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gation of ex-territorial privileges be properly it is grossly vulgar; and no boy can look at used, the Board believes that, instead of a these pictures without thinking more cheaply hardship, it may lead to better conditions. of women. It is perhaps not too much to Foreign governments are generally friendly say that most of the moving pictures repreto American missionaries, though local offi- senting love scenes turn love into broad and cials sometimes trespass.

cheap farce. Many Jf these pictures, howMore serious for Christian interest and ever, are highly offensive because they undoing much missionary work just now is familiarize children with scenes of cruelty. the spectacle of “Christian” nations en- One of the most elaborate films now on the gaged in mutual slaughter. The cruel havoc stage is that which tells the story of Cleopatra. of it multitudes of Asiatics regard as demon- Serious objecticn may be taken to the central strating the falsity and worthlessness of Chris- figure, representing a large, coarse, voluptuous tianity. In the fierce light of the present woman without a trace of any kind of fascinaEuropean woe a fresh demonstration of real tion ; a woman who could no more tempt a as distinct from pseudo Christianity must now man of Mark Antony's imagination and be given. This was a central conviction of ability than she could have interested Shakethe meeting at Detroit. It is of special im- speare. Cleopatra, it must be remembered, portance in Japan, now passing through a was a woman of genius. It was said of her crisis with atheism. Its former Premier, that“ age could not wither nor custom stale her Count Okuma, confessed, “We have re- infinite variety." A gross, voluptuous woman ligions, but no religion.. We need a religion has no variety and is stale at the start. that grapples the problem of the character But this film is to be condemned because of man.” Among auspicious facts in Japan of the barbarous cruelty with which it familis the undertaking of leadership in home iarizes the audience. In one scene Charmissions by a wealthy banker.

mian is thrown to the crocodiles, monAn evening at the meeting of the Amer- strous creatures whose repulsive forms ican Board at Detroit was given to “ The make the audience shudder. At the close, Layman in Christian Service," commemorat- in order to determine which manner of death ing the late President of the Board, Dr. is least painful, Cleopatra tries three poisons Samuel B. Capen, who died last February, at on as many different slaves, and, to gratify Shanghai, while on a missionary tour. An her curiosity, they all die in different kinds eminently fit successor was elected, Professor of contortions in the presence of the audiEdward C. Moore, of Harvard, Chairman of ence. Such scenes as these ought never the Board's Prudential Committee since to be presented to children. Hundreds of 1905.

Americans have written fuently about the

brutalizing effect of the Spanish bull-fight; MOVIES ONCE MORE

American children in the most receptive age The Americans of the future are going in are being familiarized with scenes of cruelty great numbers to see moving-picture plays. which are repulsive to every normal-minded Night after night, all over the continent, man or woman. crowds of children and young people are eagerly watching the latest modern dramatic

INTERRUPTED BUT instrument. It has great possibilities for NOT ENDED good, as The Outlook has often pointed out; One of the very interesting movements it has also great possibilities of mischief. An which the war has interrupted is the World attempt is now being made to supervise the Conference on Faith and Order. pictures shown on these stages in the inter- deal of work of a preparatory kind had alests of morality. But the supervision ought ready been done. It was necessary to explain to go further ; it ought to rule out vulgar clearly the object of the movement to churches pictures. At this moment, so far as children of every kind in this country and in Europe. can be vulgarized through the eye, American That of itself was an immense undertaking, children are in the process of vulgarization. prophetic in a way of the purpose and In too many moving-picture theaters many method of the Conference which is to be of the scenes which they are invited to look called. So successful had this preliminary at rob life of its dignity, refinement, and sen- work been that at the outbreak of the war timent. The love-making which is seen on a forty-eight commissions had been appointed thousand stages is not actually indecent, but in this country, in Canada, South America,

A great The

England, Scotland, Ireland, Europe generally,

AERIAL WARFARE Australia, South America, India, and China, to co-operate in preparing for the Confer- Bombs have been dropped from aeroplanes ence. Other commissiơns were in process of on streets and buildings in Paris, and from appointment; the matters had progressed so air-ships upon houses in Antwerp. far that it may be said that the movement effect of these bombs has been the killhad the approval of churches of the Episco- ing and wounding of civilians, including pal order throughout the world, of all the women and children, and the destruction of leading Protestant communions in all English- private property. It has not included the speaking countries, of the Old Catholic destruction of fortifications, military stores, churches in Europe, and the warmly ex- railway tracks or rolling stock, or anything pressed sympathy of many dignitaries of the else of military value. So far as has been Orthodox Eastern Church and of the Roman reported, the allied armies have not been Catholic Church. When the war broke out, weakened by the loss of a single soldier, he a deputation of the leading clergymen, with destruction of a single gun, or injury to a Dr. John R. Mott, was on the point of franc's worth of military resources. These starting for Europe, planning, in the inter- bombs dropped from the sky have created est of the movement, to have interviews in a small portion of the French and Belgian with the leading men in every religious com- population a degree of anxious curiosity. If munion in Europe and the Near East. Ex- such bomb-dropping became frequent and perience showed that whenever the spirit and resulted in the loss of many lives, particupurpose of the Conference were explained larly of children, of women, and of the aged, sympathetic response was made.

