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lishment of a proper reserve of equipment and manded of the lower grades of volunteer men for the ranks is the problem of providing officers. for the men to be thus trained and armed Third. A very small list of men who have an adequate reserve of officers. This is the qualified through examination for appointproblem which at present is causing such ments as officers of volunteer organizations. grave difficulty to England. During the last Fourth. A certain number of men who few months she has had not only to train have passed through the recently established private soldiers, but to train officers to give student instruction camps. this training-an almost unsurmountable task. Of this last class The Outlook will have This country was confronted with a similar later more to say. The benefits that have crisis during the Civil War, for at the begin- come to the young college and high school ning of that gigantic struggle both officers graduates who have attended these camps in and men were handicapped by a lack of increasing numbers since their establishment knowledge of the rudimentary elements of form a noteworthy chapter in our educadiscipline and military science. Towards the tional history. Suffice it to say here, howend of the war the private who enlisted ever, that from the men available there could found himself immeasurably better off than be each year appointed from five hundred to the private of :61. The soldier of '63 fitted one thousand volunteer provisional second into a smoothly running machine officered by lieutenants in the various arms of the servmen of experience, and faced a very different ice. These men could serve for one year, situation from the volunteer why fought at receiving the pay and allowance of a regular Bull Run.
officer of their rank. For the production of a reserve force of Such a programme as we have here outofficers there are existent the following poten- lined would in the end produce for our countial sources of supply:
try an adequate military reserve without the First. The graduates of the better class of necessity of any disproportionate increase in military schools ; the number is very limited. the number of men now under arms and
Second. A certain number of former non- without the slightest danger of militarism, commissioned officers of the regular army or the remotest trespass upon the individual who have the necessary qualifications de- liberties of our citizens.
THREE YEARS OF REVOLUTION IN MEXICO T'
HE evacuation of Vera Cruz by A new epoch in the revolutionary struggle
the American troops under Gen- in Mexico has evidently begun. It seems,
eral Funston's command on Mon- then, a fit time to review briefly and broadly day, November 23, took place three years the three years since November, 1911, when to a month after the assumption of the (Diaz having resigned after an astonishingly Presidency of Mexico by Madero. As our weak attempt to stem by arms the tide of soldiers marched on board the transports, revolt against one-man government) FranVilla's forces were advancing toward the cisco Madero was chosen President. Eleccapital, Mexico City, and were expecting tions in Mexico are almost always farcical, to occupy it within a few days ; Carranza but at the time Madero was really the choice had fallen back to Orizaba, which is on the of the people. An idealist, a brilliant writer railway leading from Mexico City to Vera on democracy, perfectly sincere in his belief Cruz; General Blanco had been preserving that the people should own the land, he was order in Mexico City, but two days after the also a visionary, a spiritualist, and the most American withdrawal newspaper despatches impractical of men. Soon many of his own reported mobs looting and terror in the capital. generals deserted him; insurgents in the In other words, we leave Vera Cruz at a crucial north under Vasquez Gomez and in the south moment in Mexican history, when war is under Zapata disturbed the peace ; finance, raging between the two foremost Constitu- legislation, reform—all were in confusion. tionalist leaders, and when the prospect of an Madero's fall in some form was inevitable. established government, one that this country It came horribly and turbulently after a fierce may recognize as responsible, seems remote. fight in the capital itself. By the treachery
of Generals Huerta and Blanquet in conjunc- Saltillo, Zacatecas, and other important places tion with Felix Diaz, who commanded the fell before him, until it was evident that Mexinsurgents, Madero was deposed (March, ico City was almost within his grasp. He 1913). His assassination and that of his recognized Carranza as First Chief, but be Vice-President, Suarez, followed. General tween them grew up jealousy and distrust Huerta was made Provisional President. which culminated when it became clear that That the death of Madero was at least indi- Carranza did not mean to let Villa lead the rectly to be laid at Huerta's door was then attack on Mexico City. and is now generally believed. The assassi- So stood the situation when the Vera Cruz nation was carefully shrouded in mystery. clash came between the United States and Many accounts of the crime have been given; Huerta's forces at Vera Cruz (May, 1914). the exact facts are not positively known. The occasion of the occupation was a disBut it was in Huerta's interest, he and his respect shown our flag, and apologized for, fellow-conspirators profited, and no real effort but not with the full reparation demanded. was made to punish the actual perpetrators. It is considered reasonable by many students
The Administration at Washington took of history that behind this was the intention the view that it could not recognize a Gov
nt arms for Huerta being landed at ernment founded on assassination, and re- Mexican ports. If so, the desired result was fused to deal with Huerta even as a de facto not obtained. Vera Cruz was closed to ruler. In this stand The Outlook supported Huerta, Tampico was soon occupied by the -the action of President Wilson as high-minded Constitutionalists; but Puerto Mexico was and justified by the facts. But out of this still open, and through it went arms in the policy grew the set idea of President Wilson German ship which had been stopped at that the only thing of importance in Mexico Vera Cruz. The fighting which accompanied was that Huerta must be “ eliminated.” Out our occupation of Vera Cruz resulted in about of this in turn grew a course of action which twenty deaths on our side ; perhaps ten was called “watchful waiting,” but which times that number among the Mexicans. really amounted to tacit support of Huerta's Whatever the political or international aspects enemies and to discrimination in the matter of of the occupation now. ended, it is admitted the embargo on arms. It is true that through on every hand that American sailors, soldiers, Mr. John Lind, the President's personal rep- and marines, under their officers, have given resentative, terms were suggested to Huerta Mexico a splendid example of municipal adfor an understanding between the two Gov- ministration, orderly conduct, and civic cleanernments, but these terms included self-elim-. liness, physical and moral. ination by Huerta, and were scornfully re- The occupation of Vera Cruz led to the jected (September, 1913).
