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BELGIAN REFUGEES CARRIED TO ENGLAND BY TRAWLERS Homeless victims of war's barbarities have crossed the English Channel by thousands during the last few weeks.' The photograph shows
PHOTOGRAPH BY PAUL THOMPSON
a fishing trawler, crowded with rei ugees from Ostend, arriving at Folkestone, England
A CALIFORNIA SCHOOL-HOUSE The movement to make of our public schools true social centers has been of as great material and artistic advantage to the schools themselves as to the communities in which they
are situated. This well-lighted, fireproof, and beautiful school building, recently erected in Santa Paula, California, is one of which even a large city might well be proud
PHOTOGRAPH BY BAIN NEWS SERVICE
A STATUE OF EDWIN BOOTH AS HAMLET This statue is to be erected in Gramercy Park, New York City, near the home of The Players, the well-known club founded by Mr. Booth. The design for this statue was submitted by Mr. E. T. Quinn and was chosen in preference to several others by a committee of the club members. Among Mr. Quinn's works in sculpture are a bust of Edgar Allan Poe, in Poe Park, New York; a statue of Zoroaster, in
Brooklyn, N. Y.; and figures on the Battle Monument at King's Mountain, S. C.
to remember!. The city walls still stand, much as they were left after the conqueror Mohammed rode through the breach into the city and delivered it up to his soldiers. The anguish and peril of the population of the city were hardly more than will be suffered if París or Vienna fall a few months hence ; but the loss of Constantinople meant the breaking down of the line of European defense.
For the first time in the history of Mongol invasion in Europe, a great empire was carved out of European territory. Within a few years the Turks conquered the whole of the Balkans, Greece, and the Greek islands, where they all but extinguished the remnants of old Greek civilization. They were the first of their race to learn seafaring, and contested the Mediterranean till, in the time of the great Louis XIV, Molière makes a dramatic incident out of the supposed fate of the young man who trusts himself on board a Turkish galley. Having firmly established an empire that reached eastward to Persia and the Red Sea, northward to Mount Ararat, and west to the Adriatic, they pushed straight northwestward. The Servian Empire was smashed at Kossovo in 1389; the Hungarians were conquered at the second Kossovo in 1448, and again at the mournful battle of Mohács in 1526; and the Turks twice all but took Vienna.
These conquests were due to the excellent Turkish armies and military system, which were for a time the most efficient in the world. The Turks were by tradition splendid horsemen, and they developed the renowned infantry of the Janissaries. They had the best artillery of their time, and the best system for provisioning their armies. They fought under their Sultan's eye. The rewards of success were honors, riches, sultans' daughters in marriage, the governorships of provinces. They were strong in the open field, adepts, in sieges, and a legion of devils to non-combatants.
List of the Sultans. Few of the Sultans, except Mohammed the Conqueror, are now known to the West, but the list brings out some striking facts with regard to the Turkish ideas of monarchy :
5. Selim II (son).... 1566-1574
1595-1603 8. Ahmed I (son)... 1603-1617 9. Mustafa I(brother) 1617-1618 (declared in
competent) 10. Osman II(nephew) 1618-1622 (dethroned by
Janissaries) 11. Mustafa I (returned)
1622–1623 (abdicated) 12. Murad IV (son
of Ahmed) ..... 1623-1640 13. Ibrahim (brother). 1640-1648(dethroned and
murdered) 14. Mohammed IV
(son)... 1648-1687 (deposed) 15. Suleiman II (brother)...
1687-1691 16. Ahmed II(brother) 1691-1695 17. Mustafa II (son of
Mohammed IV) 1695-1703 (abdicated) 18. Ahmed III (brother)
1703-1730 (deposed) 19. Mahmud I (son of
Mustafa II).... 1730-1754 20. Osman III (bro
ther) ...... 1754-1757 21. Mustafa III (cousin)....
