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interpretation of the aims of Germany—that tered struggle in the markets of the world, is, of governmental Germany—it is far more and war is required to enable the nation to significant than any declarations made by her create colonies which will take the products or on her behalf at the present time. Such of its industries. declarations are more or less affected by the War is also a moral necessity. It is politidesire to influence the public opinion of the cal idealism which calls for war, while mateneutral nations. General Bernhardi's vol- rialism in theory, at least-repudiates it. ume is addressed to Germany. Its object is It is only the State which strives after an to interpret to Germans their duty. The enlarged sphere of influence that creates the public opinion of the rest of the civilized conditions under which mankind develops world is not in the writer's mind. This book into the most splendid perfection. When may therefore properly be called an inter- the State recoils from every war which is pretation of Germany's spirit and purpose by necessary for its expansion, each individual a distinguished representative of the Prussian becomes cramped, selfishness and intrigue war party. As such we here attempt to give riot, and luxury obliterates idealism. it to our readers as fully and as fairly as we Wars are terrible but necessary, for they can within the limits of a single article. To save the State from social petrifaction and the students of the history of this year we stagnation. recommend a careful perusal of the volume War is also a Christian necessity. It itself. In what follows we state the more demands the exercise of constancy, pity, essential ideas of that volume as far as pos- magnanimity, heroism, and absolute selfsible in the words of the author, using quota- forgetful devotion to one's country. “ Christion marks only for a few of the more im- tian morality is based, indeed, on the law of portant utterances.

love. Love God above all things, and thy

neighbor as thyself.” But “ this law can Germany has been a peace-loving nation. claim no significance for the relations of one A rude shock is needed to awaken its war- country to another, since its application to like instincts, and compel it to show its politics would lead to a conflict of duties. military strength. The aspirations for peace The love which a man showed to another threaten to poison the soul of the German country as such would imply a want of love people. War is not merely a necessary ele- for his own countrymen.

Such a system of ment in the life of nations, but an indispen- politics must inevitably lead men astray. sable factor of culture. And for three rea- Thus, according to Christianity, we cannot sons.

disapprove of war in itself, but must admit War is a biological necessity. It is a that it is justified morally and historically." phase of the struggle for existence and the - Any action in favor of collective humanity survival of the fittest. It is true that it tem- outside the limits of the State and nationalporarily disturbs industrial life, interrupts ity is impossible. Such conceptions belong quiet economical deveiopment, brings wide- to the wide domain of Utopias.” spread misery with it, and emphasizes the Arbitration treaties are detrimental to an primitive brutality of man. But it is never- aspiring people which is bent on extending theless a necessity for national life. Healthy its power in order to play its part honorably nations increase in numbers. They require in the civilized world. • The efforts directed new territory for the accommodation of their towards the abolition of war must not only surplus population and must obtain it by con- be termed foolish, but absolutely immoral, quest, which thus becomes a law of necessity. and must be stigmatized as unworthy of the This right of conquest is universally acknowl- human race. A one-sided, restricted, foredged. In such cases might becomes the mal law is to be established in the place of the supreme right, and the dispute as to what is decisions of history. The weak nation is to right is decided by the arbitrament of war, have the same right to life as the powerful which gives a biologically just decision, since nation. The whole idea represents a prethat decision rests on the very nature of sumptuous encroachment on the natural laws things. Industrial conditions may compel of development, which can only lead to the the same result. The native population can- most disastrous consequences for humanity not consume all the products of the nation's generally.” industries. They depend, therefore, on ex- War is a peculiar necessity for Germany portation. This necessity creates an embit- at the present time. It is necessary to

as

as

on

recover for the nation that unity which is this issue Germany must take the aggressive, lamentably deficient to-day ; to retain for as did Frederick the Great, and, in more Gerinany that strength of the German nation recent history, Japan in her struggle with which has been pouring into foreign coun- Russia. Germany must not wait until war tries and lost to the fatherland; to secure for is forced upon her. To wait until war is Germany colonial territory where its increasing forced upon Germany, under conditions unpopulation may find remunerative work and favorable to her, is to court political downa German way of living ; to protect Germany fall. “We must remain conscious in all such from Slavonic races which are ever dashing eventualities that we cannot, under any ciragainst her coast. If Germany is to succeed cumstances, avoid fighting for our position in guarding its present possessions and pre- in the world, and that the all-important point serving the German nationality in its present is, not to postpone that war as long as form throughout the world, it must not hold possible, but to bring it on under the most back in the hard struggle for the sovereignty favorable conditions possible.” In war the of the world.

