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15, which emphasized so much the guiding It is assuredly no accident that she secured hand of God in the affairs of nations.
her first parliament after her repulse at the Such editorials will do much to bring about hands of the Japanese. Even in backward a peace of mind and to strengthen shaken Turkey there are signs that the repeated faiths in this world crisis.
losses of territory have fed a feeble but perChicago, Illinois. F. M. DUCKLES. fectly genuine movement toward reform.
Does the great moral law apply also to One of the great facts in history has been nations ? He that loses his life shall find it. the pressure of the semi-barbaric people of
M. C. BURKE. the East against the civilization of the West. Every school-boy knows this; but The Your editorial “ The War Against Popular Outlook makes no account in its editorial of Rights,” in The Outlook for August 15, the almost inevitable conflict between Slav shows such a misunderstanding of the past and Teuton. If the fervent wish of your and present conditions, such a twisting of editor is gratified, and Germany is crushed, historical facts and inconsequent reasoning, is it not probable that Russia will be the only that I cannot help but criticise the same permanent beneficiary of the war? After severely. France has the lost provinces and England According to your version of the present has destroyed the German fleet which has European war, Emperor William is caused her so much hysteria, and recovered “goat.” If Germany wanted war, why did the markets which the Germans won in fair she not begin one while the English had competition, then what? Why not Russia in their hands full in the Transvaal, or Russia possession of most of Austria and the Bal- in the Far East ? If the German Emperor kans, perhaps under the alias of “Greater is such a brute as you describe him, why is Servia ;” then a rest, then Turkey and Per- the emigration from Germany so much less sia ; then, after another rest, India ; and, in now than it was at the beginning of his reign ? the fullness of time, all of Europe she de- If it was not the German Emperor who kept sires ? Who can stop her on land with Ger- the peace of Europe in the past twenty-five many crushed ?
years, who has kept it ? It would be absoIt may be in the providence of God the lute calumny to accuse him of wanting war. Slav will have so developed as to be worthy ... The Germans love their Emperor. They of the mastery of the world by that day; but like authority, and their country looks orderly. it ill becomes Anglo-Saxons in this hour to The American dislikes authority, and his uphold his hands and further his plan by country shows the dislike. Suppose the sword or pen.
Chinese or Japanese should threaten to overROBERT M. E. SCHAUFFLER, M.D. whelm the United States, as the Slavs do Kansas City, Missouri.
Austria and Germany, what a howl to arms
would rise at once in the face of such danAmong the many problems suggested by ger! You speak of Germany violating Belthe present war in Europe not the least inter- gium's neutrality. How about Dr Jamieson's esting is the question of its final effect upon raid into the Transvaal ? The occupation of government. The opinion is often expressed the Transvaal, Egypt, Tibet, by the British ? that a costly and devastating war must have Of China and Persia by Russia ? Of New a blighting effect upon democratic institutions. Mexico and Arizona by the United States ? At first sight this view seems plausible, but To-day England would be only too glad to the course of history, I think, teaches us pre- grab the Panama Canal. . . cisely the contrary.
The talk of arbitration in this war shows Certainly for the defeated nation the post- that those who are talking entirely fail to bellum period has more than once proved a grasp the situation.
No doubt England period of political regeneration. Take Prus- would like to arbitrate and leave Germany sia. Utterly crushed beneath the heel of and Austria in the statu quo. Arbitration Napoleon, she emancipated her serfs. Not would do about as much good as it would surely from motives of sweet Christian char- have done to arbitrate the Civil War. Berity, but because a freeman is a better fighter nard Shaw has let the cat out of the bag by than a slave. Take France. Her downfall declaring that “the English do not want a in 1870 involved an abolition of the Empire Germany of Bismarck, but one of Beethoven and a return to the Republic. Take Russia. and Goethe.” Of course they do not want a Germany that amounts to something. They is fighting with the Allies, and that the Gerwant a Germany that is sterile and does not man nation is rallying solidly around its amount to anything. They would like a leader. Germany that furnishes music and poetry for It is not only fair, but also wise, to hear them and the rest of the world, while Eng- the other side! Germany would not conland goes after the commerce and the colo- sider this a fight for its very existence if it nies. Very altruistic indeed on the part of were not that England's envy of her comJohn Bill!
mercial prosperity and France's spirit of In writing this letter to your esteemed revenge, frequently manifested, forced the publication I am voicing, I sincerely believe, sword into her unwilling hands after more the sentiments of the majority of patriotic than forty years of
peace. Austrians and Germans. They love their
Hamburg, New York.
