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Europe there are always porters.” The customs officials marked the luggage without opening it, and we were put by the guard into a first-class compartment of a train which pulled out in a minute or two. Two Englishmen were in the compartment, and read the latest papers intently. We slept most of the way to London, where we arrived at 12:15.
and letters of credit. Our Paris experiences had not been reassuring in that respect.
All these possibilities went through our anxious and tired minds over and over again. We reached Boulogne at a little after seven, and there were porters to carry our luggage. We secured seats on the upper deck and went at once to the bar, where we changed our French to English money, and bought a ham sandwich, a banana, and a glass of ale. The sea was very smooth, the sky cloudy, and rain fell at intervals, but after the heat and dust of the afternoon no one seemed to mind. Indeed, the most noticeable feature of the crossing was the change in the mood of the passengers.
The strain seemed to have broken.
The feeling of comradeship which our common plight gives is noticeable everywhere. In the hotel we are all chatting about in the parlor and writing-room like old friends, and compare experiences with other Americans on the tops of buses. There is a good-natured acceptance of the privations necessitated by our condition ; we all try to cut down our expenditure to the absolute necessities. The same man who laughingly remarked, “I had tea at the Savoy once ; I like to think of it!" decided not to use a clean handkerchief to brush the rain off his coat. London, August 6.
In Folkestone there were few porters and we carried our suit-cases ourselves. All the hand luggage, by the way, was very heavy, as Americans always have taken, as the law of the Persians, the assurance that " in
THE GERMANS AND THE WAR
I–THE PEOPLE AND THE KRIEGSPARTEI
BY FREDERIC WILLIAM WILE
For over seven years Mr. Wile, the author of this article, has been the chief correspondent of the London “ Daily Mail” in Germany, and the Berlin correspondent of the New York “ Times" and the Chicago " Tribune."
Tribune." From King Oscar II of Sweden and Norway he had before that time secured the first interview ever granted by a European monarch to an American newspaper man. His acquaintance with German affairs is intimate. He is the author of " The Men Around the Kaiser," an interesting account of some of the makers of modern Germany. At the outbreak of the present war Mr. Wile had a narrow escape from Berlin. Although an American, and well known at the hotel where he was temporarily staying, he was denounced as an English spy, roughly handled, taken to the Police Presidency, and was in peril of being shot, as Russians and French had been. He was released only upon the summary action of the American Ambassador, Mr. Gerard, and found safe exit from Germany only through the great courtesy of the British Ambassador, who permitted him to leave on the train on which he himself departed under safe conduct. -THE EDITORS.
HERE are sixty-six million Germans. wanted war but got it. The voice of the
Sixty-five million of them did not sixty-five million was as one crying in the want war.
The other million are wilderness. It has always been so in Prusthe War Party. That their influence immeas- sianized, militarized Germany. urably outruns their numerical strength is No list of members of the War Party has evident from the fact that they not only ever been published. It has no official existence.
But who compose it and what it has harsh, let me deal forthwith with the sixtystood for are an open book. The Kaiser five mute, meek millions of the Fatherland would deny the most vehemently of all that who craved for peace. For years they have he is affiliated with the Kriegspartei. Unfor- been excoriated by the War Party as tunately, his speeches are against him. He craven, corroding influence, destitute of pahas talked too much and too often of his triotism, ignorant of “the real foundations of martial ambitions, has set the world too fre- German greatness," an element which was quently by the ears with his blatant apothe- retarding the Fatherland in the march to oses of Mars and Neptune, to merit the her predestined goal, attainable only by diadem of a peace prince. William II's the employment of siege guns and dreadebullient son and heir, the Crown Prince, is noughts. an avowed adherent, almost the arch-priest, These mute and meek millions, I say, did of the War Party.