advantages are with the attacking party. This necessity is accented by the rivalry of Germany must therefore during the period France, which has created for herself the of preparation raise the tactical value and second largest colonial empire in the world, capabilities of the troops much while the conqueror of Gravelotte and Sedan possible, and then in the war itself “ act in this respect lags far behind her. “ All the offensive and strike the first which other nations attained in centuries of blow." natural development-political union, colo- In such a war Germany must expect the nial possessions, naval power, international hostility of the civilized world. The German trade-—was denied to our nation until quite Empire " is hated everywhere because of its recently. What we now wish to attain must political and economic prosperity.” The be fought for, and won against a superior Triple Alliance will probably break up by the force of hostile interests and Powers.”

withdrawal from it of Italy. Russia at War is not only a necessity for Germany, present has no inducement to seek an agit is a duty which she owes to the world. gressive war with Germany or to take part “ There is no nation whose thinking is at in one." But her policy of marking time once so free from prejudice and so historical can be only transitory. Germany will always as the German, which knows how to unite so find her on the side of those who try to cross harmoniously the freedom of the intellectual Germany's political paths. England, whose and the restraint of the practical life on the aim it is to repress Germany and strengthen path of free and natural development."

natural development.” France, will be Germany's chief enemy upon “ No nation on the face of the globe is so

Specific protestations of England's able to grasp and appropriate all elements of politicians, publicists, and Utopians may be culture, to add to them from the stores of disregarded. A specific agreement with Engits own spiritual endowment, and to give land is a will-o'-the-wisp which no serious back to mankind richer gifts than it received." German statesman would trouble to follow. " We often see in other nations a greater To England the neutrality of Holland or intensity of specialized ability, but never the Belgium would be a matter of no moment. same capacity for generalization and absors- “ That England would pay much attention to tion. It is this quality which specially fits the neutrality of weaker neighbors when such us for the leadership in the intellectual world, a stake was at issue is hardly credible.” No and imposes on us the obligation to maintain very valuable results can be expected from a that position.” Germans of every profes- war against England's trade. Nevertheless the sion are actively employed throughout the war against the English must be belligerently world in the service of foreign masters. prosecuted and should start unexpectedly. But this is not enough. The fulfillment of “ The prizes which fall into our hands must Germany's duty to the world will depend be remorselessly destroyed, since it will usuon two points: first, how many millions of ally be impossible, owing to the great English men in the world speak German ; secondly, superiority and the few bases we have abroad, how many of them are politically members of to bring them back in safety without exposing the German Empire.

our vessels to great risks.” It is, however, Thus the issue is presented to Germany : upon France that Germany's attack must first “world power or downfall.” In meeting be made. • France must be so completely

the sea.

of rage.

Tushed that she can never again come across a world sovereignty, under which no small our path."

nation will have a right to live, and no great In such a conflict the other members of the nation until it has proved its greatness at the Triple Alliance will owe no duty to support mouth of the cannon and the point of the Germany, for “neither Austria nor Italy is bayonet. in any way bound to support by armed force a German policy directed towards an increase

REFUGES of power.” The neutrality of Belgium will not defend Germany from an invasion by the You are weary of the war. You would English, for "neutrality is only a paper bul- escape from it. Your spirit responds to the wark." But if invasion of that neutrality is cry, O that I had wings like a dove, that attempted, it will be the duty of the other I might fly away and be at rest! We recomPowers to intervene, for by the treaties of mend to you two retreats to which you may London of November 15, 1831, and of April fly. 19, 1839, on the part of the five great Powers, Read a good love story. You will rise it is made " the duty of the contracting Powers from reading it refreshed, with a new convicto take steps to protect this neutrality when tion' that “ love is the greatest thing in the ail agree that it is menaced ;” and each indi- world.” Love's silences will outlast the roar vidual Power has the right to interfere if it

When the blare of the trumpet and considers the neutrality menaced.”