this anxious curiosity would unquestionably If there was reason then for a serious en- be converted into fear, if not terror. The deavor to bring Christians of all communions one result, and the only possible result, of into sympathetic relations and to remove the such methods of warfare would be to cause prejudice and misunderstanding which reduce panic in the population of the hostile country. the force of Christian influence, there is far It has been reported that the German more convincing reason now when Europe is military leaders contemplate an aerial raid torn asunder and racial prejudice and passion upon London. It is said that Zeppelin airhave swept the whole world like a great de- ships are being prepared for descent upon structive tide. It may be that the fierce the English capital as an air fleet, for the animosities which divide Europe will linger purpose of dropping bombs upon the city. for decades ; but it is more likely that the London is probably the greatest neighbordevastation and horror of war, when they hood which the world has ever known. are realized, will open the eyes of men to the Nowhere else is there so great and so helpfact that the higher interests of civilization less a group of non-combatants as in the and its safety are at stake ; and that if mis- population of London. Conditions make it understanding and ignorance are to continue impossible for them to escape.

If war is to to divide men there is small hope for the suc- be waged on the helpless, on women and on cessful issue of that nobler war for the libera- children, and on the very poor, London is tion of humanity in which Christianity has the place of all places to be attacked, for it always borne a leading part.

is the citadel of helplessness. In the meantime the Committee which is Against the deeds of the bomb-dropping arranging for the Conference suggests that, air-ships over Antwerp and the bomb-dropping while its plans are for the moment suspended, aeroplanes over Paris and against the pro the work of preparation must go on by com- posed air-ship raid upon the defenseless popumon prayer for unity and good will, by the lation of London there are rising and will condiscussion of the purposes and spirit of the tinue to rise protests from neutral peoples, proposed Conference, by the endeavor to and particularly from Americans. The conbring together groups of Christians, and templation of the misery, fear, and havoc that through earnest prayer that the awful experi- might be wrought in such a raid has roused ence through which the world is passing in many Americans the hottest indignation. may open the eyes and prepare the hearts Is this indignation anything more than the of men for a clearer vision of Christian ideals revolt of humane minds against the inevitable and a new sense of the community of the horrors of war? Why should this project of world in the possession of those ideals. Germany be singled out for condemnation

Its very


when England and France and Russia are the women may bear warriors; and, if they using the most modern engines of war to spare women, it is only for the purpose they slay German soldiers, and are doing their would have in sparing cattle or other posbest to drive back upon German territory . sessions—in order that they might possess the German armies and to march upon the them themselves. The object of the civilized German capital ? War is war.

nation in warfare, on the other hand, is not purpose is to make use of death and destruc- extermination. When the people of the tion as the means for attaining its end. North and the people of the South here in has even been said that to protest against the United States arrayed themselves against such use of bomb-dropping air-ships and one another in warfare, there was no intenaeroplanes without an equal protest against tion on the part of the North to exterminate all war is hypocritical sentimentality. Is this the Southerners or on the part of the South the answer that should be made ? Should to exterminate the Northerners. Rather, civilized people accept the dropping of bombs there was a great question to be settled, and upon defenseless populations as a part of all other means of settlement had been exmodern warfare, to be accepted and endured hausted, apparently. War was a means not with stoicism, or should civilized peoples of revenge or covetousness; it was an instrudeclare that any nation which follows these ment of judgment. That is why the civilized ways has placed itself beyond the pale of man speaks of the “ arbitrament” of war. civilization ?

Massacre, torture, and terror help to attain There are certain practices which no civil- the savage's object-extermination. But ized nation would countenance in warfare. massacre, torture, and terror have no real All are agreed on that. The savage uses effect upon the civilized man's object. It is poisoned arrows; the civilized man does not for this reason that civilized warfare has been use poisoned bullets. The savage creeps up hedged about by rules. Some of these rules by stealth upon a village and massacres every have been made by agreements between the one, men, women, and children, and tor- nations in times of peace. Others have tures prisoners. The civilized man does not been drafted voluntarily as concrete expresmake indiscriminate massacre his object nor sions of a general principle. does he countenance torture, but, on the It is in response to this universal feeling contrary, he treats the wounded of the with regard to the objects and methods of enemy as he treats the wounded of his own civilized warfare that general practices and forces. To defend any method of killing or rules have been formulated concerning bomdestruction on the ground that war is war is bardments. Classical expressions of this like defending any commercial practice on aspect of the ethics of war are the rules that the ground that business is business. Savage were issued by the War Department of the warfare is different from civilized warfare, United States on April 24, 1863, under the and the nation that wishes to be regarded as approval of President Lincoln.

