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PHOTOGRAPH BY UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD
"FRENCH AND FLEMISH SPOKEN HERE The picture, taken in Folkestone, England, shows how the enterprising shopkeepers of that seaside town try to attract the patronage of the great numbers of Belgian refugees who have fled to English shores. "Nothing over sixpence halfpenny” is surely an attractive sign to a poor émigré, and if his own language
is spoken, who would blame him for parting with a small sum?
PHOTOGRAPH BY BROWN BROTHERS
THE TOWN CRIER HAVING JOINED THE ARMY, HIS WIFE UNDERTAKES HIS DUTIES The custom of having a town crier to make public announcements has not yet died out in England, as will be seen by the picture, taken in the old town of Chertsey. The official crier having been called to the front, his wife was appointed to fill
his place during his absence. It is believed that the heroine of the photo
graph is the only woman in England who now holds such a position THE LIGHTER SIDE OF THE EUROPEAN TRAGEDY
BY HANNA ASTRUP LARSEN
V the shadow of the war cloud that sud- profoundly significant that it coincided exdenly spread darkness over Europe, actly with the close of the war with Japan.
Swedes and Norwegians met, last Thwarted in the attempt to reach open sea August, on the boundary line to unveil a in the east, Russia turned her attention with monument commemorating one hundred renewed vigor to the west. Finland is now years of peace between them. The occasion a country governed by Cossacks. Finnish became a solemn lifting up of the hearts of judges have been thrown into prison for the two peoples in a pledge to live at peace daring to uphold the constitution guaranteed not only with each other and with Denmark, their country by the Czar. Finnish money but, so far as possible, with the whole world. has built the broad-gauged railway and heavy The Scandinavians, once the dreaded warriors iron bridges that can carry troops, if need be, of the North, are now practically the only directly from Petrograd to Tornea, on the nations in Europe to set their faces resolutely Swedish border: Small wonder that fear of toward peace. They ask nothing but to bé Russia is in the Swedish blood, and that the left alone to work out their own destinies “ Muscovite " is used as a bogey to frighten within their own domain, peopled by homoge- children. neous races. Will they be allowed to do it? In Norway the Bear's paw is casting a
In the international relations of Sweden shadow over. Finmarken and Nordland, the and Norway the fact which flashes out so fairy-land of the nation, the region that gives that he who runs may read is the Russian Norway her title of the Land of the Midnight menace. While Denmark has other interests Sun. It is asserted by responsible men that and other complications, due to her position the sam: influences which undermined resistbetween Germany and England, Sweden and ance in Finland a century ago are at work in Norway are strategically - a unit, bound Finmarken, and that Russian rubles are used, together by the fear of aggression from the perhaps not in actual bribery, but certainly to east.
create a feeling of solidarity with Russia. Ten years after the Thirty Years' War Russian traders fasten themselves on the the entire northern part of the Baltic was a region and are often able to offer better Swedish lake, bordered by the mother coun- terms than the Norwegian merchants. The try and dependencies. With the beginning large alien population of Lapps and Finns, the of the eighteenth century a young, barbarous distance from the heart of the nation, and the giant arose in the east with his face toward poor means of communication add to the the open sea, the goal that has been Russia's gravity of the situation. ever since. St. Petersburg was built on If Russia were to grab any part of this land taken from the Swedes. The aggressive region, there is no reason to believe that she wars of Charles the Twelfth checked the would be content with a single icy harbor stride of Russia for a while, but his band of dangling at the end of a long railway line. veterans who "thought ten to one an even It is more likely that the booty of the Bear match ” were engulfed in the mere mass of might reach even as far south as to TrondPeter the Great's army, and he left a Sweden hjem, the seat of the cathedral in which the impoverished, depopulated, and shorn of her kings of Norway are crowned. In order to outlying provinces. Livonia, Esthonia, Ingria, hold such a long strip of coast, however, an Wiborg, and Karelia passed into the hands upland would be desirable, and there is Sweof the Russians. Less than a century later, dish Norrland, rich in forests and iron ore. in 1809, the whole of Finland, with her wide, A noted Swede, when visiting the United luxurious plains and smiling lakes, the province States, was asked if he thought England and that has given Sweden some of her greatest Germany would allow Russia to annex a part poets and stanchest warriors, became Rus- of Scandinavia. * We will not allow it oursian territory, and the Czar's Government at selves," was the proud answer. Neverthethe time had designs on the liberty of the less, the international position of Sweden is mother country as well.