assembly of ihe “A B C” Conference at Meanwhile, hostility to Huerta had flamed Washington (May, 1914)-a most comup all over Mexico. General Carranza, Gov- mendable attempt to use the influence of the ernor of the State of Coahuila, a man of three greatest South American countries education and a strong advocate of consti- (Argentina, Brazil, and Chile) to compose the tutional measures, formed a government of differences between the United States and his own and took the field. Zapata, always Mexico and between the two factions in the enemy of authority, made trouble in the Mexico. It had, as a matter of course, no south. Francisco (or Pancho) Villa, ex-ban- power to act without the consent of the pardit, ignorant, forceful, beloved and followed ties involved, and it came to the rather lame by the peons as their friend, grew in strength conclusion involved in the offer of the United and activity in northern central Mexico. As States through its delegates to forego reparaa leader of soldiers he is a phenomenon. tion for the Vera Cruz incident and to recognize Those who believe in him declare that, de- as Provisional President any candidate upon spite the cruelties and crimes that mark his whom the Constitutionalists and Huertistas career, Villa is in earnest in his hatred of could agree, with the understanding that a despotism and desires to give the common fair election should follow. Needless to say, man a chance, and they say also that he has the two Mexican factions could not agree upon shown marvelous talent not only as a fighter a candidate, and the resignation of Huerta but as an organizer and administrator. He left the protocol of the Conference in the air. has never, we believe, lost a battle. One This resignation took place in July last. Dicby one, Juarez, Chihuahua, Torreon, Ojinaga, tator from the start, Huerta became a despoi
when he drove a Congress from its hall by Carranza's resignation was declined by this bayonets and imprisoned a large part of its convention. What purported to be a conmembers, while dark suspicion of guilt for the vention of conciliation was held at Aguas death of Senator Dominguez and others clung Calientes, but it soon became evident that it to his skirts. Beaten in the field and embar- was in the interest of Villa, and its nominee rassed financially and commercially, he fled, and for Provisional President, Mr. Gutierrez, was his name has already passed out of discussion promptly denounced as a rebel by Carranza. of Mexican affairs. It may at least be said for Farcical correspondence ensued between Carhim that he tried to preserve the life and ranza and Villa as to a proposal that both property of foreigners when possible, and that should leave Mexico. Meanwhile Villa moved there is no such long list of crimes against his army southward, and at this moment a Americans, Europeans, and Mexicans adduced new civil war in Mexico appears unavoidable, against him as against Villa and Zapata. with dim prospects of such a stable govern
'With the departure of Huerta a curious ment in the near future as could be recogperiod of fencing for political and material nized by the United States. advantage began between Villa and Carranza. Can Mexico right its own chaotic state by Villa disclaimed designs on the Presidency, effort of its own, or must there be control but vehemently declared that Carranza must from the outside? This is rapidly becoming not be Provisional President. Carranza a question that must be answered. Some called a convention of military leaders at aspects of the Mexican problem are disMexico City, but Villa refused to attend. cussed in an editorial on another page.
LABOR IN COUNCIL
BY CHARLES STELZLE
SPECIAL CORRESPONDENCE OF THE OUTLOOK
HE most stirring speech at the man from Kansas City-lawyer, reformer,
Philadelphia Convention of the publicist, economist-struck at fundamental
American Federation of Labor, evils in our social system. In outlining the which was in session from November 9 to 21 work of the Commission Mr. Walsh declared inclusive, was not that delivered by Mother that it was its purpose “ to give a voice to Jones, of Colorado, or Jeff Davis, the Presi- that disinherited of God's creatures, the dent of the “ Hoboes'" Union ; it was the exploited man ; to give a voice to a cause address delivered by Frank P. Walsh, of more piteous—the cause of the exploited Kansas City, Chairman of the Commission woman; and to make articulate the stifled on Industrial Relations.
