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of all kinds. It is trained in the landing and instant call to assemble with other companies emplacement of guns for the protection of at some seaport where a troop ship is in harbors, together with the auxiliary search- readiness for them and their military stores, lights, telegraph and telephone lines, wireless Many times during the last few years batapparatus, and submarine mines.
talions or regiments (and sometimes brigades A sufficient number of men are also espe- of two or more regiments) have, on a few cially trained in the duties of railway engi- hours' notice, been thus fully organized, supneers, firemen, and trainmen, so that com- plied with rations, clothing, ammunition, camp munications in an enemy's territory may be equipage, etc., sufficient for several months' uninterrupted and men and stores may be active campaign, and embarked on naval or moved with celerity independently of hostile army transports for expeditionary service railway personnel. Companies of marines
Companies of marines beyond the seas. serving aboard our war-ships not only consti- At all navy-yards and naval prisons and on tute the specially trained landing force of the board our battle-ships the guard, sentry, and ship, but they man their quota of the ship's orderly duty is performed by marines. The artillery, of whatever caliber, excepting only strength of the garrisons at shore stations the guns mounted in turrets.
varies greatly, and is dependent upon the At each shore station of the Marine Corps requirements in each case and the men availthe garrison is organized into companies for able for the duty. Aboard seagoing ships purposes of administration and training ; and, the size of the marine detachment is approxiwhere there are a sufficient number of com. mately one-tenth of the entire complement, panies, provisional battalions are formed. but usually consists of two officers (one cap The companies are fully equipped for field tain and one lieutenant) and from seventy to service at all times, and, as far as pra cticable, ninety men, including non-commissioned offiare kept up to war strength ready for an As in the olden days, these men have nothing to do with the working of the ship, again in 1911 the President's Match (indiand perform no duties below decks other vidual) was won by a marine. In April, than those connected with the service of the 1913, the Marine Corps team of the Ameriguns or the fire-control system. They are, can Legation guard at Peking, China, won an however, trained in signaling and the hand- international rifle match against the legation ling of boats under sails and oars, and are · guards, of Italy, Austria, Russia, Germany, responsible for the cleanliness of that portion Great Britain, France, and Holland ; and in of the ship assigned to them as living, mess- May, 1913, the open championship for North ing, and berthing spaces. They sleep in China was won by the marines for the third hammocks, and are rationed in all respects as consecutive year against all comers irom are the sailors.
all branches of the service of whatever naAshore, marines live in large, coinmodious, tionality. and modern barracks, where they are pro- The rank and pay of officers and men of vided with excellent sleeping-rooms, dining- the Marine Corps are identical with those of rooms, baths, reading and writing rooms, and the army, but the uniform is quite distinctive. amusement facilities, such as gymnasium Most of the field officers are graduates of apparatus, pool tables, and indoor games. the United States Naval Academy, but for Athletics are encouraged, and every pośt has several years officers have been appointed by its baseball and football teams, etc., in the President after competitive examinations season.
from civil life and from the ranks under The Marine Corps has always laid great practically the same regulations as govern stress on excellence in 'marksmanship, and the appointment of civilians, and especially has of late years established many enviable meritorious non-commissioned officers, to the records. The Marine Corps team won the grade of second lieutenant, in the army. National Rifle Match at Camp. Perry, in There are now seventeen officers in the competition with teams of the army, 'navy, Marine Corps who by their exceptional abiland National Guard, in 1911, and the same ity and educational attainments have been year held the record as champion five-inch commissioned from the enlisted personnel. gun crew of the navy, while in 1910 and Young men after their appointment are sent to the Marine Officers' School for a year discipline and courtesy as well as habits of of theoretical and practical military training punctuality, sobriety, and self-sacrifice to before being assigned to duty with troops. duty. It was this training which produced This training is later supplemented by further those qualities exhibited by Private William studies, as every line officer is required to Anthony, who a few moments after the explo take the course prescribed each year for the sion of the ill-fated Maine on February 15, garrison schools, and a certain number every 1898, made his way through the darkness year complete advanced courses of profes- and smoke at the risk of his own life to Capsional study at the Army Service Schools at tain Sigsbee and reported that the ship was Fort Leavenworth, the Naval War College at afire and sinking; this was the school which Newport, Rhode Island, and the Army War graduated Sergeant John H. Quick, who, College at Washington, D. C.
