany to-day European war broke out, but it has never- stands second in the civilized world, with an theless a war significance because it shows output of seventeen million tons. Her native in a very clear way the industrial domination ore is poor, and yet by scientific methods she and prosperity which Germany has risked produces one-fourth of the total pig iron of destroying for the sake of pursuing military

the world, surpassing England by over fifty domination. The area of Germany, Mr. per cent annually. This extraordinary proScott points out, with its 208,000 square

duction is largely aided by a chemical process miles, is about equal to Indiana, Illinois, which dephosphorizes the ore, and the phosWisconsin, and Michigan. She has an aver

phate by-product is used as an agricultural age population of 311 to the square mile. fertilizer. By the application of science to The United States has a population of 32 to industry Germany has not only increased her the square mile. The result of this intensive domestic welfare, but has enormously added population is that Germany has applied her to her foreign trade. In twenty-five years wonderful scientific research to the problem her foreign trade has increased one hundred of intensive cultivation. In the thirty-two and eighty-five per cent. years between 1881 and 1913, Germany in- The highest on her list, the product in which creased her production per acre of wheat she has advanced most, from 1883 to 1912, is eighty-six per cent, of rye seventy-five per machinery of all kinds. The value in marks in cent, of oats eighty-one per cent, of pota

1887 of machinery exported was 52,800,000 toes forty-seven per cent. On the other

marks ; in 1912 it had risen to 630,300,000 marks.

Coarse and fine iron goods rose from 96,000,000 hand, the production per acre of these food essentials in the United States remained prac

marks in 1887 to 581,000,000 in 1912. Coal

now think of it-coal from that small country, tically stationary. This is partially explained

from 79,900,000 marks to 436,600,000 marks in by the steady bringing into the agricultural 1912. Coke, in 1887, 9,000,000; in 1912, 126,000,field of undeveloped lands in this country. 000. Cotton, wool, and silk, from 261,000,000

in 1887 to 966,000,000 in 1912. These figures for Mr. Hinman to lend his aid, if defeated explain to all of us who have been in countries

at the Republican primaries, to any candidate where we seek foreign markets why we find

who had the support of William Barnes. In the German there, and we do find the Ger

the understanding of the Progressive leaders, man there, and he is there very strongly in

who agreed to advocate Mr. Hinman's nomitrenched, and he deserves it.

nation in the Progressive primaries, Mr. To promote her foreign trade, Germany Hinman stood ready to make the fight for employs not only scientific methods of manu- Governorship on this platform. facturing, but intelligence in selling. She is

Fusion for good government did not, howwilling to meet the wishes of a customer ; ever, become an assured fact. The Repubshe quickly adopts new and approved lican State Convention, held for the purpose methods of reaching new markets ; she is

of adopting a party platform, intervened. interested in every question, historical, ethno- At this Convention, while no successful atlogical, philosophical, and financial, that per- tempt was made to place the party leaders tains to economic life and development. “I on record as in favor of the nomination of am sure,” says Mr. Scott, " that any Ameri- any particular candidate at the primaries, it can who has been in the Far East, or in was very clearly demonstrated that the ConSouth America, or in Mexico, or in any of vention was under the direct control of the the great countries where German competi- reactionary element. Committee meetings tion is now becoming very strong, will agree were held behind closed doors. No effective that in shipping facilities, in banking facilities, effort was made to overthrow or even to in social touch with the customers, Germany qualify the control of the party in New York is rapidly becoming the leader.” This indus- State by Mr. Barnes. With this obvious trial supremacy has developed, not by the fact before him, Mr. Hinman, while professmilitary power of the German Government, ing allegiance to the anti-boss issue, declared but by the energy and intelligence of the in a signed statement that “even if not nomGerman people. They must inevitably, we inated in the Republican primaries, I shall think, begin to realize as the war goes on that not by word or act leave my party either bethey have thrown away a very real and con- fore or after the September primaries nor structive leadership in exchange for a chimeri- ask support for any nominee of any other cal and destructive ambition.