We quote civilized must observe those rules and prac- from some of these rules : tices and principles with which civilized na- “ As martial law is executed by military tions have hedged war about.

force, it is incumbent upon those who adminThe reason why there is a difference be- ister it to be strictly guided by the principles tween the warfare of the savage and the war- of justice, honor, and humanity—virtues fare of the civilized man is that there is a adorning a soldier even more than other difference between the object of the savage men, for the very reason that he possesses and the object of the civilized man in war. the power of his arms against the unarmed." The savage tribe that makes war upon its “ The law of war does not only disclaim neighbors does so out of one of two motives all cruelty and bad faith concerning engage-either the motive of covetousness to ac- ments concluded with the enemy during the quire its neighbor's land and possessions to war, but also the breaking of stipulations the exclusion of its neighbors, or the motive solemnly contracted by the belligerents in of revenge. In either case the purpose of time of peace, and avowedly intended to such a savage tribe is to exterminate the remain in force in case of war between the neighboring tribe as a tribe. For that reason contracting powers." these savages wish to kill the children be- “ Military necessity admits of all direct cause those children may grow up to be destruction of life or limb of armed enemies, warriors; they wish to kill the women because and of other persons whose destruction is incidentally unavoidable in the armed contest fensible both from the military and from the of the war.”

moral point of view. "Military necessity does not admit of From the military point of view it is indecruelty—that is, the infliction of suffering for fensible because, as experience has shown, it the sake of suffering or for revenge, nor of is ineffectual and does not lessen the enemy's maiming or wounding except in fight, nor of fighting strength. Bombs cannot be—or at torture to extort confessions.”

least have not been—dropped accurately " Commanders, whenever admissible, in- enough to hit a legitimate object of attack. form the enemy of their intention to bom- If it were possible to strike with a fair degree bard a place, so that the non-combatants, and of certainty a factory of arms inside a city, or especially the women and children, may be a dry-dock, or a depot of ammunition, or any removed before the bombardment com- building or structure whatever used for milimences. But it is no infraction of the com- tary purposes, the dropping of explosives mon law of war to omit thus to inform the into a city would be a legitimate war measure; enemy. Surprise may be a necessity.” but, so far as we know, not a single bomb

“In modern regular wars of the Europeans, dropped into Antwerp or Paris has hit an and their descendants in other portions of object that was desirable, from a military the globe, protection of the inoffensive citi- point of view, to destroy, or, in the process zen of the hostile country is the rule ; priva- of killing innocent non-combatants and teartion and disturbance of private relations are ing to pieces houses of private individuals, the exceptions."

has affected in the slightest degree the result “ Retaliation will therefore never be re- of the struggle in general or in any particusorted to as a measure of mere revenge, but lar field. only as a means of protective retribution, From the moral point of view the bomand, moreover, cautiously and unavoidably; bardment of a city as a city from the sky, that is to say, retaliation shall only be re- like the bombardment of a city as a city from sorted to after careful inquiry into the real land or sea, is indefensible when it does not occurrence, and the character of the misdeeds greatly weaken the enemy's fighting power. that may demand retribution.”

The destruction of a fortified city's defenses “Unjust or inconsiderate retaliation re- may involve incidentally great injury to the moves the belligerents farther and farther city. That cannot be helped ; but that is a from the mitigating rules of regular war, and very different thing from bumb-dropping that by rapid steps leads them nearer to the inter- merely terrorizes a non-combatant population necine wars of savages.'*

without giving the attacking force any mili« Classical works of art, libraries, scientific tary advantage, or that wreaks destruction collections, or precious instruments, such as merely for the purpose of satisfying the spirit astronomical telescopes, as well as hospitals, of animosity and revenge. All the Zeppelins must be secured against all avoidable injuiy, in Germany might have dropped bombs into even when they are contained in fortified Antwerp for a month without taking the city places whilst besieged or bombarded.” or gaining any great military advantage.

