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Congress has made it possible to put under mitting the United States to own and operate our flag any foreign-built but American- ships. Ship-owners say that it would be imowned ships doing a foreign (not coast- possible to compete with Government-owned wise) trade.
What is the reason ? Briefly, ships, because the Government would care it is because our Navigation Law, so the nothing about profit and would sell the ships ship-owners allege, puts ships under Amer- at a loss after the war is over, as it did after ican registry at a disadvantage. It is said the Spanish War. It is urged also by other that the cost of operating an American ship is than ship-owners that it would be internationa third more than that of operating a foreign ally embarrassing for our Government to vessel. This is not only because of higher defend the neutrality of such ships if the American wages, but because the officers genuineness of the sale were called in quesmust be Americans, because the law imposes tion by a foreign admiralty court after seizrules as to seamen's food, and because of cer- ure ; on the other hand, it is said that foreign tain alleged onerous requirements as to in- war-ships would be less likely to seize a vessel spection and measurements. It is proposed owned by our Government. that as an emergency measure the President Meanwhile Great Britain has kept the seas should rescind or relax these measures for a open to commerce in a truly remarkable way; time, as he has power to do.
passengers are coming and going and goods Such a proposal should not be adopted are being shipped in considerable quantities; hastily. It is important that our facilities there seems to be some reason in the asserfor commerce should be increased at this tion of many exporters that the trouble is juncture, but it is at least equally important not so much lack of ships as lack of credit that the American seaman should be pro- and exchange facilities between the United tected. We want our seamen to be decent, States and the warring nations. self-respecting citizens, skilled in their work, Above all, what is needed is the formulamen to be depended upon in the hour of tion of a definite policy which the United danger. They should therefore be well fed, States can follow in the building up of its well paid, and well officered. Congress has merchant marine, so that this Nation will not just been voting upon a shipping bill drawn again find itself in its present predicament for the purpose of protecting American sea- of dependency upon belligerent nations for men and of insuring safety at sea. That bill transportation of passengers and goods across is now in conference, and as we write the
the seas. press despatches state that it is to be deliberately “side-tracked ” in order not to interfere with the new registry plan:
We do not think that this is a favorable The Outlook believes in permitting Ameri- time to urge peace upon the nations engaged cans to buy ships where they will ; the pro
But it is a favorable time for making hibition of this has been futile because it has all the necessary preparations to intervene not in the lcast fostered American ship-build- for the sake of peace when the proper time ing. But The Outlook does not believe in arrives for such intervention. We are therelowering standards for American seamen nor fore heartily in sympathy with the action which in driving them off the sea to be replaced by the New York Peace Society has taken, as Orientals and the lowest-paid workers of we are with the spirit of its recommendations. eastern Europe. On the contrary, it believes At the suggestion of this Society, a delethat the laws in their favor and for safety at gation, representing five Peace organizations, sea should be radically strengthened. The has waited upon the President to suggest just-passed Shipping Bill does this, although to him that our Government request the doubts exist as to the practicability of some nations signatory to the Hague Convention of its requirements. Amend it if needed, not involved in the present war. especially the but do not abandon it.
neutral nations of Europe, to unite with our Another difficulty about registry is said to Government in making on the first favorbe the fear of ship-owners that our Govern- able occasion a joint offer of mediation in the ment may itself buy ships—the great German interests of humanity, civilization, and lasting liners now in New York, for instance-and peace.” The careful reader will observe that engage in the carrying trade. Congress is this request is not to be proffered until the still, as we write, considering such a meas- Administration thinks the occasion is favorable ure, an enlargement of the Panama Act per- for proffering it. In presenting the sugges
tion to the Administration, the Committee Americans; and the third most important rightly urged “ that the matter of supreme thing was secure opportunity for their importance is not to bring an end to hostili- return. ties, desirable as this is, but to obtain a set- The only vessels flying the American flag tement of the controversy, when the time which could be used for the transportation comes, on a basis which shall prevent here- of passengers across the Atlantic were six after the mistaken national policies and the steamships in the transatlantic service and hostile armaments which have caused the certain ships engaged in coastwise trade, present war.” And it also urges “ that the small in size and mainly devoted to the car. whole civilized world is vitally concerned in rying of cargoes.
Two naval vessels were securing the right settlement of the ques- made ready to sail, and twenty-five or more tions which will have to be considered and army officers, headed by the Assistant Secredetermined at the close of the war.”'
tary of War, were detailed to go upon these The Committee also suggests that, while vessels to lend their aid wherever necessary. we must wait for a favorable occasion before Arrangements were made for the sending of presenting such an offer of joint mediation, $5,000,000 in gold by bankers, and $1,500,it is desirable to secure as soon as possible a 000 was sent by the Government. In addiconcert of the neutral Governments in order tion there was money sent by individuals that they may be ready to act together when which was placed in the charge of these the time comes.
representatives of the Government. More
over, a half-million dollars was sent to a FEDERAL RELIEF TO
designated English bank in Ottawa, and thus STRANDED AMERICANS
a credit to that amount was obtained at the It is estimated that at the outbreak of the Bank of England. The gold sent on the war a hundred and fifty thousand Americans naval vessels, 'the · Tennessee and North were traveling in Europe. The mobilization Carolina, has since reached Europe. The of troops so deranged normal conditions that Board believes that with the resumption of it was beyond the power of individuals in sailings that had been suspended it is now Imerica to help their friends abroad. Almost “ a mere matter of a comparatively short at once Congress appropriated $2,750,000 time" before Americans in Europe can for relief, and on August 6 the President by secure transportation home. The Board executive order created a Board of Relief, adds that “wherever it was evident that there, consisting of the Secretary of the Treasury would not be a resumption of regular sailings as Chairman, the Secretary of State, the sufficient to take care of the Americans, the Secretary of War, and the Secretary of the consulate agencies were directed to secure Navy. This Board has been administering ships for this purpose.” the appropriation made by Congress.
We are informed by the Chairman of the Sunday, August 30, there was published in Relief Board, Secretary McAdoo, in reply to the New York - Tribune a summary of our request for information, that Amerithree weeks of work as reported by the Fed- cans in Europe who are without means and eral Relief Board. The opening paragraph need help can obtain assistance by applying of this summary should be reassuring to all to American diplomatic and consular offiwho have friends in Europe :
cers ; that through these officers the Board The situation is so greatly relieved at the
endeavors, when so requested, to ascertain present time that Americans anywhere upon the
the whereabouts and welfare of Americans, Continent can, by applying to the nearest em- make arrangements for their transportation, bassy or legation, get in touch with people in and arrange for such other help as may be this country, and get money if they need any, needed ; that under the Board's direction the and can get transportation and passage home if Treasurer of the United States, as custodian, they want it.
receives deposits from individuals for transThe Board reports that the most important mission to Americans in Europe ; that the thing it had to do was to place at the dis- relief expedition sent with the gold from the posal of marooned Americans the necessary Government is stationing officials at points money with which they could support thein- in Europe with funds from the Tennessee selves until they could start for home ; that for relief work and for payments to indithe next most important thing was to get viduals of money deposited for them ; and information concerning the whereabouts of that communications for the Relief Board may be addressed to its Chairman, the Secre- showed the Negroes' progress in the home, tary of the Treasury, at Washington, D. C. school, church, and various organizations;
fine specimens of horses, mules, and cattle, NEGRO BUSINESS
and wagons containing cotton, grains, fruits, Every year Negroes engaged in bus ness and vegetables, showed what the Negro is assemble to exchange accounts of their ex- doing in agriculture ; and demonstrations by perience, and to get the encouragement that Negro artisans showed what the Negroes comes from knowing one another's success. were doing in industry. This year the annual session of this National Negro Business League was held at Mus- "SANITATION FIRST" kogee, Oklahoma.
FOR RAILWAYS The stories of struggle and success which At the Convention of the American Mediwere told there will be retold again and again cal Association in Atlantic City recently by the delegates to Negro youth in the emphasis was laid on the importance of South and elsewhere, and will be the means securing a higher standard of “ railroad saniof starting into new life many who find con- tation ” in the United States. The railways ditions hard. Negroes who had started with offer a comparatively new field for the efforts nothing but their bare hands and their ambi- of the sanitary expert. tion to achieve and had succeeded were Some of the precautionary measures which cross-questioned by their hearers. They told the Association urges are the ventilation and of hardship, but also of persistence ; of pri- fumigation of cars, the examination of railvation, but also of thrift. They told also of way employees for contagious and infectious the willingness of good white men to stand diseases, the examination of all food and behind the struggling Negro and give him water offered to the traveling public, the aboadvice and help.
lition of the common drinking-cup and the Oklahoma and the five adjacent States- roller-towel—which have already been abolKansas, Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, and ished by many State Legislatures—the saniTexas—offer their two million Negroes re- tation of railway lavatories, and the adoption markable opportunities in cattle raising, gen- of ordinary health measures in railway camps. eral farming, truck gardening, and poultry The Treasury Department has already raising. These six States have one hundred established a regulation that on trains only ice and thirty million acres of unimproved land. and water shall be used for drinking purTo one who has seen the fields of France, poses which have been certified by the State where every inch seems to be utilized, this or municipal health authority within whose statement is full of significance for the future jurisdiction they are obtained ; and as far as of this country, and for the future of the some of the other reforms urged by the convenpoor of all races here. In those six States tion of physicians are concerned, many of them there is, as Dr. Booker T. Washington said have already been adopted by some railways in his address before the League, room for —much to the credit of the wisdom and hu“ a thousand more grocery stores owned by manity of the officers controlling these lines. Negroes, five hundred additional dry-goods For instance, the Illinois Central, the Chicago, stores, three hundred more shoe stores, two Burlington, and Quincy, the Chicago and hundred more good restaurants and hotels, Northwestern Railways, and the Pullman three hundred additional millinery stores, two Company each already employ a man called hundred additional drug stores, and forty a “ sanitarian," who serves as general health more banks.” Dr. Washington's address officer for each of these corporations. For was, in fact, a convincing statement of the some time dining-car employees on the New opportunities that lie before the colored peo- York, New Haven, and Hartford, the Pennple of that region, and a summons to the sylvania, and other large systems have been Negroes to overcome their evils with good subjected to periodical examinations for signs works and with a constructive policy in busi- of tuberculosis or other diseases that might ness, industry, education, moral and religious be communicated to diners, and the Lehigh life, and conduct generally.
Valley—which has been a pioneer so far as In connection with this meeting there was health measures are concerned-employs a a spectacular industrial parade to show the physician whose sole duty it is to examine Negroes' progress in Oklahoma. Decorated employees for indications of disease. floats carrying men, women, and children Some of the signs indicating that "sanitation first " is becoming a railway watchword as principal, a position which he held until are the disappearance of the old germ- his retirement from active life two years ago. catching carpet in favor of the cement floor, He was knighted in 1909 in recognition the adoption of up-to-date car ventilating sys- of what he had done for the men and tems, of separate freight cars for separate women who, like himself, lived in constant commodities, and of cleaning platforms with shadow. hot-water connections at terminals for freight The great contribution of Sir Francis and live-stock cars. In this last particular Campbell to the education of the blind lay the apex of reform has been accomplished in his insistence on the principle that the by the Baltimore and Ohio, which has estab- sightless should have a training at least equalto, lished - shower baths for hogs," to keep and if possible better than, that given to the down the odor from stock cars, usually so seeing. An athlete himself, he realized the annoying to citizens who dwell close to lee- importance of physical training in getting ward of railways.
the usually poor physique of the blind up to
par, and at the Royal Normal College to-day, A BLIND MAN WHO
where preparation is given for several vocaTAUGHT THE BLIND
tions, the importance of physical training is As an example of the power of the spirit constantly emphasized. of man to triumph in the battle of life in the face of tremendous physical obstacles, the career of the late Sir Francis Campbell,
LOUVAIN teacher of the blind, and for many years Principal of the Royal Normal College and The destruction of Louvain by an unknown Academy of Music for the Blind in London, German military commander is an act of is an inspiration to every one.
brutality absolutely unjustified by the rules William T. Stead said of Francis Joseph of war. Nor is it any excuse for this act of Campbell: * He is American by birth, Scotch brutality to say that war is brutal. Civilized by origin, English by residence ; but his real war is cruel, but not brutal. The difference fatherland is the Kingdom of the Blind.” between a man and a brute is that the brute Sir Francis, however, was not born to this acts under impulse, guided only by his inkingdom, but became sightless at the age of stincts, while the man guides his action by four, after having one eyeball pierced by an intelligence. The cruelty of civilized war is acacia thorn on his father's farm in Franklin an intelligent cruelty--that is, it is cruelty County, Tennessee, where he was born in directed by intelligence to a definite purpose. 1832. This affliction seemed to act as a spur Any cruelty in war not so directed is justly to the boy's tremendous will power and arnbi- termed brutal. We do not attempt in this tion, for, in spite of his handicap, he worked article to judge acts in war by the ethical with his brothers on the farm, and, later, standards accepted in times of peace. We when a school for the blind was opened at judge warlike actions by war standards. To Nashville, he began to attend it, specializing all Americans familiar with military literature in music, and becoming so proficient that at the volume of General W. E. Birkhimer, of the age of eighteen he was made instructor the United States General Staff, on “ Military in music in this institution.
Government and Martial Law” will be recogThe blind youth was never idle, and had nized as an authority. The principles assumed soon sufficiently educated himself to enter in this editorial are derived from and based Harvard. From college he returned to on this volume. Tennessee as director of music in a large The object in war is the destruction of girls' school, and then went to Boston, where the enemy's army. Any military acts necesfor eleven years he was in charge of the sary for the destruction of the enemy's army musical department of the Perkins Institute are in general justified by military law-for the Blind.
that is, by the customs of civilized nations. While in London in 1871, at a “ blind tea Any acts not directly tending to aid in party," Dr. Campbell met Dr. T. R. Armitage, the destruction of the enemy's army are who had founded the National Institute for unjustified. the Blind, and as a result of this meeting the The destruction of Louvain had no tendRoyal Normal College and Academy of Music ency to promote the objects which the for the Blind was founded, with Dr. Campbell German army has in view. It was an unintelligent act of vandalism. Therefore it was The wave of indignation which has swept an act of brutality.
over America because of this criminal act The destruction of Louvain did nothing to cannot be regarded as an anti-German prejuaid the army of invasion. For Louvain was dice. Our soldiers when in occupation of not a strategic point which might be of ad- Vera Cruz were shot at and killed by vantage to the armies of the Allies if it was civilians. By vigorous police measur, s this left intact.
** sniping” was speedily stopped. If the The destruction of Louvain did nothing to American troops had burned Vera Cruz, the weaken the army of the Allies. It added American indignation would have far exceeded strength to them ; for it has filled the Bel- any indignation which Americans have thus gians and the French with an enthusiasm of far expressed at the act of the German troops wrath, and enthusiasm of wrath adds greatly in Louvain, and yet the loss to the world in to the fighting force of an army.
the destruction of the beautiful city of LouThe destruction of Louvain did nothing to vain far exceeds any loss that would have protect European civilization from the Slav. been suffered by the destruction of Vera On the contrary, it has aroused in the Slav a Cruz. And if the Russians should reach spirit of revenge, and Germans are fleeing Berlin and should do work of destruction in from Berlin in fear of Russia's retaliation. that city in any respect resembling the work
The destruction of Louvain has done done by the unknown commander in Louvain, nothing to aid Germany to make herself a The Outlook would condemn such act of world power.
By that destruction she has reprisal as vigorously as it here condemns the aroused the indignation of the civilized world, destruction of Louvain, and we believe it an indignation which will outlast this terrible would be equally condemned by all civilized war. This is not the way to secure a world peoples throughout the world. power.
“My great maxim," said Napoleon, has The destruction of Louvain has done always been in war, as well as in politics, nothing to unite Germany against a united that every evil action, even if legal, can only Europe. On the contrary, it has brought be executed in case of absolute necessity; from the Berlin Socialist“ Vorwaerts " a pro- whatsoever goes beyond that is criminal.” test which warns the Germans against put- We do not believe that any great number ting the struggle in a wrong light in the eyes of German-American citizens, we shall not of all the world and which calls upon the believe without conclusive evidence that the working class who are fighting at the front majority of Germans in Germany, or that the to remember their brethren on the other side Kaiser himself, justify what history will call and behave toward them in chivalrous man- the crime at Louvain. ner. It is safe to assume that no paper in Germany would venture to suggest such a protest if it did not voice the sentiment of a considerable section of the German people. GERMANY'S OBJECT IN THE The defense offered for this act of vandal
WAR ism is that civilians, after Louvain was occu
AS INTERPRETED BY A PRUSSIAN pied by the German army, shot German sol
MILITARY OFFICER diers, and the city was destroyed as an act of reprisal. The shooting of soldiers in an Mr. Wile, in his interesting article in last occupied town by unorganized civilians is an week's Outlook, told us that sixty-five million act of murder, and should be treated accord- of the sixty-six million Germans did not want ingly. But the criminal acts of a few indi- war; but that the other one million not only viduals do not justify the destruction of a wanted war but got it. Among the names city. Says the Hague Conventions (Section 3, of the leaders of this war party given by him Article I): “No general penalty, pecuniary or is that of General Bernhardi. General Bernotherwise, can be inflicted on the population hardi wrote in 1911 a volume entitled “ Geron account of the acts of individuals, for which many and the Next War.” The forecasts of it cannot be regarded as collectively responsi- this volume have been so singularly fulfilled ble." And in this declaration the Hague by the action of Germany under the leadership Conventions simply affirmed concisely a prin- of the war party that the book may properly ciple recognized by the customs of civilized be regarded as an authoritative interpretation nations in warfare.
of that party's spirit and purpose. As an