With this statement in view, it became NEW YORK STATE

impossible for the Progressives to lend their POLITICS

aid to a candidate who had openly declined The hope of fusion in New York State to fight against the Republican nominated, between Progressives and Independent Re- even should this man be a direct and adpublicans for the purpose of eliminating mitted subordinate of Mr. Barnes himself. both Mr. Barnes and Mr. Murphy from the Furthermore, the State Primary Law makes control of the State Government has been it obligatory upon any candidate nominated largely dissipated. As The Outlook recorded at the primary to stand for the office for in its issue of August 8, a proposition which which he has been nominated by popular had the support of Mr. Roosevelt was put vote. If the Progressive party had conforward looking towards the nomination at tinued to support Mr. Hinman, it might the primaries of a fusion anti-machine ticket have found itself going before the people similar in purpose and kind to that which with a candidate who declined not only to recently redeemed New York City from make a canvass on his own behalf but who Tammany. Under this plan Progressive stood openly in support of a candidate and of leaders stood ready to advocate the nomina- that element in the Republican party fundation of ex-State Senator Hinman on both the mentally at variance with Progressive prinProgressive and the Republican ticket. Sen- ciples. ator Hinman, who is a Republican, was not At the time of writing it seems probable asked in any way to desert his party, save that the Progressive party will put in the that he should declare himself opposed to the field a straight Progressive ticket. The canbi-partisan machine that has for so long hung didates for Governorship on this ticket now like a millstone upon the Government of most prominently before the party are Mr. New York State. Naturally, this exception, Chauncey J. Hamlin, of Buffalo, Mr. William H. if sincerely agreed upon, made it impossible Hotchkiss, and ex-State Senator Frederick

its parts.


M. Davenport. The only hope of a State with other States.?! In other words, State fusion which remains lies in the chance that boundaries are impediments in dealing with the Mitchel and Wilson Democrats will child labor, as in dealing with divorce, prosrevolt against their own party machine, and titution, the liquor traffic, and the drug evil. that a Democrat of known ability and inde- The most serious opposition to the bill pendence in State politics will be brought comes from those who profess to consider forward acceptable to the Progressives. The it unconstitutional as violating the rights of time for such an eventuality is, however, individual States. The answer to these obbrief, and the possibility of its achievement jectors is that the measure does not underremote.

take to dictate under what conditions children

shall be employed in any State, but does THE PALMER-OWEN

undertake to protect sister States, i. c., the CHILD LABOR BILL

National domain, against the folly of any of Recently the Palmer-Owen Child Labor

In this respect the backers of the Bill, which seeks to stamp out some of the bill only ask Congress to extend to child worst forms of child labor by preventing the labor the principle it has already applied to shipment in inter-State commerce of products the liquor trade and to the white slave traffic. manufactured in whole or in part by the labor of children, was reported from the A COUNTRY CREED AND House Committee on Labor with amend

A COUNTRY HOLIDAY ments added by the Committee. The 1. You have got to make the country as atOutlook believes that the measure is an

tractive socially as the city if you want to keep cellent one and should be passed.

the young folks on the farms.

2. There's a good deal of work in the counBriefly, the bill forbids the shipment in

try, but most of our boys and girls have forinter-State commerce of the products of any

gotten how to play. mine or quarry which have been produced 3. Baseball is a splendid game, but it isn't in whole or in part by the labor of children

the only one. Every healthy boy should be under the age of sixteen, or the output of interested in at least half a dozen others. Don't any mill, cannery, factory, or manufacturing merely watch others play games; play them establishment produced wholly or in part by yourself! children under fourteen, or by children be

4. You can't drink strong drink and be an tween the ages of fourteen and sixteen work

athlete. Get your boys interested in honest ing more than eight hours a day or six days

and healthy sports, and save them from drink

and dissipation. a week, or after seven o'clock in the evening

5. Contests and competitions are not the or before seven o'clock in the morning.

main thing. “ The strong compete and grow This bill is not so “ drastic ” as some of

stronger; the weak look on and grow weaker." its opponents would have us believe. The

The main thing is play. Learn the great lesson first of the above provisions is already in that play is just as necessary for your sons as force in fifteen States; the second in forty work. States, the District of Columbia, and Porto 6. The community should help to run its own Rico; the third—the eight-hour-day clause,

recreations. Its festivals should be not only for considered the most radical part of the bill — the people, but of and by the people. is already on the statute-books of eighteen This is the creed for which the name of States and the District of Columbia; while the little town of Amenia, New York, has night work for children under sixteen is for- come to stand. The wide publicity that has bidden in thirty-three States, the District of already been given to this brief statement Columbia, and Porto Rico.