a foregone conclusion. It is the Germans The thorough Russification of Finland did who have held at bay the Slavs and Mongols not begin until the present century, and it is in the south, as the Swedes have done it in the north, down through the centuries. To interests that the long western coast of the Germany the Swedes still look as the main Scandinavian Peninsula is in the hands of a bulwark of the Teutonic races, and they are sinall and friendly nation like Norway. The convinced that, if Germany were to be weak- question is only whether the real cordiality ened, their own existence would be threatened. existing will be strong enough to hold in all
Nor has Germany been blind to the advan- temptations, or whether the fires that were tages of breaking the ring of her enemies with fierce enough to weld such opposing elements a friend in the north and of allying with as England and Russia may not also shrivel herself so strong a military nation as the the paper of an Integrity Treaty. Swedes. The precise nature of any over- Dr. Sigurd Ibsen, in a speech last May, tures from Germany to Sweden is, of course, quoted the present Prime Minister, Mr. wrapped in diplomatic secrecy, but there can Gunnar Knudsen, to the effect that Norway be little doubt that offers of alliance were in any international complication must look made before the war, and that the temper of to England for aid. Dr. Ibsen, who is the Sweden has at least been sounded after the son of Henrik Ibsen, and is hiinself an auoutbreak of hostilities. Such advances from thority on international matters, goes on to a world power might well tempt a small peo- say that if Mr. Knudsen's words referred to ple whose blood still leaps with memories of Russia they voiced an optimism which he Gustavus Adolphus and Charles the Twelfth, could not share. England, he declared, but to all expansionist dreams the sober would no doubt be very much averse to the common sense of the nation has spoken an intrenchment of Russia on the coast of Noremphatic "No," and Sweden stood at the way, but as the attack would probably be beginning of the war free from all entangle- made by land, England would have no means ments. Since then the strictest neutrality of hindering it except diplomatic protestahas been adhered to.
tions, possibly seconded by a naval demonThe integrity of Norway is officially guar- stration in the Baltic. But there is little anteed by the Integrity Treaty of 1907, likelihood that Russia would attack Scandiwhich England, Germany, France, and Rus- navia in times of peace. It is very plausible, sia have signed for a period of ten years. however, that an assault might be made Among these signatories, England is the one under cover of the general confusion that to which Norwegians look as their especial would accompany a war between the Europrotector against aggression from any other
Moreover, in the event that Power. It is true that they, in common with war should break out, we must reckon with the Danes and Swedes, feel the warmest the possibility that England and Russia would sympathy and the most intense admiration stand together as allies. That England should for the French people and for French culture, raise any protest against Russian occupation but France is too far away to enter into the of Scandinavian territory would then be out political calculations of the North. To put of the question, and if the group of Powers trust in Russia would be like setting the wolf to which they both belong should win, Russia to guard the sheepfold. As for Germany, would certainly be allowed to keep her booty, the German Emperor has indeed endeared however much England might regret it in himself personally by many acts of kindness, her heart." such as the succor of the sufferers from fire Denmark, on the other hand, is in no at Aalesund and his annual gift of money to danger from Russia. Encroaching Germans the Trondhjem Cathedral, not forgotten even have pushed the Danes back from the lands this summer, when his visit was cut short by south of the Baltic which they once held the war. Recently, however, there has been in the thirteenth century, under Valdemar a tendency to look askance at these friendly the Victorious-almost as far east as the visits, for in their wake have come German site of Petrograd. In modern times they battle-ships, which have entered Norwegian have been confined to the peninsula of Jutharbors to take measurements there. They land and the adjacent islands, and fifty years have been an unpleasant reminder that the ago Germany seized by force of arms next great naval battle of the world would Schleswig-Holstein, forming the base of the very likely be fought in Norwegian waters peninsula. In Schleswig, which the Danes and threaten the neutrality of seacoast towns still call South Jutland, the work of Germanlike Bergen and Christianssand.
izing has been carried on ruthlessly. It is England feels it to be a safeguard of her forbidden to sing Danish patriotic songs, to display Danish colors, and to hold meetings force, has not borne fruit in political action. in the Danish language.
