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after a mob gathered in front of the English Paris did not progress as rapidly as was Embassy and smashed the windows. About expected. One German gentleman of very midnight appeared an extra announcing that highstrung temperament told me that he England had declared war against Germany. could not sleep from the time the war began
For several days thereafter it was danger- until after the so-called victory of Liège, ous to speak English on the streets. Most when he slept peacefully in the assurance of the Americans appeared with American that the German soldiers would win. fags in their buttonholes in order to avoid One indication of the Germans' hostility being taken for English. The Spionenjagd, to foreigners growing out of their feeling or hunt for spies, which had been carried on that Germany was attacked unjustly by other eagerly and enthusiastically against the Rus- countries was seen in the Spionenjagd, which sians and French, was now turned against would have been ridiculous if it had not been the English as well. Russian and French so serious. The military authorities and the names and signs had been disappearing for press asked the people to be on the looksome days, and now the English also began out for spies. This request had its effect to go. Numerous storekeepers were to be far beyond all expectations. For some days seen scraping Russian, French, and English every German in Berlin seemed on the hunt signs from their windows. The Café Boncourt for spies. Numerous Russians, French, and became the Kurfürstendam Kaffeehaus. The English who were so unfortunate as to be Piccadilly Café became the Vaterland Kaffee- in Berlin and unable to leave were seized by haus. In the window of a clothing store mobs, and would in many cases have been which I passed every day there appeared a seriously injured if it had not been for the sign from the proprietor stating that, even quick action of the police. Also many other though he had sold English clothing for foreigners as well, among them a number of twenty-four years, he was a patriotic German Americans, had similar experiences. And and had two sons in the army and would sell even quite a number of Germans, among no more English clothing. In the window them officers and soldiers, were suspected. of a store in which American typewriters One day on the Jägerstrasse I saw an enorwere sold appeared a sign that only machines mous crowd containing thousands of perof American make were sold, and only Ger- sons gather around some soldiers whom mans were in the enıploy of the firm. Even somebody had suspected. It was not until the menu began to change its appearance, the police could make their way through the and purely German expressions took the crowd and rescue the soldiers that the exciteplace of the foreign.
ment subsided. On another occasion I was On Wednesday, August 5, not only the passing by a railway station late in the evening English Ambassador but the Belgian diplo- when some one raised the cry that spies were matic representative as well left Berlin, and to be found in a certain house. A large on Thursday it was announced that Belgium crowd gathered immediately, and it was not had declared war against Germany. This until visit was made to a neighboring police was, of course, due to the German invasion station, where apparently the police officers of Belgium which had now taken place. It succeeded in persuading the crowd to desist seemed to be fully expected and therefore from the hunt, that the crowd dispersed. I was apparently little noticed by the public. heard one German in this crowd, more self
On the evening of Friday came the report, controlled than the rest, urging those around officially confirmed, that the city and forts of him to quiet themselves, and saying that it Liège were taken. This report caused great was not like the Germans to act in this
way. jubilation and gave rise to the feeling that And it was indeed true that on many occathere was little in the way of the march to sions during these days the traditional phlegParis. It was not until after I left Germany matic Teutonic temperament seemed to disthat I learned the truth about Liège. It is appear and to be replaced temporarily by the very doubtful if the General Staff made any more excitable Latin temperament. statements with regard to the fighting at However, the police seemed to do their duty Liège which were not strictly accurate. But well, and prevented serious injury on most if the reports which reached the public were of not all occasions. The military authorities, such a nature as to rouse a degree of con- and the press also, probably realizing that their fidence which must have led to much dis- request to the people had had too great an appointment later on when the march to effect, issued warnings that the hunt for spies be not carried on so ardently and that order was touching the life of the people very sei in general be kept more carefully. Further- ously. more, the orderliness which is drilled into the The mobilization of the German army wi Germans doubtless asserted itself and assisted indeed a remarkable sight. The Gener greatly in quelling the excitement.
Staff, for obvious reasons, gave out no figuri Within a day or two after the mobilization with regard to the number of men in ti began many soldiers were marching through field. But it was said that by the end of th the streets on their way to the war. There six days of mobilizing there were over thre were regiments of infantry, troops of cavalry, million men along the French and Belgia batteries of artillery, and long lines of forage, borders and a lesser number along the Ru ammunition, and hospital wagons. At first sian border. And yet these millions of me these soldiers were greeted with loud cheers, were equipped and moved to the front wil and both soldiers and spectators joined in an orderliness and precision which indicate singing “ Die Wacht am Rhein,” “ Deutsch- long and careful preparation. land über Alles," and · Unser Kaiser," and The days of mobilizing ended on Frida in crying out " Auf wiedersehen!" " Nach August 7, though troops will, of course, coi Paris !” and “ Nach Petersburg." But as tinue to move until the end of the war. the days passed the troops were watched Saturday a few passenger trains began 1 more and more in silence. This was doubt- run on a more or less regular but very slo less due in part to the fact that the sight had schedule. This was a great relief to man become a wonted one. But it was probably Americans and other foreigners who wei also due in part to the fact that the war was anxious to leave Germany, becoming a very grave and living reality which Berlin, August 11.
THE ENGLISH POINT OF VIEW
E have seen nowhere a better state
ment of Great Britain's attitude in W the European crisis than that made in the following editorial from the London " Spectator" of August 8. It may well be that what our fellow-citizens of German ancestry call America's lack of sympathy with Germany is due to a subconscious fear of the world danger which would result from the supremacy of Germany's view of war as defined by the " Spectator :"
The great war has come. “Why has it come ?" is the bewildered question of all English men and women. How does it happen that within a week Germany and Austria-Hungary are at war with France, with Russia, with Britain, with Servia, with Belgium, and that it is exceedingly likely that to the list will have to be added Holland, Switzerland, and Denmark, and, later, Italy, Rumania, and Greece? People have begun to realize pretty generally that Germany brought on the war, or, at any rate, when Austria-Hungary had brought it on by what appeared to be her rash act, did not stop it, as undoubtedly she could have stopped it had she chosen. Why, instead of calming down the Austrians, and claiming our aid, which we
were only too eager to give, in calming dow Russia and France, did Germany never on show any real anxiety to get Europe out of s bad a business ? Putting the most favorabl construction that we possibly can upon th behavior of the German Government, tha Government showed from the beginning complete cynicism as to the result. Th very most that can be said in Germany favor is that she exhibited at first a certai diplomatic respectability in regard to th stages by which the world slid into wai “ But," it will be said, “your suggestion tha Germany made the war is incomprehensibk and must remain so unless you can also sug gest some explanation for her action. Wha was her object ? Why did she play the pal she has played ?"
Our answer is one which we feel bound t give because we believe it, even though may seem to a section of our readers unjus to Germany. We believe Germany mad the war, and made it because she feared tha unless war came now she might have to giv up her strongest national aspiration--th aspiration to be a great world Power, dom nant in Europe, with vast dependencie abroad, and able to command the sea, or a any rate to be possessed of naval strengt
greater than that of every other Power but never!"_impulses which are the most freBritain, with the certain prospect of equaling quent cause of war. War is so terrible a Britain in the future, and of developing thing, the risks are so awful, and so pessieventually into the predominant naval State. mistic are most statesmen as to the possibiliThat is Germany's aspiration, that is what ties of maintaining peace, that those of them she thinks it worth while to have set the who have been trained in the school of world in flames to get. For, remember, she Realpolitik would hold it a crime not to strike does not think, as most people here do, that whenever they were convinced that their she is running too terrible a risk to make such nation had a preponderance of power. To conduct sound. Rightly or wrongly, Ger- lose the golden opportunity seems in their many believes she has the strength, if she eyes as wrong as suicide seems to the indiacts at the proper moment, and if her people vidual. are ready and willing, as doubtless they are, If that is the true view, Germany could to make the necessary sacrifices to fulfill her easily find an excuse for war, much as she dream of world-power.
found it in 1866 and in 1870, by making But why did she think the present so use of Austria-Hungary's perennial quarrel favorable a moment? We believe some with Servia. What seems to encourage the feeling-we will not call it panic, because view that the attack upon Servia was intended that suggests cowardice, and the Germans to produce a world-wide rather than a local are a very gallant race—seized her as to the effect is, we think, the curious fact that magnificence of the opportunity offered by Austria-Hungary has made so little progress the existing state of Europe. She thought in the Servian war. Considering her great the situation was going to develop unfavor- military strength at the locus in quo, and the ably in the future, and that she, in fact, was fact that the best part of her army is always now on the crest of the wave. What made ready for instant action in Bosnia and Herzeher think this? In the first place, and we govina and on the Danubian frontier, it is believe that this has all along played an almost incredible that Austria-Hungary should enormously important part, there was the not yet have got into Servian territory. If, opening of the Kiel Canal. A month ago however, her object as the ally of Germany that canal was finished. There has always was to bring on a European war rather been an undercurrent of feeling in Germany than to punish Servia, she would very that the moment the canal was made deep naturally not wish to commit her troops to enough and wide enough to take Germany's any big adventure in Servia. Having lighted war fleet she would have gained an incalcula- the torch there, they would be wanted for ble advantage both as regards Russia and as far more serious work elsewhere. All, then, regards Britain. People here may be inclined that would be required in Servia would be to think this is an exaggeration, but, at any just the frontier guards necessary to prevent rate, we are sure that the Germans believe serious Servian raiding in Bosnia and Herzethey have an enormous advantage in the govina. canal. The next consideration was the belief We fully admit that, put out in cold blood, that England was on the verge of civil the view we have given of the origin of the war, and therefore that her neutrality was war sounds incredible. Our defense of it is almost certainly assured. Again, there was that at least it does supply the only explanathe belief, encouraged by the disclosures in tion that has yet been suggested, except that the French Senate, that France was at that of pure panic, which will meet the facts. moment very badly prepared for war. Lastly, Indeed, the panic suggestion is really the there was the very potent impression that same as our suggestion, only expressed in Russia was every day getting stronger, and somewhat different terms, and not carried so that if Germany waited for another three far. The German Government is not a years the advantages just named might be Government which acts from panic in the obliterated by vast increases in the Russian true sense. It acts from calculation, though, armaments, and especially in the develop- of course, in that calculation the dread of ment of her strategic railways. To put the consequences plays its part. And here let thing in another way, we believe that the us say that in writing as we have done about real cause of the war was that Germany was Germany we do not wish to make any sanctiseized by one of those impulses which are monious accusations of diabolical wickedness prompted by the thought of "Now or special criminality. In such matters, though it is, we confess, very difficult to judge justly, we must judge people by their own standard and not by ours; and we are bound to admit that Germany can stand that test. We do not believe that the great bulk of the German people-we are not now speaking of Germans affected by English thought, or anxious to assume a position which will find sympathizers in England -would really regard our view as unfair.
Germany thinks that she has got a great mission. She does not think war a crime, though of course she thinks it a misfortune, and, still further, she thinks of it as an instrument of policy, and not merely as the last resort in a conflict of wills. Therefore it does not seem to her unnatural, or mad, or wicked to make war on the lines we have described. We are not going to be judges in our own cause by talking about special acts of wickedness. We do, however, say that a Power which holds the views of war which we have ascribed, and as we believe quite properly ascribed, to Germany, is a terrible danger to the world. It may be that
Providence intends the German idea of war to prevail and German aspirations to be fulfilled. We do not think it is so, but if it is then so it will be. Meanwhile it is our duty to use every effort and every weapon at our disposal to confute the German view and save the freedom of Europe and of the world. We are not going to become a vassal State of Germany, even if that position might still secure for a generation or so our wealth and nominal independence, without a hard struggle. We may warn the Germans that we shall fight as we have never fought before in our history, and that if they think, as there
some indications that they do, that when we are tired of the war we may be induced to abandon our allies and make peace for ourselves, they are utterly mistaken. Whatever happens, we shall not act thus. Having begun the war, we shall fight it through till we are either victors or else have been destroyed as a nation. If we perish, it will be with the feeling that we have fallen with our honor and our good faith intact.
WHAT READERS OF THE OUTLOOK
THINK OF THE WAR The Outlook has received a great many letters from its readers containing expressions of opinion on the causes and probable outcome of the war in Europe, some incidentally approving and others finding fault with The Outlook's editorial interpretation of the situation. Obviously it would be impossible to publish all of these, but below are extracts from some of the more interesting letters. -THE EDITORS. The sympathy expressed for the German
Do you suppose for one moment people and the criticism against their Govern- that a Government like that of Germany, ment is entirely inconsistent with the thought having built up a strong and prosperous of the German nation : the people and their nation, would not know better than attempt Government are one in this great fight against to make Belgium and Holland Germanic Slavism and barbarism. There is absolutely provinces and reduce Italy, Spain, Portugal, no question in my mind but that Germany is France, and England to subordinate posiwaging the fight single-handed for the entire tions ? How long could such an experiment civilized world against the aggression of the last? Please also note that the German Russian horde. HENRY C. SCHEER. Emperor and his Government have a united Glen Ridge, New Jersey.
Germany following them into this war,
including the four million Socialists, which is You entirely miss the point. It is a
a sure sign of the general belief that the war question of Teutonic supremacy, synonymous from the German point of view is a just with enlightenment, or Muscovite rule, equiv
HERMAN P. ROEPER. alent to oppression ; and it is the Muscovite
Reading, Pennsylvania. rule England and France are endeavoring to fasten on Europe by their assistance. . .
If I am correctly informed, this war Cleveland, Ohio.
A. J. GAEHR. is the greatest crime of the ages ; its lesson
to the twentieth century is to show humanity I wish to express warmest appreciation of the stupendous stupidity of one hundred your editorial on “ The War Against Popular millions of intelligent beings putting their Rights.” It sets forth the real gist of the war lives and that of their families in the hands in a most able and illuminating manner. The and at the disposal of two men of question- issue is between militarism and civilianism. able sanity to be used with as little considera- Should Germany win a triumphant victory, tion as a Kansas farmer gives to his grass- the whole world in due time will be turned hoppers. . . . What became of the sons of into a military camp.
Her writers have reGerman patriots that ran from Europe in vealed only too plainly in what contempt she 1848 to escape such conditions as now exist ? holds the Monroe Doctrine. Let her get the Glens Falls, New York.
L. P. JUVET. mastery of the seas, and America will be
driven to double her navy. It has been the What will be the effect? It will English navy more than ours that has comprobably be that England and Germany, pelled outward respect for that Doctrine. If madly believing that each is the other's any scouts the idea, let him observe how worst enemy, will very soon jump at each Germany trampled every principle of justice other's throats with a degree of bitterness
under foot and robbed China of one of her unparalleled, leaving perhaps other foes at finest harbors—Tsingtau—with much terrirest in order to grapple with each other in tory besides—one of the most high-handed this horrifying struggle. Each combatant political crimes that history records. is strong and may inflict on the other
St. Paul, Minnesota.
JAMES WALLACE. wounds that will take a long time to heal. Even the victor may be a loser. The Slav
Why should England have the and Oriental will rejoice in the fall of the supremacy of the sea ?
Should it not be a mighty. It is all a tremendous blunder, a highway where our ships or German ships biunder in the statesmanship of both coun- or any other ships can go unmolested ? In tries. The only possible alliance which can fact, I fear the time will come when we, too, guarantee the peace of Europe is one between like Germany, will find that to protect our England and Germany, hitherto the greatest commerce we will have to fight, because powers on sea and land respectively. Will England's present attitude is doubtless due they be able to see this after.the fight? It to her feeling that Germany is crowding her is much to be hoped they will, and that they in the markets of the world. When she finds may have strength enough left to command that we are crowding her, she will be ready the other nations to be at peace.
to combine with Jap or Turk against us. Ithaca, New York. ALBERT B. FAUST.
I have just read your statement “ The War Against Popular Rights," and take the liberty to say that I am pained and grieved at the misstatement of the matters and affairs in Europe. The author of the statement cannot have knowledge of history, or he deliberately distorts to create sympathy.
" Austria wanted Servia,” he says, when he should have known that Servian independence was obtained mainly by the good will of Austria ; that the continued agitation and inciting to revolts and insurrection, emanating from the secure retreat in Servia, led to the assassination in Bosnia by a Servian, with Servian arms from the State armory, and that the denial of the demand of Austria to have a representative at the trial of the conspirators against peace and order in Austria-Hungary caused the declara
H. A. Burzow. Watseka, Illinois
I have just read the August 15 number of The Outlook, and was greatly interested in your article on “ The War Against Popular Rights." Your views on the European war are the views of ninety-five per cent of the people of East Tennessee who appreciate the brave struggle of little Servia against her infinitely selfish and egotistical antagonist, Austria, and heartily sympathize with the small but liberty-loving nations south of the Danube. ... The almost inevitable result of this war will be the downfall of the Hohenzollern dynasty amidst the lamentations and execrations of the mothers left childless, the wives left husbandless, the children left fatherless, and a people humiliated, crushed, and defeated.
L. C. Ford. Harrogate, Tennessee.
tion of war.
I wish to commend very highly the spirit of your war editorials in your issue of August