H. M. WIESECKE. bride, the United States, and they honor their mother, Austria and Germany.
I read your editorial in the last Outlook Sparta, Michigan. KARL GREINER, M.D. in re the war in Europe. It was all
that I could have wished to have The I ask you, is French militarism not sur- Outlook say on the subject. It was in the passing any German tendencies along this line of my thought, but much better exline? or is the difference between classes pressed than I could have put it. The one and castes, between pride of purse and birth, thing I am deeply interested in is that those any less dominant in England than in Ger- three criminal war lords shall be put in the many or Austria ? It is true that the Em- pillory of universal reprobation, so that they peror of Germany enjoys some prerogatives will all be forced by the public sentiment of which are incompatible with true democracy ; the world to agree to such amendments to but, despite that, democracy can hardly be their respective Constitutions as will make said to be less advanced in Germany than in it impossible that any one of them can repeat Great Britain. To make it appear that an the iniquity of which they have been guilty autocrat (the German Emperor), urged by in precipitating this accursed war on those overweening pride and ambition, seeks to poor working-people, who are the ones to halt popular liberty and social development pay the price in their blood. I hope The by this war, you must leave out of considera- Outlook won't let up on them. tion that the autocrat par excellence, the Czar, Kerrville, Texas.
J. F. JOHNSTON.
Among the volunteers accepted for service in the French arıny at a recent examination were twenty-two Americans, who were complimented by the examiners on their splendid physical condition.
Instead of motoring, golfing, and playing tennis, wealthy Americans with villas on the Normandy coast are helping the old men, women, and children of the native population get in the harvest.
The war has of course hurt the business of the Panama Canal, and during the first week of its operation only sixteen ships passed through the big waterway. Fourteen of these were American, one being an army transport en route from San Francisco to Europe to bring home stranded Americans.
A note of optimism and encouragement comes from the Banking Department of the State of New York, which reports that the condition of the savings banks of the State is better than it has been since the war began. Depositors who
withdrew their savings during the first panicky days are putting them back, and a general feeling of confidence seems to prevail.
The news comes from London that, in the fear that Germany may lose her trade with the United States, German merchants have published a booklet in English called " The Truth about Germany. Facts about the War.” This pamphlet, which praises Americans and praises German commerce, is being distributed among Americans in Germany.
Aeroplanes have taken the part of carrier pigeons, and the English people have been asked to be on the lookout for messages dropped from the sky by England's aviators, for forwarding to the proper authorities.
According to an interview with the Minister of Agriculture and Industry of Holland, published in a Dutch newspaper, the supply of wheat and flour in Holland is sufficient to last only two or three weeks, and it is feared that unless traffic becomes easier in the North Sea the Duich may soon be in a precarious condi- ness depression. They express the belief that tion.
the enforced cessation of automobile building Among the passengers on the White Star abroad will create a large foreign demand for liner Celtic, which sailed from New York for
machines made in America. Liverpool on August 20, was Dr. Dorothy V'. To aid our overworked ambassadors abroad Smiley, surgeon in the Royal Medical Corps, through the crisis which they are now facing, and one of the few women in the British army. the State Department has asked for CongresDr. Smiley had been ordered to report for duty. sional authorization of the temporary appointNew developments and applications of inter
ment of diplomatic secretaries-at-large. national and maritime law are expected from Assistant Secretary of War Henry S. Breckinthe unique libel suit which the Guaranty Trust ridge is traveling through Europe at high speed Company of New York has begun against the distributing among Americans the gold taken North German Lloyd Steamship Company, over in the cruiser Tennessee. A despatch to asking for damages of more than a million dol- the New York “World” from Berlin says that lars because the liner Kronprinzessin Cecilie Mr. Breckinridge made the trip to that city from recently landed $5,000,000 gold of the trust Holland on a special train in thirteen hours, the company at Bar Harbor, Maine, instead of at usual time being thirty-three hours. His car, London. It is alleged that it was altogether it is said, was attached to the special train of a unnecessary for the Cecilie to turn back as she
high German official. did when within about 900 miles of the coast of
As an emergency measure Germany has orEngland.
dered that all her male subjects between the The Hamburg American Steamship Company ages of sixteen and nineteen shall be put has offered to lend the steamship Prinz Joachim through a course of musketry and military to the American Red Cross for sixty days for training under the instruction of retired offithe cost of operation of the vessel. The liner cers. If they are called upon to fight, particuis now in New York.