the boom of the cannon cease, love will

spring up again in the hearts of young men Our object in the foregoing résumé of and maidens, of mothers and children. For General Bernhardi's book is not to criticise hate is of the Evil One and short-lived ; love or comment upon the platform of the war is of God and immortal. The birds sing and party of Prussia, but only to report it to our mate on the field of Waterloo. readers as it is interpreted by one of the rec- Then read the Forty-sixth Psalm in the ognized leaders of that party. We complete version of the Book of Common Prayer : that report by adding that there is not in the God is our hope and strength. volume any suggestion that either the Latin, " A very present help in trouble. the Slav, or the Oriental races can add any- “ Therefore will we not fear, though the thing to the world's development ; that any- earth be removed, thing has been added to music, art, literature, " And though the hills be carried into the science, or human freedom by Italy, France, midst of the sea, Russia, or Japan, though there is a conces- “Though the waters thereof rage and swell, sion that England has done something for " And though the mountains shake at the commerce. Nor is there any suggestion that tempest of the same. it is either possible or desirable to secure an * The rivers of the flood thereof shall make opportunity for Germany's free national de- glad the city of God, velopment by establishing friendly relations “ The holy peace of the tabernacle of the with either England or France. There is no Most Highest.” suggestion that a strong nation owes any Chaos leads to creation. The travail of duties to a weaker nation, and it is almost the world is the promise of a new life. The explicitly stated that a small nation has no Napoleonic campaigns delivered Europe from right to exist. There is only a remote sug- the rule of irresponsible monarchs. The gestion that Germany needs to defend her- present campaign may deliver Europe from self or Europe against a Slav aggression, and, the rule of the armed man. * All the armor on the contrary, it is frankly affirmed that of the armed man in the tumult, and the Russia has at present no inducement to seek garments rolled in blood, shall be for burning, an aggressive war with Germany or take part for fuel of fire.”

Is this terrible war the fire that is conSuch are the spirit and purpose of the Prus- suming them? That is not an impossible, sian war party which has brought on this not an improbable, hope. European war. Imbued with the spirit of The love romance may revive your threatFrederick the Great, that party calls on Ger- ened faith in love. The psalmist and the many to challenge the nations to a world prophet may re-establish your threatened faith conflict in order that she may crush a hated in God. rival, dominate Europe, and win for herself Love and God are the two refuges.

in one.

LETTERS TO UNKNOWN

FRIENDS Why is there so much profanity in the world? What is the psychology of it?

What various effectual methods of quenching it do you know of? What legal ways ?

It is difficult for me to understand the psychology of profanity. I can easily see why men should steal, should kill, should commit adultery, should slander their neighbors. These sins are explicable. It is very difficult for me to see why they should swear. It seems to be a perfectly useless transgression, not only of the divine law, but of the rules of cultivated and refined society. It never adds anything to a man's reputation, and it often detracts from his reputation. Probably a great deal of it is due simply to stupid, unthinking imitation, a good deal of it to a habit formed the swearer hardly knows how, and continued when the swearer is hardly conscious of it.

So far as there is any ostensible reason for it, it is a desire to emphasize one's veracity; it is a kind of travesty on the taking of an oath in a court of justice. As to the remedy, an appeal to the law may sometimes be made, but profanity is one of those vices which the law can do very little to correct. Example and instruction in childhood will do much more, so will public opinion in society condemning profanity as ungentlemanly and vulgar. There are a good many persons who are more afraid of bad form than they are of immorality. The fundamental remedy is the development of a real religious reverence, inculcated in children by the home, and in the community by the Christian Church.

4. Do you believe in a personal God who directs our lives, and, while not actually sending troubles to us, yet allows them to come, since they are all in his plan? Are we not rather put here with minds and wills of our own, and if we break any of his laws or use poor judg. ment in utilizing all his facilities—why, we pay the price? If things go wrong, it seems to me, it is "up to us " to struggle valiantly, asking God to make us brave and strong, but not asking him to perform miracles and change the thing itself. Am I right?

S. I cannot answer definitely your first question. I can only say that the question of the Virgin birth does not seem to me to be one of the first importance. It is never referred to by Christ or by the Apostles either in their preaching or in their epistles, nor is it mentioned in the Gospels of Mark and John. To regard the Virgin birth as of the same importance as the Resurrection of Jesus Christ seems to me to put upon it an emphasis that neither Christ nor the New Testament writers put upon it. 'There is, however, nothing either in the condition of the manuscripts or in the literary quality of the narrative to indicate that it is an addition of a later date.