His fellow-members are, not want war. They wanted peace and a first of all, the corps of officers of the continuance of the bounding prosperity which German army, a body of 40,000 or 50,000 had brought Germany to the pinnacle of ecospurred and epauleted martinets, who have nomic might. They wanted their army and never ceased to pray for war. These gentle navy to be that which the Kaiser had granmen of the goose-step, through their para- diloquently boasted they were, and only that mount position in German society, have in- -bulwarks of peace, not engines of war. fected the entire so-called upper class with These were the sentiments of the German their belligerent views. The War Party, public up to the very hour war descended therefore, includes German uppertendom. upon their inoffensive heads. They cared It embraces the intellectuals of the Em- not a fig for Sarajevo beyond the wave of pire-the professorial element at the great human sympathy and horror which wanton universities, the Delbruecks, the Wagners, murder always produces. They believed, the Schmollers, the Harnacks, and all the many of them, that the question as to who other super-patriots who tread in the path should prevail in Europe, German or Slav, blazed by Treitschke, the prophet of this, must some day find a sanguinary solution ; Germany's " final reckoning” with Europe. but they did not look upon the assassination
Following idolatrously in the trail of the of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his conpolitical professors are the undergraduates of sort as the occasion for forcing the solution. the 'varsities, or at least that overwhelming It was only when the Austrian demands on majority affiliated with the Corps, Verbindun- blood-stained Servia brought Armageddon ger, or Burschenschaften, the equivalent of measurably near-made it, as we have seen, our own fraternities. It was these youthful in fact, inevitable—that German public opinspirits who have had the sacredness of war ion, shrewdly molded, suddenly, reluctantly, drilled into their souls in classroom, who ran came to the conclusion that the conflict shrieking “ Krieg! Krieg !" through Unter between German and Slav might as well be den Linden in the feverish nights preceding fought out in this year of grace. the actual launching of the Kaiser's thunder- I make bold to proclaim that the Germans bolts on the East and West. In the War went into this bloody business with a heavy Party, too, are the Prussian Junker in his thou heart. I heard their reservists singing " Die sands, the agrarian land barons of Pomera- Wacht am Rhein " as they began their march nia, East Elbia, Brandenburg, and Silesia- to death and glory from city, town, and the Germans who look upon themselves as hamlet. I saw flaxen-haired Prussian maidthe sait of the Teuton earth, the props of ens tossing roses to guards and Uhlans as divine right, and the monopolists of power they started for the front, from which thouand position in modern Germany. And, last sands of them will never return. but noisiest, are the arm-chair warriors of the where and always I found bearing down the Fatherland, the retired generals and admirals spirit of the German, though only infrequently and colonels and naval captains whose very expressed by word of mouth, the sentiment names are a programme and a menace- that the war was unnecessary, cruel, unintelBernhardi, Breusing, Reventlow, Frobenius, ligible, that it ought not to have been. Keim of the Army League, von Koester of That was in the dread hours immediately the Navy League, and hundreds less noto- preceding the actual outbreak of hostilities rious.
with Russia, France, and England. I mean If I thus far seem radical in expression and the last days of July, when the issue of
peace and war hung trembling in the balance. the Kaiser's hand. It believed that Germany, I refer especially to the terror-stricken week surrounded and enveloped by hostile, envious of suspense in which the attitude of England rivals bent on destroying her prosperity, was remained undefined—the England " which now compelled by the iron logic of events to will make our case desperate and hopeless if gird on her terrible armor. It was persuaded she intervenes," as scores of my German that the struggle for the Empire's very existfriends, in accents of despair, said to me ence must now at last be fought and to the times without number. Meantime war came, death. Germans, the business Germans of war not only with Russia and France, which our modern acquaintance, the scientific, intelthe Germans have never feared, but war with lectual Germans of tradition, the phlegmatic, Belgium and with England, which they never beer-drinking, pipe-smoking Germans of our expected. Then came to pass a mighty fancies, are all warriors now. They will wage change in German public opinion. “ Feinde a terrible and gallant fight. They will not ringsum !” (Foes on all sides !) the battle- stack arms—let the world make no mistake cry always sure of rallying all Germans to on that score—till the last among them capathe country's standard. The spirit of Fred- ble of shouldering a rifle is incapacitated, till erick the Great, the hero of the Seven Years' the last copper pfennig capable of purchasWar against " Feinde ringsum,” fired the ing the munitions of war has vanished from Empire's soul. The time for parleying and their impoverished grasp. argument, for investigating the whys and The War Party, drunk with overweening wherefores of the case, was gone.
The self-confidence, provoked and produced this Fatherland was confronted by conditions, war, and dragged the majority of the nation not theories. Dubious as it had been into it. But there is no majority or minority about the justification for war, for arrest- now. William II is Kaiser to-day of a people ing at a blow the Brobdingnagian develop- welded by the sheer dictates of national selfment in which it found itself, it became, preservation into a nation of war makers. in less time than overnight, an inflamed, They will not go down to defeat without givunited, war-mad people. It believed implicitlying of themselves an account which will make now that the sword had been “ forced " into their victorious foes buy triumph dearly.