Jarly in defense of their homes, these youthOne effect of Japan's ultimatum to Germany
ful legions may prove to be as formidable as was to lead Lloyds to increase the war risk on
the “minute boys” of '76 or as the cadets of Japanese vessels to 6.3 per cent, the highest
Chapultepec. quoted up to the time it was done-August 20. At the request of the German Socialist Feder
ation the Socialist party in America has apScotch woolen manufacturers fear that the war will drive them into bankruptcy, as a large
pealed to the Government to seize all abattoirs, part of their business has been done with Ger
storage warehouses, grain elevators," and other
sources of supply of the necessaries of life, in many.
order that the war in Europe may be stopped According to the London “Daily Mail," since
through lack of supplies to the warring nations." the war began nearly fifty Engiish trade and
Shipments of food from the United States to sporting papers have gone out of business, some
countries engaged in the international conflict, permanently.
by the way, apparently are being made already Dr. Alexis Carrel, of the Rockefeller Institute on a large scale. In beginning an investigation for Medical Research of New York, is now at into the activities of agents of Chicago packers, the head of a large hospital where wounded United States District Attorney Wilkerson French soldiers are cared for. In a letter to a expressed the belief that Chicagoans alone friend Dr. Carrel is reported as saying: “I am have shipped 10,000,000 pounds of meat into seeking men ready literally to give their blood Canada since the war began. Recently 36,000,000 for transfusions to wounded soldiers. Already cold-storage eggs went to Liverpool on the I have found a doctor and an attorney and hope steamship New York, of the American Line, soon to have several others.”
and it is reported that France has asked The effect of the war on American opera quotations on 25,000,000 pockets of Louisiana remains problematical. If newspaper reports
rice. can be trusted, nearly all the great male Wag- The American Red Cross has sent a telegram nerian singers have taken the field for Germany. to the Mayors of twenty-seven large cities in The usual summer preparations for the season the United States appealing for funds. Among are going on at the Metropolitan Opera-House other things the telegram states: "Personnel in New York, however, and directors of the and equipment ready, but funds desperately house seem to be hopeful that their staff of needed to secure ship and purchase additional singers will not be greatly depleted by the call supplies." to arms.
Lord Kitchener has forbidden the use of all Automobile manufacturers in America do not wine and spirits by the British troops at the seem to be greatly disturbed by general busi- front.
THE FUTURE POPE
BY PAUL SABATIER
This article, written for The Outlook in 1911, when the death of Pope Pius I was daily expected, is now' first printeit. With the omission of some passages which related especially to conditions at that time, the article is as significant an interpretation of the situation in the Roman Catholic Church now as then. While Paul Sabatier is not a Roman Catholic, his birth, his education, and his love for all that is beautiful in the history of Catholicism have given him a profound knowledge of the internal spirit and forces of the Roman Catholic Church and a sincere simpathy with the progressive movement in that Church. He achicved an international repu tation among both Catholics and Protestants on the publication in 1893 of his notv famous “ Life of St. Francis of Assisi.” The only considerable Catholic criticism of Sabatier's delineation of St. Francis is, not that he is unsympathetic with the saint's Catholicism, but that it lays too much emphasis upon his progressive and " modernist” spirit and overestimates the opposition which he met from the reactionary party of the Church of his day.- THE EDITORS.
IMULTANEOUSLY with the receipt ainy against ceremonial and empty form. On of the telegram from The Outlook every occasion he aims to make his language asking me to set forth my ideas
clear, and he feels disturbed and nervous when regarding a successor to Pope Pius X came
he finds himself misunderstood. On several a letter from an eminent prelate, a man who
occasions he has shed tears over the condition for two decades has been one of the most
in Spain, exclaiming, “What do they want of
me? I have done my duty !" zealous collaborators for intellectual, moral,
It is his faith that still upholds him ; the conand religious renaissance in the Roman
viction that he was chosen of God; he, who in Catholic Church, urging me to give to the pub- the eyes of the world is so little qualified for ac a résumé of the long conversations I have the exalted position he holds, he has been had with him, both alone and in company with chosen by God to spread his glory and truth a small group of his colleagues, regarding Leo throughout the world. That which Pius X XIII and Pius X, the part that the Papacy
does is not done by him alone, but by the grace plays on the world's stage to-day, and its
of God working through him. Having subdued probable future.
all thoughts of self, Pius X lives only for what
he conceives to be the wish of God and the The following sentiments, therefore, are
glorification of his Church. not simply my own personal ideas; they are
He believes in this glorification; he expects the ideas of the age, and the ideas which, in
it with the perfect and candid confidence of a Latin countries, dominate the elite of the
child who does not interpret things spiritually, dergy.