1757-1773 22. Abd-ul Hamid I
(brother) ..... 1773-1789 23. Selim III (son of
Mustafa 111).... 1789-1807 (dethroned) 24. Mustafa IV (son
of Abd-ul-Hamid) 1807-1808 (assassinated) 25. Mahmud II (bro
ther)...... 1808-1839 26. Abd-ul-Mejid (son) 1839-1861 27. Abd-ul-Aziz
(brother)....... 1861-1876 (deposed) 28. Murad V (son of
Abd-ul Mejid... 1876 (incompetent) 29. Abd-ul-Hamid II
(brother)....... 1876-1909 (deposed) 30. Mohammed V (brother)
Ten out of this list of thirty sovereigns have ended their reigns by a sudden and usually forcible process. Ever since 1617 the succession has gone oftener to brothers than to sons, which means that there is no well-defined rule of succession. Various Sultans have been killed by their soldiers or their slaves; and if we could go into the details of the character and lives of these rulers we should mark the downhill course of the Osman line. When, about two centuries ago, they ceased to head their armies and spent their lives in the poisonous atmos
1. Mohammed II (the
Conqueror)... 1451-1481 2. Bayezid II (son).. 1481-1512 3. Selim I (son)..... 1512-1520 4. Suleiman I, “The
phere of the court and the harem, their Empire. Greeks, Armenians, Bulgarians, Empire lost its terrific grip upon the world. Serbs, Wallachs, Hungarians, German Tran
Christians in the Empire. The present sylvanians, profited by this degree of liberty ; ruin of Turkey is due less to the Sultans but in the end it meant the downfall of the than to the variety of rival races and religions Turkish Empire. within the Empire. The Turks found, both Decay of the Turks. In the process of in Asia Minor and the Balkans, a civilized pushing back the Turks into Asia all the population, with arts, crafts, commerce, relig- neighbors assumed a cheerful part; Poles, ion, and education. They themselves were Hungarians, Russians, Austrians, Venetians, not business men, and they allowed the Spaniards, and the Pope took turns at hammerGreeks and the Armenians in their Empire to ing the Turks. They maintained themselves carry on trade. They wanted peasants to only by desperate efforts, for commonly they till their lands, and they left the Bulgarians could not safely enlist in their armies the and Macedonians on the soil. With such Christian populations. The tide turned at masses of non-Turkish people, in many prov- the famous raising of the siege of Vienna in inces always outnumbering the Turks, the 1683. They still point out to you the “Turkquestion of religion complicated the whole ish trenches " where the camp of the infidels system of government. The only way to was attacked by the relieving force from unify the population was to Mohammedanize Poland under John Sobieski. the Christians, or to exterminate them, or to In the course of the next hundred years let them have their own religion. Many there were six or eight wars against the thousands, perhaps millions, of them accepted Turks, ending with a series of treaties under the Prophet and the Koran. About a third which the Russians and the Hungarians of the people of Bosnia, for instance, are gained ground. During the next fifty years Mohammedan Serbs, descended from Chris- Greece, Servia, and Rumania were peeled off. tians. For several centuries the tribute boys One of the evidences of changed conditions (perhaps five thousand every year) were was the massacre of the Janissaries in 1826, taken out of the highest Christian families, because they had become the Pretorian Guard and brought up to become fanatical Moslems of the Empire, setting up and controlling and Janissaries, generals, and ministers. Sultans. Egypt and the four Barbary Powers Nevertheless, most of the Christians stood on the north coast of Africa practically gained by their religious colors.
their independence. The remaining ChrisThere was a moment when extermination tian subjects of Turkey in Europe were was all but adopted as the Turkish policy. straining at their chains. Turkey seemed Sultan Selim the Grim about 1520 issued a dissolving decree that all the Christians who would not Then the concert of Europe united to preforthwith become Moslems should be slain. vent the “ disappearance of the unfittest," This, of course, was simply an extension of which is a natural law of nations as of indithe doctrine which then prevailed in Christian viduals. Fearing lest Russia and Austria Europe, that the prince had a right to decide should gain by uprooting the Turks, the what his people should believe. Under the English and French from 1840 to 1890 proabsolute Turkish system there was nobody to tected the worst Government in Europe and dispute the wisdom or the humanity of the kept their fellow-Christians in bondage. The Sultan's decisions. Then unexpectedly arose Turks were cursed with unusually weak Sulthe Mufti, the highest ecclesiastical authority tans, and then with an abnormally strong in the Moslem world, and he “ recalled” the Sultan. From 1876 to 1909 Abd-ul-Hamid decree, for a reason which is familiar in II was the actual as well as the nominal American government, namely, that it was despot of Turkey, and showed himself a contrary to the higher law of Turkey.
consummate master of the art of playing off Thereupon the Sultan gave way, and the the great Powers of Europe against each Christians were allowed their worship. That other, promising reforms to the virtuous, givinvolved keeping their churches ; that in- ing valuable concessions to the unrighteous, volved having a priesthood ; that involved cutting off any heads which arose in opposischools to educate the priests; that involved tion or criticism-a bad man who made a the continued use of the languages of the naturally bad system bad to the nth power. Christians; that involved the permanence of When England and France showed signs of Christian race groups inside the Turkish interest in the Christians in Turkey, the Sul