Your second question involves another : Saved from what ? If a patient has faith in his doctor, he is saved from the apprehensions which beset a patient who is skeptical of his doctor's ability. If a merchant has faith in his bank, he is saved from the fears which beset a merchant who has heard and believed a report that the bank is about to stop payment. He who has faith in a divine Saviour willing to help and able to help all those that come to him seeking his help is saved from the spiritual burden of those who are trying to live a righteous life without any assurance of forgiveness for their failures or of help to enable them to realize their spiritual desires. I admire the courage of my agnostic friends who adhere to a path of personal virtue and unselfish service while professing that they know nothing of any divine Helper here or any future life hereafter, but I am sure that my own faith in a divine Helper here and in a future life hereafter, when much that now seems dark will be explained, saves me from much sorrow which would fall upon me without this faith.

To your third question I will answer in the words of Paul : God “ will render to every man according to his deeds; to them who by patient continuance in well-doing seek for glory and honor and immortality, eternal life."

1. What is your opinion of the “ Virgin birth"?

2. How do you interpret the statement that to be saved one must "believe on the Lord Jesus Christ"? I know many people who certainly fulfill the second of Christ's commandments-to love our neighbors as ourselves; yet, according to the orthodox belief, they fail in the first, of loving God, for they are, not atheists, but agnostics, honest and troubled doubters. Do you really think that they will be lost, and that others who have accepted Christ and fail to a greater or less extent in living up to his practical teachings of brotherly love will be saved ?

3. Do you believe that no orthodox Jew will be saved, no matter how sincere his belief nor how upright and helpful his life?

[graphic]

To the fourth question I reply : My whole resorted to in our time, were almost imposreligious faith rests upon belief in a personal sible, and exile often meant slavery or God who is my father and my friend, who death at the hands of the nation into often throws me on my own resources and which the criminal was driven. Often the leaves me to fight my own battle because this only way in which the community could is the best way to develop my character, but protect itself was by putting the criminal to who is alike my friend when he is aiding me death. The right of self-protection is a funand when he is apparently leaving me to fight damental right, and whenever in any commy battle unaided.

munity no better method of self-protection Our minister says that capital punishment against certain criminal practices is possible for crime is entirely wrong, according to the

capital punishment is justified. But as comNew Testament, and that officers of the law

munities grow in civilization curative punishwho enforce this form of punishment are

ment takes the place of punishments which | responsible to God for taking life, and that in are vindictive.

States where it has been abolished crime has Whenever a community becomes so far been less prevalent.

G. civilized that it can protect its citizens I think your minister has fallen into the from the more heinous crimes by methods of same kind of error as do those who declare that reform or cure, capital punishment should be the abolition of capital punishment is wrong abandoned. Whether it is true that in the because in the Old Testament it is said, States where capital punishment has been • Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall abolished crime has been less prevalent we his blood be shed: for in the image of do not know. There is, however, no doubt God made he man.” The object of punish- that with the diminution not only of capital ment is the protection of the community and punishment, but of all forms of merely vinthe reform of the wrong-doer. It is not, dictive punishment, and the substitution there| however, the reform only of the individual for of reformatory or redemptive punishwho has done the wrong, it is also the reform ments, crime has been diminished. But this of the community to which he belongs. What diminution of crime is due not merely, and kind of punishment is best fitted to accom- possibly not at all, to the cessation of capital plish this double end depends upon the cir- punishment, but to the general moral develcumstances and condition of the community. opment of the community and to the success In the primitive condition of the early of the reformatory methods of dealing with Hebrew people fines and imprisonments, crime.

LYMAN ABBOTT.

CHRISTIAN SCIENCE AGAIN

The article in The Outlook for July 25 by Di. Lyman Abbott, entitled " Why I Am Vot a Christian Scientist," ended with the following sentence :

But I frankly confess to my Christian Science friends that I dread the enervating influence on the human race of a philosophy which denies the reality of evil, aalls men off from con rageous, patient, and intelligent campaign against it, and bids them regard evil, whether moral or physical, as only a mortal thought to be vanquished by a process of spiritual thinking. This article has called out many letters both defending and criticising the doctrines ant practice of Christian Science, We print below two representative letters, one pro and one con; with these we must conclude the discussion in our pages for the present.- The EDITORS. PRACTICAL IDEALISM

good and evil come in contact so that the

one can be used to overcome the other ? In the Bible we are admonished to “over- In the same book good and evil are somecome evil with good.” What is the nature times personified, but they are oftener defined of good and the nature of evil by which the impersonally in mental terms. Some of the one is superior to the other ? Where do Scriptural names for good are “mind,"

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