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tradition of the Church and narrowed its ence and respect. This is because the idea horizon.

of unity has made much progress, and also Perhaps this phase of experience was because, without regard to its confessional necessary to the development of the Church. aspect, one feels that the Church has created At all events, it is so far advanced that it is this aspiration toward which the masses are to be hoped it may run its course to the end. turning with increasing fervor and devotion.

Pius X will never waver before the conse- One may say that, if the idea of unity is quences of his doctrines. In him and through the very foundation of Catholicism, France him the mechanical idea of the Church will has never been as truly Catholic as at this give battle upon issues before which all other moment. Considering even her most inconPopes would have quailed, sought evasions gruous and complex efforts, one finds in them and conciliation, and have lost.

a soul, so to speak, and this soul is in pursuit And such a rout does not lack grandeur. of unity. At times there are tentative efforts One may have ideas entirely opposed to towards establishing an exterior and liturgical those of Pius X, but, knowing him, one can- unity; more often it is a sort of missionary not but admire the obstinacy with which, fever which drives us to wish other people alone, personally unregretful and unconscious, to adopt our political and social ideas. he goes his way, without even taking heed of But what is remarkable in all these tendthe warnings of his confrères, piling up the encies is their mysticism. They are perfectly ruins about him.

disinterested, and free from all alloy. The Strange, is it not, that while the Pope fol- Frenchman does not wish to conquer new bows this course, which he can never retrace, territory; he wishes to pass on his faith to some bishops and a large number of loyal others. Catholics find in the traditions of their Apparently I have wandered far from Church a totally different inspiration : a need Pius X, the Conclave, and the future Pope ; of communion so strong, so suffused with in truth, I am in the very midst of the question. reality, that the eucharistic communion seems The future Conclave, particularly if Pius X to them but a preface to real communion lives several years longer, will assemble under with men, their brothers. The life of the conditions absolutely new. Church becomes for them a part of the For one thing, the sovereign Pontiff will day's experience, an experience which has have pushed to the limit his idea of Divine, neither beginning nor end, but is a continual Absolute, and Universal authority, and will growth, a perpetual progression. For them, have practically demonstrated its dangers luyalty to the truth is not the passive accept- even to those who, intellectually and doctrinance of a proposition to which one submits ally, are in perfect accord with his ideas. without understanding it; it is the mysterious On the other hand, many Catholics who act of a man longing for the good to be and are resolutely loyal to their Church, who have asserting it through his mind and his acts. found in their faith not only a little treasury of Francis d'Assisi, Philip de Neri, Joan of Arc, truths acquired forever, but also an inspiraand Pascal, among a host of others, are tion to work, to love, and to live, will concharacters toward which they strive. They tinue to investigate the practical worth of constitute a lineage which has a peculiar dogma. For them the dogmas concerning value.

the Church, its unity, and the obedience due While this movement follows its course her are facts which never really grip their within the Church proper, without, in the intelligence until they have first, through midst of Protestantism and liberal thought, a experience, found root in the heart. Therenew order of things manifests itself. There, fore they do not conceive of the unity of the religious hatreds have greatly diminished: Church as an exterior unity, disciplinary and even the current speech bears traces of this bureaucratic, but as a unity of life and of amelioration of antagonism. The terms progress; unity of aspiration where harmony -- Papism” and “ Papist” are no longer in is obtained through the myriad of voices, vogue: they are employed only to make each one giving his note freely, joyously. sport of those who formerly had these words Now, these convictions, far more common constantly on their lips.

than those inside the Church may believe to In circles but recently vigorously anti- be true, coincide with laic thought in its Catholic one now hears the Papacy and the deepest and most helpful aspect. Holy See spoken of with the greatest defer- Such is, it seems to me, the actual position of the Church at the moment when the ques- nize that the Roman Church is rent internally tion of a successor to Pius X presents itself. by influences which may profoundly change Readers may find all this rather vague, and its exterior and perhaps alter the course of they will not be far wrong.