II-AN AMERICAN IN BERLIN
BY MAURICE PARMELEE
PROFESSOR OF SOCIOLOGY AND ECONOMICS AT THE COLLEGE OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK
ARRIVED in Berlin on July 26. On On the morning of Tuesday, July 28, there the way we passed the Imperial train appeared notices of numerous meetings of
lying upon a side-track at a junction protest against the war with Russia to be point and apparently awaiting the return of held in different parts of the city. Furtherthe Kaiser from his vacation trip in Norway. more, the papers published reports that Sir In the Tiergarten and Unter den Linden I Edward Grey, the British Minister for Foreign passed crowds made up largely of boys and Affairs, was trying to arrange a conference young men who were marching through the at London of the representatives of Gerstreets singing patriotic songs and shouting many, France, Italy, and England in order, their defiance of Servia and Russia. Until if possible, to prevent the further extension late at night the streets were thronged with
of the war. such crowds.
That evening, when I came out of a theater, The next day there was much excitement I found a cordon of police across the Friedand many demonstrations in the streets. It richstrasse, barring the way to the Unter was evident that the war fever was very den Linden to all except those who had much in the air. Much of the excitement special reasons for going there. A similar which was apparent was doubtless due to condition existed on the other streets leading more or less irresponsible persons; but, to the Linden. When I asked a policeman nevertheless, there was danger that such the reason for this, he very wisely answered excitement might precipitate a serious crisis. by shrugging his shoulders and asking how
he should know, since his business was only entrance to the palace. After a time the to obey orders. When I reached the Linden doors opened, and a stirof expectancy ran later, I found it quiet and more or less de- through the crowd. But only some palace serted, very much in contrast to its appear- officials stepped out on the balcony and ance on previous nights. It seemed to me looked down upon the crowd. Then they at first that this policing must have been stepped back, and two maids came out and done in order to check hostile demonstrations with the greatest care wiped off the railing of against other nations. But the following the balcony and the windows of the door. morning the papers reported that after the The crowd watched every movement eagerly ; meetings of protest against war some of the but when the maids had finished their work, opponents of war paraded the streets, and they stepped back, and the doors closed in some places clashed against the demon- again. One—two-three hours passed, and strators for war, which led to the action of still the crowd, regardless of its discomfort, the police. So that apparently the policing stood patiently waiting. Finally, at about was directed against the opponents of war six o'clock, the doors again opened and the rather than against its advocates.
Kaiser appeared upon the balcony. After At about half-past two on the afternoon the cheering had subsided, he read twice of Friday, July 31, I was sitting in a café at over in a loud, clear voice a short speech the corner of the Unter den Linden and the which he held in his hand. The substance Friedrichstrasse when the cry was raised of it was that he had tried to keep the peace, that the Kaiser was coming. Like every but had been deceived by the Czar, and now one else in the café, I jumped upon a chair, might God help the brave German army in and soon saw the Kaiser and the Kaiserin the fight. After bowing again to the crowd, in their automobile coming down the Linden he disappeared. in the direction of the royal palace. They It is impossible to describe adequately this were loudly acclaimed by the enormous remarkable scene in writing, or indeed in any crowd which filled the street. Behind them
way. I might say that its principal imprescame the Kronprinz and the Kronprinzessin, sion upon me was of its pathos. It was with their little son between them, who were pathetic, in the first place, because of the received with even greater enthusiasm. Then trust and confidence these people displayed followed several more of the sons of the in their Kaiser. It was evident that they Kaiser and other royal personages.
After depended upon him to decide what to do. the royal family came a procession of auto- But it was pathetic far more because it was mobiles containing high military officers and evident that they realized that their country Governmental officials. It was evident that was facing a very serious crisis, and this fact something important was about to happen awed and probably frightened them. To and that the royal family was making an ep up their courage they stimulated their appeal to the loyalty and patriotism of the patriotism by singing patriotic songs and people. The crowd, which I joined, fell in cheering the royal family. behind the royal, military, and official proces- What took place at the conference in the sion and marched to the royal palace.