whimper of the saddest of all elements in the And this fact marked the general character maelstrom of American industry—the exof the Federation meeting. It was a high ploited and forgotten child.” grade convention of the highest-grade labor Nearly four hundred delegates represented leaders in this country. Every maudlin ap- the two million members of the American peal was frowned down upon, although the Federation of Labor at the Federation ConConvention was not without sentiment of vention. Practically the same delegates the truest kind. The address delivered by attend the successive conventions of the Mrs. Sarah Conboy, of the Textile Workers' Federation, not because the conventions are Union, in behalf of the strikers in Atlanta, was self-perpetuating, as every delegate is elected a simple statement of their physical condi- by the constituency which he represents, but tions; but instantly the delegates began to because it is believed that the men who are empty their pockets until the sum of five sent are the truest representatives of organhundred dollars was raised.
ized labor in this country. Mr. Walsh's address was a masterly pres- It was a conservative group. The Federentation of the work of the Industrial Com- ation of Labor is increasingly conservative. mission. The speech was crowded with The character of the delegates themselves is epigrams, but there was never a straining changing. While they are practically the after words. With sledge-hammer blows this same men who ran the Federation a dozen and more years ago, the men themselves are Board's tack was simply that of mediation and different from what they were when they first not arbitration. secured control of the labor movement in Mr. Gompers's salary was increased from this country.
$5,000 to $7,500, in spite of his very earnest But this very fact has resulted in the devel- protest that workingmen throughout the opment of a radical group in the Federation. country might object. Several delegates inThe Socialists have increased their strength formed him, however, that the Convention from year to year, until they now number was increasing the President's salary, not about one-fourth of the total number of his, and that he might not be the next Presidelegates. However, the conservatives were dent of the Federation. It is quite generally so powerfully organized at the Philadelphia agreed that Mr. Gompers may hold his Convention that the Socialists were not given present position as long as he wishes to even their usual opportunity to discuss their do so, in spite of a strong minority in the peculiar doctrines. The “administration ” is Convention which believes that the Federaapparently unalterably opposed to Socialism, tion of Labor is becoming a “fossilized " not one of the members of the Executive organization, largely through Mr. Gompers's Council being a Socialist.
influence. An attempt was made by the Socialist rep- A severe blow was struck at grafting labor resentative of the Milwaukee Central Labor papers which employ blackmailing methods Union to shut out the fraternal delegates in securing advertisements from merchants from religious bodies who have been accepted and other business men, and hereafter all by the Federation for nine years, but on union labels will be denied such publications. account of the faulty character of the resolu- The only time that President Gompers called tion the matter was not even discussed by upon the sergeant-at-arms to put out a delethe Convention. As usual, much time was gate unless he sat down was when one enoccupied in the discussion of jurisdictional thusiast for the use of the union label insisted rights, something like a dozen unions being upon mentioning the name of another dele involved. On account of the specialization gate whom he accused of smoking non-union of industry, labor unions have been organized cigars. However, the name of the “ guilty for several groups, as in the wood-working delegate did not reach the ears of the Conindustry, for example, each group becoming vention. Mr. Gompers is himself a cigarextremely zealous that the special kind of maker, and it was in such acts and decisions work allotted to it be done by that group as the above that he often displayed his sense alone. But overlapping has occurred, which
of fair play. has resulted in deep-seated quarrels.
A spirited debate as to whether it is best James O'Connell, former President of the to secure a shorter work-day through legisInternational Association of Machinists, and lation or through trades union activity a member of the Commission on Industrial occupied an entire evening's session. Relations, has for several years been Chair- committee, of which · James Duncan was man of the Committee to settle jurisdictional chairman, reported that while it believed strife. At the Philadelphia Convention Mr. that State legislatures and Congress might O'Connell suggested that a permanent Board pass laws with regard to hours of labor of Conciliation and Mediation be appointed to for women and children, under conditions hear all complaints in jurisdictional matters that involve health and morals, and in during the intervals of the conventions, the case of work done for State and municipal members of the Board to give their entire governments, it was opposed to these bodies time to this work. It was argued that if making such laws for all workers, as they these matters were taken hold of in their in- were often restrictive in their influence, precipiency, much bitterness might be avoided. venting some workers from obtaining a However, the entire proposal was referred shorter work-day than the law prescribes to the Executive Council, with instructions The Convention on a roll call voted to supthat the questions be threshed out during the port the committee in its recommendation. coming year and reported upon at the next This was regarded as one of the most impo:Convention. The fear was expressed during tant and far-reaching decisions of the Conthe discussion that the plan might result in vention. It threw back upon the trades giving the Board too much power, although unions the chief responsibility for securing attention was called to the fact that the the shorter work-day.
THOMAS MOTT OSBORNE, THE NEW WARDEN OF SING SING PRISON Mr. Osborne is a successful manufacturer of Auburn, New York, of which city he was at one time Mayor; he has also been a member of the Public Service Commission. He is Chairman of the National Committee on Prison Labor, and last fall became an inmate of Auburn Prison to study the conditions of convicts there. He managed an investigation of Sing Sing Prison, and now proposes to devote his time to the reform of that institution. See editorial comment