But I do not its destiny. wish to state in precise terms that which is, The question of authority looms large. at the historic moment we are facing, so Pius X solved it in the most logical, reactioncomplex, confused, unorganized ; although, ary, and severe sense. One might have doubtless, from these confused and confusing believed for a time that he would sign the tendencies orderly, concrete efforts will one decree divorcing the Papacy and the Roman day ensue.

Church from the Modern Spirit; but in the It is very evident that, for centuries, cir- instant that the head of the Church attempts cumstances and, above all, combinations of that, other voices, of a different sound from interest have worked to the end that all his own, will be raised about him ; voices Popes should be Italian. It seems to many which clamor, not only for the reconciliation Catholics, and even to some eminent Italian of the Church and the age, but which proprelates, that the interest of the Church, as claim that the most ardent aspirations of our also the interest of the Papacy, the eternal time are blessed by the Church and have symbol and center of unity, demands that their source in her ; that the spirit of the age the future Conclaves renounce this existing can find peace only in the Church; and that order to erect in its place a rule of simple the Church will not be a true mother to her precedence.

children if she fails to understand the age, An American Pope! Why not? How the soul of which she has created. can the Church maintain its title of “ Cath- The date of the election of a successor to olic” if, deliberately, she continues to declare Pope Pius X will be a historic one in the ineligible the citizens of a country where the religious history of the world.

Let us preChurch is progressing more rapidly than any- pare ourselves to consider it in a high sense, where else in the world?

and not permit ourselves to become abIf I have succeeded in painting the state of sorbed by the detailed chronicle of daily affairs in their true light, readers will recog- events.

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flow.” The keynote to the whole poem is the word “ love." Whispered in the dark shades of the 'Inferno,' it is enunciated with clearness in the Purgatorio ;' it becomes music and perpetual song in the 'Paradiso.'" This reading of Dante by so eminently qualified an interpreter takes its place among the specially valuable.

Spiritual Message of Dante (The). By the Rt.

Rev. W. Boyd Carpenter. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.' $1.50. In justice both to Dante and to his great poem, this volume of lectures at Harvard should be read by those to whom its best known or only known portion is the “Inferno." Bishop Carpenter modestly disclaims a purpose to contribute to the critical study of Dante, though he has not avoided it, and could not. He aims simply to express his thoughts on religious experience as exemplified in the “ Divina Commedia ;” others are suggested by “pregnant fragments of thought which Dante has left hanging, as it were, on the hedges of the way along which his pilgrim feet have trod.” What Bunyan's allegory was in the seventeenth century Dante's was in the fourteenth, a pilgrim's progress in experiences that reach the heights by a path that first leads through the depths of evil self-revealed. According to Dante, hell is the region from which love is being slowly banished. ... The lack of love is the disease of the soul, from which all life's worst lives

Essays on Faith and Immortality. By George

Tyrrell. Arranged by M. D. Petre. Longman, Green & Co., New York. $1.40. Father Tyrrell was excommunicated in 1908 for criticising-though with good Catholic precedents—the papal bull against modernism. His autobiography was published two years ago by Miss Petre, his literary executrix, with a memoir and supplementary documents-the story of a noble struggle for a free intellect and conscience. Further memoranda of that struggle appear in the present volume. Drawn and rearranged mainly from Father Tyrrell's notebooks and journal, they give chief prominence col the subjects named in its title. The essays on F.ith run largely on the line of the so-called discursive understanding. " Living consciousnew theology that is modernizing the old Prot- ness is an event in the world which living estantism. He writes: “The Christianity of consciousness alone can know." He dissents be New Testament is as little Catholic as it is from Bergson's intuitionism, but insists that Protestant. ... It was not a religion but a science is not limited to external objects and spirit... which might be found in various outward perception. His rationalism protests re'igions." The essasy on immortality cast against the naturalism which mechanizes all of teir sounding-line into waters too deep for it life and mind, and leaves no room and play for o fathom. Their inconclusive questionings freedom in a "dynamic and developing universe." ini rent only in faith's conviction that the final In view of the rational need of one supreme emerging " of human life in the divine will prove dynamic to realize such a universe and control to ve not the extinction but the enlargement of its development, why should Professor Thilly's personality. Father Tyrrell denies that the rationalism turn a cold shoulder to all monistic liberal Catholic is making more slowly for the schemes, whether materialistic or spiritual ? same goal as the liberal Protestant, but both are Eucken's conception of a universal spiritual life represented in him.