of a rural ideal is directly attributable to the Such a law as this is needed because, as fact that Amenia has attempted to practice the National Child Labor Committee says : what it preaches. As The Outlook recorded

After ten years' experience we have reached a year ago, there is held each August in this the conclusion that it is almost impossible to Dutchess County village a festival which was secure uniform and effective laws in the dif- originally defined as an “experiment in coferent States. This difficulty arises from the operative recreation.” The spirit of this fact that every proposal to enact an effective festival is as far removed from the old-time State law is opposed by the industries that county fair as it is possible to imagine. It would be affected on the ground that such is a people's festival, where the people thema law would handicap them in competition selves are the chief attraction. A very large

proportion of the farmers and their friends asleep and unconscious, when she is in reality who attend this gathering go, not to look on, in a hypnotic condition, entirely susceptible but to take active part in the sports of this to suggestions from the doctor." community - play bee."

Is the new method safe? On this point For the past five years this Amenia festi- there is a difference of opinion among medical val has been held in a level meadow on the authorities. We notice a tendency among farm of Professor Joel E. Spingarn. It has advocates of the system to argue (as was attracted visitors each year numbered not by done in the Friedmann matter) that doctors hundreds but by thousands. Amateur base- are temperamentally opposed to medical disball, foot races, trap-shooting, pageants, coveries—a totally false generalization, as all speeches by leaders in State and National will say who remember how the discoveries life, agricultural demonstrations and exhibits, of Koch and Pasteur and others have been a horse show at which the steady and practi- applied. It is right that new medical methods cal farm horses of the neighboring region should be thoroughly tested before they are contend for ribbons quite as blue and as heralded as near-miracles; and testing is a red as those won by their aristocratic cousins matter of special skill and often requires a in Madison Square, all these have at various long time. It is well to be on guard against times appeared upon the programme. Fakers, too ready acceptance of such discoveries lest gamblers, card-sharps, and liquor-sellers, who incalculable harm be done and hopes cruelly in the past have not infrequently infested disappointed. large country gatherings, have been, and for The “ Ladies' Home Journal” is to be all time will be, barred from this Amenia praised, therefore, for accompanying an exgathering. May the Amenia idea spread! ceedingly interesting article on the treatment

There is a place in the life of every town- at Freiburg, which includes interviews with ship for such a festival. Successfully carried American mothers who have undergone the out, it means a long step towards the ulti- . "twilight sleep,” by expressions of opinion mate triumph, not of the “ back to the land” from five eminent physicians. Their joint movement perhaps, but, what is vastly more verdict is not favorable. Dr. Vaughan, Presiimportant, the “ stay on the land” move- dent of the American Medical Association, ment—that movement which looks toward says: “Up to the present time the profesthe retention in the country of those who sion is not convinced that this drug, either can find their best opportunity for service alone or combined with morphine, is free and for individual development among the from danger either to mother or child, or difficulties, the trials, and the vital triumphs both.” Dr. Green, Professor of Obstetrics of country life.

at Harvard, says he has tried and abandoned

the method as uncertain, sometimes danger“THE TWILIGHT SLEEP"

ous, and inferior to other measures for the The use of scopolamine in connection with relief of pain. Dr. Williams, of Johns Hopmorphine as an anæsthetic in childbirth is not kins, has tried the method without satisfacnew; it has been known for about twelve tory results, but proposes to give it further years. Recent publication of magazine articles trial. Dr. Hirst, of the University of Pennabout the twilight sleep," and especially as sylvania, believes that as first used it was it has been practiced at Freiburg, Germany, dangerous, that as now used it is partly psyby Dr. Kroenig and Dr. Karl Gauss, has chological. Dr. De Lee, of the Northwestern aroused extraordinary interest in the subject. University, studied the method at Freiburg It is claimed that scopolamine is superior to and formed decidedly unfavorable impreschloroform or ether, which have long been sions, adding that he found that the famous employed in difficult cases, in that scopola- maternities of Berlin, Vienna, Munich, and mine induces an unconsciousness like that of Heidelberg had tried and discarded the plan. sleep and the patient“ awakes ” without con- On the other hand, newspapers state that the sciousness of pain-although some physicians Jewish Maternity Hospital of New York has say that what happens is that the drug ren- tried scopolamine in one hundred and twentyders the mind unconscious so that no recol- five cases with great success and proposes to lection of the pain actually felt exists. One extend the treatment. investigator says that the “ twilight sleep” is In view of all these facts, it seems only really " a subconscious condition in which the right to caution the general public against patient considers herself absolutely sound reaching final conclusions hastily, and espe