who never thinks in symbols. He not only
expects it; he prepares for it by his attitude On June 1 (1911), that is to say, at a time of simple, pious faith. In his imagination the when no one could foresee the rapid change glorification of the Church and the reign of that was to take place in the health of the
God are coincident with the disappearance of Pope, a friend of mine, long intimate with
sects and the conversion of certain monarchs his Holiness, and who had had occasion to
who will at last take up arms in the service of
the good cause. The Holy Father has always see him every month during his accession to
interpreted literally the conversations he has the Papacy, said to me :
had with Emperor William II. In his humility The Holy Father is not suffering from any he has never taken to himself any of the homage particular malady that one might characterize, of the German Emperor, interpreting it as an but he is profoundly shaken in the very sources act of implicit and expected loyalty to the of life; discouraged, embittered, pining for spiritual power which alone can anoint crowned fresh air and liberty—that's all. He has never heads and safeguard their thrones. Leen able to overcome his deep-seated antip- Misgiving has not ruffled his soul: but he feels weary, tired ; and perhaps he has more the personal question is lost in the contemthan once turned to God in the words of Elias :
plation of more serious considerations. “Enough, Lord ; take now my soul !"
It would be idle to waste time in speculatThe agitation aroused in Germany in 1910
ing on the chances of various Cardinals, as against the authority of Rome has been the
the newspapers delight in doing. A Concrowning sorrow of his pontificate. In a few
clave rarely achieves the predictions of the days he aged as though ten years had passed by. His spirit was not broken ; but he no
thoughtless and innumerable prophets who longer has the conviction he had had formerly
announce results. Even those who are of the near and brilliant victory of divine au present at a pontifical election are puzzled thority against the forces of evil.
when they come to tell or write of it. They Against the French Government and against know the facts only in part, they are misled Modernism he battled with growing enthusiasm, by current opinion, by intrigue, influences, for he saw victory “ with the eyes of his flesh," and end by endowing anecdotes with a value if I may be permitted to speak thus. Without
they do not possess. wholly opposing Germany and France, he com
If one could examine the politico-ecclesiforted himself because of the misdemeanors of
astical considerations awakened by the prosthe former, counting on the return of the latter to the fold, and expecting the prodigal daughter pect of the death of Pius X, one might to return at once to take the place of the elder enumerate them in a single phrase, put into daughter. Instead, occurred the violent demon- circulation, if I mistake not, by an eminent strations which had their center and their in- Italian prelate—“the internationalization of spiration at Berlin.
the tiara." The disappointment was grievous; and the But I wish to go a step farther, and above more cruel because it coincided with several all, to probe deeper, in order to reveal the sad experiences of the Holy Father concerning thoughts that have been bred here and there a number of men whom he had believed to be
in the consciousness of the Roman Catholic more loyal to his ideas than to himself personally.
world. In other words, I wish to approach He found in them but little moral and religious strength, and this lack caused him great sorrow.
the question of the succession of Pius X in
its religious aspect. These are the causes which have so vitally undermined the health of Pius X. It may be
To maintain government by divine right that he will go on for two or three years longer,
without fear and without reproach, without but if so it will truly be a miracle.
palliation or concession, with a decision and
a frankness which command respect; to I have endeavored thus to reproduce, as impose forcibly on all Catholics the affirmafaithfully as possible, my remembrance of this tion that the concrete and historical Church conversation, because it indirectly sketches, has all the rights which the ideal Church, so to speak, a moral silhouette of the Sover- directed by God in person, could have ; to eign Pontiff.
It explains this paradoxical assume that absolute theological dogmashould man-so gentle that he does not venture to take the place of the political and scientific ask his own cook not to scramble his eggs efforts of the world ; to regard the static too hard, and yet so determined that he does formulas of logicians as concealing on all not hesitate to impose his wish on the Episco- sides the reality of life; to conceive of the pate, to disregard the advice of his Cardinals, Church, not as a working association to point and to stand alone in his most important the way towards broader horizons, but as a resolutions.
means of saving intellectual toil; to transform The deep and universal agitation produced unconditional and absolute submission into by the announcements of the ill health of the religious virtue; to create a system in which Pope is an indication that the world is con- the cure thinks for his parishoners, the bishop cerned, not alone with the death of Giuseppe for his cures, the Pope for his bishops ; to Sarto and the question of his successor, but believe that union with the Apostolic See is with the realization of the fact that the greater than all the rest, replaces all, is allPapacy is passing through a crisis, and that sufficient—that there is in traditional Catholic the institution which since the year 1870 has thought the germ of all this I should hesitate seemed to attain its highest point of logical to deny. perfection may be on the verge of unfore- But there is more besides. In bringing seen changes.
these points into pronounced relief by schisms One might say that, except at Rome and more violent, perhaps, than those of Luther, in the immediate vicinity of the Cardinals, the present Pope has essentially altered the