as the unitary ground of all being and of its

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control for all the oppositions, changes, and free $1.40.

development that pluralists recognize, and that Io this short course of lectures at Oxford an Professor Thilly would provide for. His book accomplished scholar discusses a part of the does credit to the department of philosophy at Estory of religion not hitherto so systematically Cornell. treated. He finds Cicero's well-known book, De Natura Deorum,” far from satisfactory

Collected Essays of Rudolf Eucken. Edited

and Translated by Meyrick Booth, B.Sc., Ph.D. the work of “an amateur " who did not really Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. $4. believe the subject to be of vital interest. Dr. The nineteen essays in this volume are upon Fowler pronounces the modern investigator's widely different subjects, and view them from task to be one of enormous difficulty, and one the German standpoint. The problems treated that yields only a meager result from thorough are of universal interest, and the personalities scrutiny of all that Latin literature contributes contemplated belong to the literature of manto it

kind. The inner connection that unifies the The Roman idea of Genius as a divine force whole is the central principle of Eucken's phiactive in man and nature must be counted as an losophy-namely, an Absolute Spiritual Life as element of spiritual religion, and a tendency the ultimate basis of all reality. Eucken views toward monotheism appears in the cult of the human existence as one vast process of realizing Capitoline Jupiter. From this a door opened and appropriating this spiritual reality as a printo the Stoic idea of a universal Reason, Law, ciple that claims for itself every branch of and Order. The Italian way of regarding the human activity, surmounts all difficulties, hard:vine as "something solid and practical” kept monizes all discords, and alone can impart conthe men of the West from the extravagant wor- sistency and unity to the chaotic confusion of ship of the reigning emperor that prevailed in the actual world. the Eastern provinces. While this is the most that Dr. Fowler has gathered for the main pur

Chambers's English Dictionary. Edited by

Thomas Davidson. The J. B. Lippincott Company, pose of his research, his examination of the Philadelphia. great prose writers and poets brings out many In its earlier and much smaller form The poinst of interest to classical scholars.

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its clear definitions, numerous useful appenHistory of Philosophy (A): By Frank Thilly. Henry Holt & Co., New York. $2.50.

dices, and compact methods. In the present In giving under this title a connected account

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before. Regarding the history of philosophy as exhibiting philosophy at work in self-criticism and

Lad of Kent (A). By Herbert Harrison. The self-correction, he lets the philosophers present Macmillan Company, New York. $1.25. their thoughts with little criticism by him to The story of this English lad who lived in interrupt Greek, mediæval, and modern think- Kent a century ago tells in stirring manner and ers having thus been heard from, the historian excellent literary form of highwaymen and pronounces for rationalism. By “rationalism

smuggling, of the press gang and war at sea. be means more than intellectualism-reason The action is vigorous and the incidents are that includes more than the processes of the varied and exciting.