cially to caution any would-be patient against signed to save the outlying sections of the acting without the best possible medical city from ever developing the evils with which advice from an unprejudiced physician. the older sections are permanently afflicted.

That is, it wishes to keep the unspoiled parts CHECKING THE TENEMENT

of the metropolis as much as possible like the INVASION IN NEW YORK CITY

smaller cities which, in spite of all their strivFor many years New York City has been ings, have as yet been unable to make themthe great, compelling example of how to build selves as bad as New York. a city wrong, and its misdeeds have been faithfully imitated by cities, towns, and PLANNING villages from the Atlantic to the Pacific. FOR THE FUTURE Because Broadway is too narrow for trees, The city dwelling-house that is to approxivillages on Long Island and towns in Michigan mate the ideal must be near the ground, so have chopped down the trees that made their that the members of the family, especially business streets presentable. Because New the children, may be out of doors without York permitted sky-scrapers to turn the nar- being out of touch with the home. The row streets of its financial district into canyons, tall tenements of Manhattan, whose inhabievery ambitious city in the country refuses to tants must either stay within the narrow be content until it too has sky-scrapers. Be- limits of their little rooms or else lose themcause New York packs a large proportion selves in the crowded streets, are the anof its people into tenement and apartment tithesis of suitable dwellings for families. In houses, the socially elect of prairie towns be- the past the community has been powerless lieve that to live in a multiple dwelling, espe- to prevent the erection of such barracks cially if it boasts an elevator and a darky in on its farthermost edges. One law brass buttons, is a patent to distinction. For. has applied to every section of the city, the above all things and at no matter what cost, packed East Side and the sparsely settled we Americans must be metropolitan.

outskirts of Queens Borough. And as a Occasionally New York returns the com- result of this lack of power to control the pliment and adopts something that another housing situation rows of tall tenements are city has originated, thanks to those citizens who invading open fieids miles away from the are able to do their own thinking. Some years City Hall. The Borough of the Bronx, after Cleveland had proved the value of a which a few years ago was open country, is high-pressure water system for fire-fighting now almost as solidly filled with six-story New York took it over, and is now considering tenements are the newer sections of a still further extension of this conflagration Manhattan ; Brownsville, in Brooklyn, is preventive. After Chicago had proved the duplicating all that has been deprecated on practicability of steel-frame construction New Hester and Rivington Streets. This invaYork took it up and is still piling story on story, sion of the tenement is graphically shown while Chicago, the originator, has for years by illustrations in this week's picture section. been limiting by law the size of its Franken- The proposals of its first Heights of Buildstein monsters. Later a few of the progress- ings Commission offered New York the hope ivé cities began to district themselves in order that this devastating march might be stopped to protect their residence sections. Now New and the yet unspoiled sections of the city saved York has this also under consideration. for individual homes. These proposals have

If New York really carries to a definite con- been made the basis of a law enacted by the clusion the preliminary recommendations of its Legislature at its recent session--a law which first Commission on the Heights of Buildings, will doubtless have to stand a test as to its conand so makes them fashionable, it will go a stitutionality in the courts--giving the Board long way toward undoing the harm it has of Estimate and Apportionment of New York done in the past to American civic planning. City the required power to carry them into The report of this Commission shows in effect. no uncertain language how the crowding of The Board of Estimate and Apportionment tall buildings has injured the community, in- has now delegated the duty of determining how jured life and health, depreciated property this power can best be exercised to a second values, handicapped business, increased costs, City Planning Commission. This Commission and put unnecessary burdens on the taxpayers. has a twofold work before it-to devise a In conclusion, it makes recommendations de- method of restricting the height of buildings,


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