“ The besieging belligerent has sometimes The city was taken as a result of the destrucrequested the besieged to designate the build- tion of the forts by big siege guns. Such ings containing collections of works of art, bombardment was legitimate, even if inciscientific museums, astronomical observa- dentally it did injure the city and kill nontories, or precious libraries, so that their de- combatants. The Zeppelin bombardment struction may be avoided as much as possible.” was illegitimate, because it spread death and

Such rules as these express not merely terror among the non-fighting population American practice, but the practice of all without in any way affecting the struggle for civilized peoples. Of course these particular the possession of the city. This principle is rules were drafted before there was any applicable to any case of aerial bombardment. thought of dirigible balloons or aeroplanes, Although the framework of a fighting air-ship but the principles they enunciate apply to and the roof of its shed were seriously dambombardment from the sky as well as bom- aged by a bomb dropped from an English bardment from the earth.

aeroplane over Düsseldorf, flying-machine The dropping of bombs, more or less at bomb-dropping is not so accurate at present random, into cities, with or without previous that the military advantages in dropping bombs warning, seems to us, therefore, clearly inde- over inhabited cities justify the incidental injury to non-combatants, and of course the in warfare, for the flying-machine and the deliberate attempt to injure non-combatants dirigible balloon can be legitimately used for is not justifiable either from a military or a military purposes. moral point of view.

They can be used (and have been by the Are the Germans, then, to be deprived of French) in dropping showers of steel arrows the fruits of their labor in developing the on bodies of troops. flying-machines as instruments of warfare? They can be used (though thus far they

In the first place, the Germans cannot be have not been used very successfully) in dropsaid to have developed any form of air-ship or ping bombs over hostile troops, trenches, flying-machine except that particular form of batteries, dock-yards, hangars, arsenals, etc. dirigible balloon known as the Zeppelin. They can be used in connection with subThey did not invent the heavier-than-air- marines, and particularly in detecting the machine in any of its forms, nor were they submarines of the enemy. pre-eminent in the development of it as an They can be, and have been, used very engine of war. It was invented by Langley effectively in guiding artillery fire by dropand the Wrights-Americans—and in the art ping over hostile troops or batteries a burnof using it France and the United States took ing object that leaves behind it a line or trail the lead. We were the first to make an of smoke, thus giving the location and range. aeroplane that could be launched from the Most usefully and effectively of all, flyingdeck of a naval vessel, and that could safely machines of various types, but principally alight on and rise from the surface of the aeroplanes, have been legitimately used in water. In the technique of flying—that is, air-scouting and signaling.

air-scouting and signaling. In this respect the art of managing an aeroplane in all con- they have revolutionized modern warfare. ditions of weather—French aviators may They have practically eliminated all strategic fairly be said to have led the world. It was combinations and concentrations that depend the French, too, who devised and used one for their success on secrecy.

The saying of the most efficient of motor engines for that the greatest general is he who can guess aeroplanes-namely, the Gnome. It was most successfully what an opponent is doing a Brazilian, Santos Dumont, who first be- on the other side of a hill is scarcely applicacame most prominent in developing and ble now; for no general needs to guess. He controlling the dirigible balloon; and his gets his information from his air scouts. most noteworthy experiments were made in Formerly a general with forces inferior in France. The most effective type of dirigible numbers to those of the enemy could win balloon has, however, been the German by unexpectedly concentrating the greater Zeppelin, but the dirigible balloon has not part of his forces upon a small part of the been nearly so useful so far in the war as the enemy's. The aeroplane has practically aeroplane, on either side. On the side of the made it impossible for any general to do this, Allies alone, aeroplanes, since the war began, since the enemy's air scouts can discover this are said to have flown in the aggregate plan of concentration and report it. Neither eighty-three thousand miles, while the Zep- side can now make a move unobserved. Inpelins have probably not made a tenth of deed, the latest grand maneuvers in England that mileage. Most of the air-scouting—that were abandoned as futile, because neither of is, the reconnaissance work has been done the two contending armies could get a strateby the aeroplane, not by the Zeppelin. The

The gic advantage over the other. In this respect, Germans, therefore, cannot rightly claim therefore, both the aeroplane and the dirigipriority or pre-eminence in military aviation. ble are not only legitimate instruments of They have developed the best bomb-dropping war, but invaluable. If the Germans can machine, which has terrorized non-combatants develop the Zeppelin so that it will outin cities; but, so far as we know, it has not maneuver and out-distance the enemy's diriyet destroyed a single war-ship, or dock-yard, gible or aeroplane, they will reap the fruits or gun plant, or arsenal, or even an ammuni- of their efforts without descending into the tion train or field battery.

practices of the savage. In the second place, if the German nation The civilized soldier is as brave and daring denied itself as a civilized nation the right to and aggressive as any savage has ever been ; drop bombs upon the civilian population of but he fights only against armed foes, and an enemy's city, it would not be deprived of he uses only those methods that can be justithe legitimate use of aeroplanes and air-ships fied by military purposes. The country that

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