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BY THE WAY

A great department store in Chicago, accord- exchange a couple of generals for a case o ing to a writer in “Collier's,” never advertises cigarettes and a pack of cards.'" reduced-price goods in the familiar form,“ Was

Starlings are not liked in Australia, accordia $5; now $2.50.” “We take the position," said

to reports from the American Consul at Me an official of the store, “that things are worth

bourne. Besides being destructive to fruit, th? what they will bring.” If the store gets a lot of

are charged with turning valuable native inse :1 coats that were meant to sell at $40 but which it

eating birds out of their nests. Starlings an is willing to sell at $22.50, it never advertises

said to be rapidly increasing in the Unit " Worth $40,” but “just points out that these

States, and are, it is thought, destined to be are exceptionally good coats for the money."

come among the most numerous of our birds This advertising pays, the official said, because ranking with that other objectionable exotic in the long run it teaches the people to rely abso- the English sparrow. lutely on the store's statements.

" The omission of remarks from funeral serv Vorticism is supposed to be the latest thing

ices," says the “Christian Register" in an edi in art, Cubisim and Futurism being regarded

torial on “ Post-Mortem Proprieties," "...i as too photographic for the taste of the Vorti

a protection against well-meaning excess o cists. They are largely English, and publish a

praise, and it preserves the minister from magazine called “Blast.” “ The Cape of Good

ghastly, but blameless, mistakes. . . . In ou Hope," a picture by Edward Wadsworth, repro

recollection the services that have brought th duced in the magazine, shows a medley of shapes remotely suggesting lifeboats, funnels,

greatest personal comfort have been those in

which there was the least personal reference. marlinspikes, and anchors, without perspective,

The “ Register" commends the "great ser coherence, or intelligibility.

tences" of the Scriptures as the best service Spain has a car-building plant which employs saying that what is worthy in the life that i 1,800 men. In 1913 it ran nearly to its full capa departed is called up by them, and from wha city—3,000 freight and $200 passenger cars per may have been unworthy we are withdrawn b year.

their noble guidance. Mexican dishes as Americanized along the A subscriber writes to urge the claims o borderare characterized by a writer in“ To-Day” Richard Trevithick as “entitled to the empt as most delicious. Frijoles are called much glory of having designed and built the firs better than our baked beans, Spanish rice is successful locomotive.” The date of its tria described as very palatable, and chili con carne was February 21,1804. As with other inventions as a troublesome and elaborate dish, but one however, fate is whimsical in awarding popula well worth the effort of making. Cooked cu- glory to this or that individual where severa cumber salad is a novelty that is said to be

are working on similar lines, and Stephenson well worth imitating.

fame as the originator of the first practicabl " There is no mistaking the influence of railway locomotive seems secure. the English Bible on Conrad's prose style," Paragould, Arkansas, a city of 8,000 people says James Huneker in an appreciation of is building a $100,000 hotel and reaching out iu Joseph Conrad's genius. “He is saturated

business through what its Chamber of Com with its puissant, elemental rhythms, and his merce describes as “the Baer plan.” The pla prose has its surge and undertow. That is

in brief, it says, is the donation and purchas why his is never a 'painted ship on a painted

of idle real estate in any community for th ocean.'

business advantage of the city. In less tha “ Please give me a lift," a familiar appeal by a week, the descriptive circular says, the com a pedestrian on a country road to his more mittee has secured for this purpose donation favored brother in a vehicle, is sometimes varied of real estate amounting to more than $15,014 in New York State, a newspaper writer asserts, · Little Rock, it is stated, has raised $250,000 L to “ Please give me a bitch.” Apropos of this

this plan. the story is told that Lincoln once asked a man

The Rev. Alan Pressley Wilson, President driving along a country road to carry his over

the Society for Social Advance, Baltimore coat. “Certainly,” said the man, “but what

Maryland, suggests a campaign in favor of per about yourself ?" “ I intend to remain in it,"

suading country boys and girls to stay on th was the laconic reply.

farm. Mr. Wilson claims that country yout Here is “Life's "characterization of the situa- make up a large portion of the victims of th tion in Mexico: “Sentry— Flag of truce, Ex- social evil, and that by making life on the farm cellency.' General – What do the revolution- so attractive that they will not desire to leave ists want now?' Sentry—' They would like to the traffic in souls will be reduced, if not curbed

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