royal palace that afternoon was indicated In the large square in front of the palace in part later that evening when an extra was gathered an enormous throng number- appeared stating that the German Goving many thousands. Standing there in the ernment had issued an ultimatum to the hot sun, crowded close together, and most of Russian Government, and had asked a questhem with their heads bared, they spent most tion of the French Government. of the time singing patriotic songs. Over Sunday (August 2) was the first day of and over again were sung “ Die Wacht am mobilization. The railways of the country Rhein " and " Deutschland über Alles." From passed immediately into the hands of the time to time royal and other personages came military authorities, to be used for the moveand went from the palace. When the Impe- ment of troops and other military purposes. rial Chancellor arrived, he was received with By about noon on Monday passenger trains a great ovation. The Crown Prince and had ceased to run, and during the mobilizaCrown Princess were heartily cheered when tion it was practically impossible for foreignthey left.
ers to leave Berlin, while German civilians But the crowd watched with the greatest were permitted to travel only to the extent intentness a balcony high up over the main that military needs made it possible. The
public signboards were covered with notices become more serious and more united. As from military and civil authorities. These has been indicated, a few days earlier there notices dealt with a great variety of subjects. had been many hostile demonstrations to There were schedules of military trains; an- wards Russia and France, probably carried or nouncements of places for the assembling of principally by more or less irresponsible horses; requests to the public to be on the persons. These now ceased in the main lookout for spies, and to protect bridges, Furthermore, there had been considerable tunnels, and railways; announcements that opposition to the war. This disappeared en the Imperial bank notes are legal tender and. tirely, at least so far as public expression was must be accepted at face value (gold having concerned. The press was immediately pul disappeared from circulation immediately under a rigorous censorship, which doubtles upon the outbreak of the war); decrees limit- put a stop to any attempted criticism of the ing the prices which could be put upon cer- All the parties soon expressed their tain necessities of life, etc. In fact, these support of the Government in the war. In notices pictured to a considerable extent the the vast majority of Germans, doubtless, a conditions caused by a state of war.
strong patriotic feeling was aroused by the In all probability most Germans realized belief that their country had been unjustly that if war with Russia began, this would also attacked, and that in any case it must be de mean war with France. This they seemed fended. Their interest was manifested by to regard as a natural thing because of the the huge crowds which thronged the street: relations of the two countries ever since the especially in the evening in search of news Franco-Prussian War, and because of France's The leading papers issued numerous specia membership first in the Dual Alliance and editions, many of which were distributed free then in the Triple Entente. This probably and whenever an automobile bearing one o explains why the demonstrations before the these editions appeared, there was a mad rust war were directed against Russia much more which resulted in the street becoming littered than against France. “ Nieder Russland .!" was heard much
more frequently than A very important question still remained “ Nieder Frankreich!” The Germans seemed to be answered, and that was as to what Eng to feel that the Russians had deceived them, land would do. It was known that as a and that in return for a long-continued member of the Triple Entente England migh friendship they were receiving an unmerited enter the war. At the same time there wa return. It is true that in the cries which ac- a good deal of speculation as to whether the companied the departure of troops during English love of peace would not keep her ou the following week“ Nach Paris !” was heard
of the war. On the afternoon of Monday much more frequently than “ Nach Peters- August 3, Sir Edward Grey made a speech burg!” However, this was probably due, in [already commented upon in The Outlook] ii the first place, to the fact that in the first the House of Commons, which was reporter part of the war the German military opera- in Germany the following day and was real tions have been directed against France much with great interest. This speech was receive more than against Russia, and, in the second in Germany with many denunciations of Grej place, to a reminiscence of the Franco-Prus- in particular and England in general. Thi sian War.
is to be explained in the main probably b Reports of fighting along the French the excited condition of the German public border came about as soon as the beginning It was also encouraged by reports which ha of the war with Russia. According to the
According to the already been published the day before to th German newspapers, the French were the effect that French military air-ships had flow aggressors in these conflicts.
It is as yet
over Belgium and Holland, thus violating th impossible to know with certainty who were neutrality of these countries. (So far as the first aggressors, since the other side pub- know, these reports have never been con lish contradictory reports. It is, however, firmed, and are denied in Belgium and Hol certain that the Germans made the first im- land.) During the evening of Tuesday aj portant aggressive move by going into Belgium. extra appeared, announcing that at abou At any rate, diplomatic relations with France seven in the evening the English Ambas were broken very soon, and the war was on sador had gone to the Foreign Office an with France as well as Russia.
had asked for his passports. This statemen The temper of the people now seemed to made war with England almost certain. Soo