at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, on June 14, 1898, The rank and file of the Marine Corps are showed his devotion to duty by signaling to enlisted for four years, and their enlistment, the U.S.S. Dolphin, with the utmost coolness, rank, promotion, pay, clothing allowance, from an open ridge, while exposed to the rations, retirement, etc., are, with a few minor bullets of Spanish marksmen ; this was the exceptions, governed by the same laws and training which produced a Private Durham, regulations which obtain in the army. After who on October 4, 1912, in the attack and enlistment the men are trained in recruit capture of the heretofore unassailable Coyodepots (one on the Atlantic and one on the tepe, fearlessly exposed himself to a galling Pacific coast), where for three months they fire that he might cut the last of the barbedare given a thorough course of instruction in wire entanglements which impeded the adall the multifarious duties of a soldier. Theyvance of his comrades. are then “turned over for duty” as full- The navy and the Marine Corps are interfledged regulars, and may be sent anywhere dependent—the Marine Corps on the navy for in the world for service, either ashore or its very existence as such ; and the navy on afloat. But this does not imply that their the Marine Corps for a body of soldiers who training is complete. On the contrary, their are familiar with naval life and traditions, who instruction in all drills, rifle practice, the can drill with “ the deck on a slew," and who, service of field and naval guns, signaling, because of their naval training, are capable of camping, first aid, field intrenchments, out- far more effective co-operation than could post and guard duty, patrolling, handling be soldiers unused to the sea and life aboard boats, etc., is continuous throughout their ship. Each takes its hat off to the other in entire service, to the end that the highest pos- mutual respect and admiration, and both to sible efficiency may be maintained. Under the army; each member of our “ trinity-inthe thorough system of training men who arms ” has its own work cut out for it and have previously known no restraints or regu- does it." larity of life are, in a remarkably short time,
! Acknowledgment is made of free reference to " The imbued with a full appreciation of respect for History of the United States Marine Corps,” by the late authority and order, the necessity for military Hammersly, Publisher).
Major Richard S. Collum, U.S. Marine Corps (L. R.
A SERIES OF PERSONAL PORTRAITS
BY DONALD WILHELM
IV-CHARLES M. COX
(HARLES M. COX was a companion ideals. Perhaps Bellamy influenced him ;
of Edward Bellamy, the author of perhaps " Looking Backward” vitalized him.
“ Looking Backward." At seventeen But Bellamy was a dreamer ; Cox was the he was a little man—a very earnest little exact antithesis of a dreamer-he was an man-shifting barrels in Boston's produce American business man living in days of stiff market, whetting his ambition to do big things American competition. Bellamy dreamed, in the business world. He saved precisely but Cox had to figure in terms of business one-half of all he earned, and accumulated expediency.
expediency. Expediency directed him to one thousand dollars. He found a man who insist, in that first co-operative melon-cutting, had another thousand, and together they went that no laborer in the co-operative corporainto business.
tion should henceforth have less than a week Young Cox, a blue-eyed, spectacled, pre- of absolute rest on pay every year ; cocious boy-man, was not content to go pace stenographer, no bookkeeper, no office boy, in pace with a man going a slower pace. was to have less than a month-on pay; He borrowed and bought out his companion. no one of the four men as able to run the He established a one-man firm. That firm co-operative corporation as Charles M. Cox was Charles M. Cox.
was to have less than two months' vacation Charles M. Cox hired men and fired them.
One of the four objected that first He signed checks, he signed receipts ; he year, when his enthusiasm kept him at the bought grain, he sold grain ; he superintended wheel; and the Teacher handed him a the books, he superintended the stenogra- steamer ticket, bustled the busy one out of phers. He made money. For several years he the door, told him to hie abroad and rest went on making money. He married and
and play. had a little boy and a little girl. He went on The Charles M. Cox company began to working, and then something snapped. Pre- do business ; not a one-man business nor a cocious Charles M. Cox paid the penalty for two-man business, but a business that showed running a one-man business. His body broke. conclusively that there is one indisputable and
He went to his bed a nervous wreck, and tremendously significant generality in all busifor weeks he lay in bed and watched the ness; that co-operation is efficiency. business edifice he had built crumbling and The business grew. The Teacher went on falling to pieces despite anything he could do. teaching. He found time for woods and He lost his customers, he lost his credit, he canoe and camp, and energy to jump on a almost lost hope, and he all but lost his life. motorcycle and go bounding over the hill
Charles M. Cox rose from his bed in sides like a youth. He found time to build Melrose Highlands and limped to the train a little cabin by the Ipswich and to paint. that took him to Boston. He went to his He has had exhibitions in Boston galleries, office and called the workers in the office and Boston artists like his work. together, and took the melon called Charles The Chamber of Commerce, the hub of M. Cox & Co. and sliced it up then and there. Boston's business universe, began to boom A score of years ago he thus organized a co- everything New England. There was operative organization in which every man little group of undistinguished Americans held some stock, and some men held a great behind that Chamber of Commerce who were deal. Charles M. Cox, the business man, doing things every day in the week. The became automatically Charles M. Cox, the Chamber of Commerce was good for a frontTeacher.
page story every day ; something was doing, This business teacher had suddenly har- something New England in character that vested a group of revolutionary business took for its interests everything New England: