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tan turned to Germany, which has for about Enver Pasha], who came to public fame by ten years been the adviser of the decaying killing his superior officer, Nazim Pasha, in monarchy.
1913 at the door of the Council Chamber. Ruin oy the Sultanate. Meantime the The future of Turkey is dark; the line of Christians in the Balkans were helping them- absolute sultans is impotent. From out of selves. In 1878 the Bulgarians were set free the complex of races in Asiatic Turkeyby the joint armies of Russia and Rumania, Turks, Greeks, Armenians, Kurds, Syrians, and have ever since been a Christian state ; Arabs, Mesopotamians—it is almost imposServia was released some years earlier ; sible to make up a representative governGreece was a little enlarged at the expense ment that could hold together. The present of Turkey; Bosnia and Herzegovina were self-designated Government has neither morals pried off by Austria ; till by 1908 the Turks nor wisdom. The individual Turks are a had lost about half the area of the Balkans. fine people who have the respect and good Then came the sudden, sharp, apparently will of most foreigners who live among them. unexpected revolution of the Young Turks, Though they have Asiatic traditions, the race carried out by Albanian officers who had is made up much more of European than of been the especial favorites of the Sovereign. Asiatic elements; and the Turks who have Abd-ul-Hamid was made a state prisoner, lived in Europe are many of them Western and for five years has lived in captivity, in spirit. The trouble is that when a huntoo weak and too despicable even to be dred or a million of these genuinely likable feared.
men gather together to frame a government In 1911 Italy carried off Tripoli from they know none but the worst Asiatic models ; under the Turkish guns. In 1912 Servia, and they have shown, especially during the Bulgaria, and Greece joined to take Mace- last century, no capacity to keep peace, endonia and Novi-Bazar, which lay between courage order and industry, or educate the Servia and Montenegro. To their surprise, population either of their own race or of the the Turkish power caved in, and in a few subject Christian races. months they held all the previous Turkish In this great European crisis, involving the provinces in Europe except the narrow dis- control of Europe and of Asia, when ships trict including Constantinople. This did not and men are moving north, east, south, and come about without fearful reprisals for the west around what is left of the Turkish acts of tyranny and blood committed during Empire, the sultanate and the people are the ages by the Turks. The Turkish navy alike helpless. If the Allies are victorious, was almost helpless, their army captured or the Russians will infallibly annex Constantidispersed; the Greek islands were occupied nople and the waterways from the Black to up to a gunshot of the coast of Asia Minor ; the Ægean Sea ; if the Germans and Austhe Asiatic side of the Empire seemed also trians are victorious, they will eventually build on the point of breaking up.
and control a railway line from Budapest to Meantime the Sultanate was shifted to the the Persian Gulf, and that will not leave inept and incapable Mohammed V, who has much of Asia Minor. Perhaps wicked old far less power in his own Empire than the Ger- Abd-ul-Hamid, from his prison palace on the man or Russian Ambassador. A council of the Bosphorus, darkly looks across at what was nation was summoned, and allowed to lapse once the Imperial seraglio opposite the Subbecause it took an interest in public affairs, lime Porte, the lofty gateway which has and assumed that it had the right to conduct given a diplomatic name to the country. Perthem. It was not truly representative of the haps he sees over the Mosque of St. Sophia Turkish people, but came nearer expressing the fingers of a man's handwriting : “ Mene, the national mind than the coterie of civil Mene, Tekel, Upharsin ”—“God hath numand military officers who divide among them- bered thy kingdom, and finished it. ... selves places in the Cabinet and military com- Thou art weighed in the balances, and art mands. At present the strongest individual found wanting. . . . Thy kingdom is divided, in Turkey appears to be Enver Bey [now and given to the Medes and Persians.”
BY MRS. FLORENCE KELLEY
GENERAL SECRETARY OF THE NATIONAL COMSUMBRS' LEAGUE
LITTLE group of workers in the a co-operative system in this country that cotton-mills of the English village we have so inordinate a development of
of Rochdale, some three-quarters department stores, with underpaid clerks and of a century ago, discussed the high cost of a monstrous flood of adulterated, trashy, perliving and what was to be done about it. ishable fabrics. The latter item represents
In the end they bought a half-barrel of an immense aggregate of economic waste, flour, and each subscriber to the co-operative and the loss falls mainly upon the poor. enterprise took one share. It was cheaper A Swiss fellow-student whom I knew long than by the bag (as they had been accustomed ago at Zurich was afterwards employed for to buy it), and, even more important, it was twenty years as chief chemist in a silk-dyeing pure. For there is no question of the fact establishment in Philadelphia. He told me that retail dealers in those days commonly that crude silk arriving from China, Japan, adulterated their flour with plaster-of-paris, and elsewhere was first boiled to get rid of which caused disease and death.
the gum it contained, thus losing about ten Little did those humble cotton-mill workers per cent of its weight. The owners of the foresee that this modest investment was the silk required his employers to return it to beginning of a movement destined to amount them with this ten per cent restored, and with almost to an economic revolution. It was the an additional one hundred per cent contribfirst experiment in co-operation for cheapen- uted to it, by "weighting” with metals-lead, ing and improving the necessaries of life. tin, or iron. From that half-barrel of flour has developed a This, of course, is a customary trade pracsystem of stores and factories which, con- tice, and every woman has had opportunity trolled by co-operative societies, are to-day to observe its effects. If a silk dress becomes scattered all over the United Kingdom, serv- shiny after a while, that means adulteration ing as models for all the world.
of the fabric with lead. If a shirt-waist of These societies are, to a steadily increas- silk, though perhaps hanging in a closet uning extent, determining the quality and cost worn, exhibits star-like cuts or gashes, it is of goods produced for their members. They tin that is accountable. If a coat lining goes have been able to restrict the adulteration of to pieces in straight slits, that is iron. food products and to prevent the fraudu- My Swiss acquaintance gave up his emlent substitution of inferior material in articles ployment and took his two boys back to live of clothing used by poor working families. on a modest farm in the Jura Mountains, in In some measure they have brought the order, as he said, that they should not learn cost of living in England under their control. the dishonesties in which their father had
The societies originally bought goods in been obliged to participate while pursuing the the open market, and sold them to their silk-dyeing craft. But, in telling this story, members at the full current retail price, the fact on which I wish to lay emphasis is eventually dividing the profit among the that such things happen far less when the purchasers. But, with the growth of num- factory is making goods to be sold to cobers, they found themselves able to keep operative owners thereof, and, in general, for their own retail prices closer to the current the co-operative trade in England. wholesale prices; and ordinary retailers, in To-day the co-operative societies in that order to stay in business, are now compelled country have stores so widely scattered that to meet these prices, thus holding down the they are to be found even in many villages, and cost of many kinds of staple merchandise. the influence they exercise over purity of food
The influence exerted by the societies in products and the quality of other merchandise, behalf of honest goods is overwhelmingly as well as over prices, has been steadily gaining. powerful. They are developing so many Ultimately the co-operative movement in factories of their own that competing manu- the United States is, I think, likely to take facturers are finding it more difficult to sell the form of co-operative ordering direct from fraudulent fabrics.
producers, together with the establishment It is largely by reason of the absence of municipal enterprises for public supply. The Supreme Court of Georgia has decided look for help in this direction to neither the that municipalities in that State may lawfully Federal nor the State governments. The carry on the production and sale of ice. New Booher Bill giving each State power to deal York City, having started milk stations for according to its own laws with prison goods infants some years ago as a private philan- made in other States has been held up in the thropic enterprise, now conducts a few mu- Senate. nicipal stations of the kind, and is soon to The whole appeal of modern industry to have many more. Municipal markets exist women in relation to buying is an appeal in many centers of population. Two cities in to cupidity. Goods are incessantly offered Texas and one in Tennessee have municipal - below cost”-at once an insult to the abattoirs.
intelligence of women and a delusive bait We may never have co-operative retail for their imputed meanness. Meanwhile stores precisely on the English plan. But it thousands of newspapers fill their pages with is easy to imagine the future existence in our offers of bargains; and even the pulpit is cities of sample rooms which will do an enor- confused about the real issue involved, fremous mail order business. Such an estab- quently berating women, on the one hand, for lishment will not keep a stock of goods on bargain-hunting, and, on the other hand, hand for sale, but merely samples of all kinds choosing as a favorite theme the extravaof merchandise, to be shown or sent out gance of the wife who tempts her husband to through the mails to intending purchasers. dishonesty by her lavish expenditure. It may serve as an intermediary between the Shopping women are with difficulty inproducer and the ultimate consumer, bring- duced to exercise sympathetic imagination in ing the two into close relations.
behalf of the women and children who serve The parcel post will be of immense assist- them in factories and sweatshops—whom ance, and when the Government takes over they do not see, and with whom they have the telegraphs and telephones, making elec- no contact. They would be more interested tric communication relatively inexpensive, we if they knew the sources from which many shall have facilities for instantaneous and of the things they buy are derived.. cheap ordering.
Recently the New York State Factory Take the matter of clothes. Shopping Investigation Commission reported that some women do not know how large a part of the of the hand-made linen for the “richest clothing they buy comes from prisons in vari- babies ” in the United States was produced ous parts of the country, where convicts in tenements ; likewise a good part of the working under an intensive sweating system, “ French ” hand-made and hand-embroidered from which for them there is no possibility underwear, and hand embroidery on expenof escape, manufacture shoes, shirts, petti- sive shirt-waists. At embroidery alone sixtycoats, and many other kinds of goods for the one thousand out-workers ”-i.e., workers benefit of greedy contractors at a cost so in sweatshops and tenement rooms—are emlow as to render competition by well-paid free ployed in the State, most of them in New York labor very difficult. There are some prisons City, which is the great sweating center. which teach men only women's trades, such In many instances where factories and as the making of silk petticoats. Yet tuber- retailing manufacturers advertise goods culosis and venereal diseases are characteristic " made on the premises ” only a portion of maladies of prison populations, communicable the output is so made—the workrooms shown by garments which the convicts cut and to the professional buyer and to customers sew.
being merely masks for sweatshops and teneAdulterations of food products sold in ments in which women and children toil long inter-State commerce are now required by law hours and at night, and in which tuberculosis to be plainly declared on the containers. and other infectious diseases are sadly comShould not a similar demand be made for a mon. Dr. Annie S. Daniel, practicing mediconvincing guarantee that skirts, petticoats, cine in the out-patient department of the and stockings are not products of convict New York Infirmary for Women, found in labor? It is important that we defend our one twelvemonth seventy-nine families of digestions, but is it not equally worth while tenement workers suffering from contagious to protect ourselves against loathsome dis- maladies. The Factory Investigation Comease? The answer to the question is obvious mission reported that over seventy-six per enough; yet at the present time we can cent of the families working in the tenements of the metropolis earned less than ten cents children then labored in the stores. The an hour as families.
most important conclusion at which it arrived Efforts to start a co-operative movement was that organization among wage-earning in this country have met with several for- women could do little compared with what midable obstacles. One of these is the could be accomplished by organization among speculative element in American life, which spenders of money. Out of this discovery causes people to disregard little economies. (if it may so be termed) sprang the ConAnother is the floating character of our popu- sumers' League. lation, making it difficult to hold a group of For it is the consumer, and not the merworkers together for any great length of chant or the manufacturer, who is the ultitime. Yet another lies in the fact that retail mate employer. And the employer controls. trade in the United States, taking it as a Women organized as consumers have only whole, is in the hands of persons immeasura- to be numerous enough and sufficiently debly abler than corresponding business men in termined in their stand for better things to the early days of the co-operative movement accomplish whatever they wish. in England. Recently an American, going The principal teachings of the Consumers' to London and opening a department store League may be summed up as follows: there, has made of it a magnificent commer- That responsibility for some of the worst cial success, notwithstanding the competition evils from which wage-earners suffer rests of the co-operative stores. The same qualities with consumers who persist in buying in the which have brought him such success abroad cheapest markets, regardless of how cheaphave hitherto enabled merchants in our own ness is brought about. country to drive out co-operative rivals.
That it is the duty of consumers to find Up to the present time the effort of women out under what conditions the articles they in this country to acquire any share in the purchase are produced, and to insist that the control of industry has been restricted to conditions shall be at least decent and coneducational and philanthropic work. We have sistent with a respectable existence on the the National Consumers' League, which, first part of the workers. organized locally in New York City in 1890, That this duty is specially incumbent upon has since become a National movement, with consumers in relation to products of women's eighty-six leagues in fifteen States. But the work, since there is no limit beyond which League has never attempted to buy and sell the wages of women may not be pressed down. or to manufacture goods. It has never Women are being urgently spurred in the undertaken to deal directly with qualities direction of co-operation by the increasing or prices. It has confined itself to efforts cost of living. The idea is already beginning to awaken the consciences of consumers ; to to make hopeful progress in the United call their attention to the cruelties of industry; States; and when we do start we shall have to make them understand their own personal the advantage of a more modern point of responsibility for such cruelties, and to show departure than that of the people in England how they have in their own hands the power whose success we are anxious to imitate. We to remedy these mischiefs.
shall not begin with a half-barrel of flour. Nearly a quarter of a century has elapsed The great Federation of Women's Clubs, since the Working women's Society was which extends its organization to all parts of started in New York City, for the purpose of the Union, will undoubtedly give a powerful encouraging organization among women impetus to the movement. We shall have wage-earners. With this idea in view, it the parcel post, and the inevitable extension made a comprehensive inquiry into the con- of co-operative municipal functions will lend ditions under which saleswomen and cash- us aid.
WITH SOME REFLECTIONS UPON HIS THEOPHILOSITY
BY WILLIAM E. BARTON
ELDOM have I made a brilliant and him, while he wrote, a copy of Mark ; b'it he original discovery without making an- did not send either of them. Why?
other somewhat different_namely, that Here again is where my discovery comes the discovery had already been made by some in. The old theologians were never long one else. Not long ago an entirely original puzzled by the question, "Why is the literary idea occurred to me, but before I could style of Paul different from that of John, preach it I found it in a new book of Berg- since the same Holy Spirit inspired both ?” son's, and had to proclaim my originality in They answered, “ The Holy Spirit indeed quotation marks; and when I had preached inspired both men, but had respect unto the ít a learned friend said to me: “ That fine Johnicity of John and the Paulicity of Paul.” word you gave us from Bergson was really Yes, verily. And the same Holy Spirit had not original with him ; the very same idea respect unto the Lucicity of Luke, and (here in much the same language is contained in is my discovery) unto the Theophilosity of the seventh volume of Jonathan Edwards." Theophilus. I borrowed a volume from the library, and Who was Theophilus ? I once knew a there it is on page 334—and that reminds me colored Sunday-school Convention which that the book has not yet returned to the spent the better part of three days in the library, and is now drawing a fine at the rate discussion of the interesting question, “ Who of two cents a day.
was Melchizedek ?” and they left the quesBut I have now made a discovery which, tion in as good condition as they found it. so far as I can learn, no man has made before But I intend to find an answer to this me, and I want to print it in a hurry. It is question. that Luke, in giving his reasons for writing Hastings's “ Bible Dictionary ” says that his Gospel, gave precisely the reasons which “ tradition has not been busy with him as it might have justified him in not writing it. has with most of the obscure men of the They were two—namely, that other people New Testament." It is time tradition or were writing the story of the life of Jesus ; some more reliable authority got to work. and, secondly, that he had no first-hand Sir William Ramsay holds that the Greek knowledge of the facts. His opening sen- word translated “ most excellent " was a tence might easily have ended differently, as technical title, indicating a Roman officer of for instance :
equestrian rank. Very likely. I hope he “ Forasmuch as many have undertaken to will learn some more. But I am interested set down in order a record of the things in the pyschology rather than the rank of most surely believed among us, it seemed Theophilus. good unto me, most excellent Theophilus, Why did not Luke send a copy of the having not been myself an eye-witness of Gospel of Matthew to Theophilus? Because these events, to send to thee under separate Theophilus would not have been interested cover a copy of the Gospel according to in a genealogy which began with Abraham Matthew."
a point of view which was distinctly My dear and honored friend Edward Jewish. Luke read Matthew through, I Everett Hale taught his double four sen- think, and I am sure he read Mark through, tences, which would carry a man through word by word, and all the way through life, and one of them was, “So much has asked himself whether that was the kind of been said, and so well said, that I will not add book to send to Theophilus. In each case anything further at this time.” Luke said, the answer was in the negative. Matthew was “ So much has been said, and so well said, it a good book for the Jews, but it contained seemed good unto me, most excellent The- some things which Theophilus would not ophilus, to add something to the sum total.” have cared very much about. Mark was an
He might have sent Matthew, which prob- excellent little tract, but concise to the point ably was written. He certainly had before of being dry.
of being dry. It had action, but lacked