Recently difficul- Denmark and Norway, as a result of four ties have been placed in the way of Danish- centuries of union terminating in 1814, are speaking citizens' owning land or engaging more alike in language and culture than servants. Geographical names have been either is to Sweden. Norway looks with given a German twist. At the outbreak of repugnance upon the idea of fraternizing the war the customary restrictions were with the oppressor of Denmark, while Densharpened ; Danish newspapers were sup- mark dislikes Sweden's friendship with Gerpressed and the editors put into jail at the many. Sweden resented Norway's violent very moment when thousands of their kins- severance of the union in 1905; the Swedes, men were fighting loyally in the German army. so proud of their own honorable history,
The seizure of Schleswig-Holstein has en- have not been able to understand that the abled Germany to build the Kiel Canal, afford- action of Norway was not dictated by enmity, ing a quick passage from the Baltic to the but was the inevitable bursting of the seed North Sea without the necessity of navigat- of national life planted more than a thousand ing the difficult sound between Denmark and years ago by Harold the Fair-haired. This Sweden. The strategic importance of Den- wound, however, has healed with marvelous mark to Germany is hereby lessened, since rapidity. The magnanimity of the Swedes the little kingdom no longer holds the only has not been able to resist the persistent, key to the Baltic.
almost eager friendliness of the Norwegians. To England, however, the day may come When the Riksdag of Sweden and the Storwhen her squadron must enter the Baltic, and thing of Norway simultaneously passed a there is no way except through the sounds, resolution, soon after the outbreak of the war, which the Danes have blocked by submarine that under no circumstances would the two mines. Only a narrow passage in the countries bear arms against each other, we Öresund is left free, and the Danish Govern- who were in Scandinavia at the time felt it ment provides pilots free of charge to all as almost a physical relief. There was no merchant vessels. To provide a battle-ship demonstration, no lyrical outburst, only a with a pilot would, of course, be a violation deep, almost silent thankfulness. of neutrality, and the action of Denmark is In all three countries the conviction has therefore a virtual, though not a formal, pro- gained ground that neutrality is no easy loopnibition. According to private advices, lack- hole out of difficulties, but that it may ining official confirmation, it was the result of volve heavy sacrifices. The campaign for an ultimatum from Germany which gave military preparedness has been most vigorDenmark the choice between laying mines ous in Sweden, where the Asiatic explorer in her waters or having the Germans lay Sven Hedin issued his first passionate them. Denmark chose to do it herself. “Word of Warning” in 1912. Since then
As yet there has been no protest from he has carried on a ceaseless agitation, trying England and no indication that she wishes to to rouse his countrymen with his flaming make the passage. To comply with a de- oratory to see the danger from the east and mand for a pilot would be to court attack prepare for the coming struggle. Others have from Germany. At the beginning of the taken up the call, and last February the war Denmark declared her intention to de- movement culminated in that remarkable fend her neutrality, if need be, by force. All demonstration known as the “ Yeomen's over the world Danes and those who have March.” Thirty thousand landowners from fallen under the spell of Denmark's peculiarly all parts of Sweden met in Stockholm and intimate charm, who have explored her quaint marched under their old provincial banners to cities and learned to know her fine old cul- the royal castle to meet the King face to face ture and her gentle, kindly people, are thank- and offer him their worldly goods in defense ful for every hour that passes without putting of the fatherland. Seventy thousand addiher brave resolution to the test of blood and tional names were signed to the address that iron. Should the test come, Copenhagen is was handed the King. One group of citizens one of the most strongly fortified seaports in after another-scientists, artists, and busiEurope and is guarded by a large force. ness men—hastened to offer their support.
The divergent interests of the three coun- More than three thousand university stutries explain why the ideal of pan-Scandina- dents, their white-capped, singing crowds vianism, though it has become a spiritual " like the onward rush of spring floods,” went