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of newspaper men with the Government; lockout. The fact that a labor conflict could proud of the efficiency with which the Cabinet continue at a time like this seems to me one silently in a day took over the railways, and, of the most damning indictments against the with the help of a committee consisting of all prevailing industrial system. But of course the general managers of the British railway that controversy was lost in the great world lines, is now operating them as if they formed war; and I did not think of it again till I a department of the Government; proud of the started to write this. Certainly, if there are sinking of political differences in the face of labor leaders in England who are irreconcilcommon danger; and, what is most striking able, if the resignation of John Burns from Englishmen are proud of the Irish, and the the Cabinet is an indication of an anti-war Irish are proud of the Empire.

spirit in the United Kingdom, there was durThe Home Rule question is settled—at ing the first two weeks of the war no outleast so thought every Englishman with whom ward sign of it of sufficient prominence to I talked of the subject-and the settlement attract my notice, and there was no reflection of that question is due to an Irishman—the of it in the talk of the man in the street. Parliamentary leader, Mr. Redmond. When England's internal problems were forgotten he made his speech bidding the British Gov- in the presence of the common enemy. One ernment to withdraw all troops from Ireland Liberal went so far as to say that the war, if they needed them, and promising the he believed, would mean the end of the LibEmpire that the soil of Ireland would be eral party, at least as it had been known defended by Nationalists and Ulsterites to- heretofore ; because war would consume all gether, he swept away the one obstacle that the money that had been devoted to the had been standing in the way of a peaceful operation of such Liberal policies as old age settlement of the Home Rule question- pensions, land reform, and the like. On the Conservative doubt of Irish loyalty.

By that

other hand, it seemed to me that the war one speech Irish loyalty (which ought not to might well mean the strengthening of the have been questioned) was proved—and all real Liberal party, for not only had the LibEngland was ready to yield anything to Ire- eral Government shown extraordinary statesland. It is true that one man who had manship in the international crisis, but it had relatives in the North of Ireland told me he shown courage and efficiency in meeting the thought that after the war was over there national energency by the enactment and enwould be bloodshed in Ireland—as there forcement of measures of great social signifihad been bloodshed scarcely more than a cance-such as the governmental operation of week before the war started—but his was railways and governmental building of houses. the only opinion I heard on that side, and it England has been doing unprecedented was based on his conviction that among the things because the emergency is unpreceClster Protestants there were some .bigots dented. The effect of the war upon the common who would never be reconciled. On the life of the English people was pictured one other side I heard that the people of Ireland, evening in the House of Commons when I had South as well as North, were really well con- the good fortune to be present. One memtent with the present state of affairs, and ber after another rose and laid before the that the only dissatisfied element consisted of Government the needs of his constituency. politicians. Of one fact, however, there A member from a coast region told of the could be no difference of opinion, Ireland is privation of many of his constituents who with the rest of the Empire in this war. were dependent upon letting lodgings to

The one uncertain factor in Great Britain, summer visitors, and who now found their so far as I could learn, was the extreme lodgings empty. Another told of those labor element. Before war

was declared among his constituents whose livelihood there was a controversy between employers depended upon the use of horses—carters, and employees in the building trades, and milkmen, tradesmen who delivered their apparently that controversy continued in spite goods in wagons—and who now found themof war. One day, for instance, while I was selves shut off from self-support because walking along Bridge Street by the Clock their horses had been commandeered. A Tower and New Palace. Yard, thinking only ripple of amusement passed over the House of the war, I passed a young woman collect- when it was pointed out that the owner of a ing money to aid the workingmen who had single horse need not be apprehensive, as the lost their jobs through the building trades Government was taking only fifty per cent

to

of any one's property in horseflesh, and the and though we were to sail the next day, we Government would have no use for fifty per should have to be registered or we should cent of one horse. Another man who rep- not be allowed to leave the country. By resented a fishing constituency asked for the time the third officer told us that, we governmental insurance for the fishermen as were consumed with an eagerness well as for the owners of merchant vessels, have our finger prints taken. At last we especially as the fishermen provided the nation found the police station, only to be told with an important supply of food. Another that we could not be registered because member spoke on behalf of the wives and “they” had gone out “to tea.” There was families of reservists, and asked that the something reassuring about that. British Governmen', arrange some system of credit institutions seemed, after all, to be solid. We by which these dependents could draw upon were going to cross the ocean under the the reservists' pay.

British

flag; and if the police could adjourn Such is the unprecedented situation in registration of aliens in time of war because England ; and the Government is making of " afternoon tea," we decided that the Britprecedents in providing for that situation. ish fleet must still rule the wave. Yet England is not abandoning her traditions. And it proved to rule the wave. Though The Kingdom was aroused when the im- port-holes were darkened at night by dead pression was conveyed that the King, of his lights and by blankets, so that we might be own initiative, had summoned representatives able to slip by any hostile cruiser in the darkof all parties to a conference with him, and ness, and though the steamship ran out of indignation was allayed only when the Prime the usual course so that it might disappoint Minister explained that he and not the King whatever German war-ships might be lying was responsible. And nothing, not even in wait for British merchantmen on the war, interrupts afternoon tea. On Friday, Atlantic lanes, no untoward incident ocAugust 14, the day before I was to take curred. Not only British subjects, not only the steamer for New York, I read a notice American citizens, but even the German subin Liverpool that all visitors not British sub- jects coming to the United States because jects had to present themselves to be regis- they could not get to Germany, who through tered by the police. My friend and I started British magnanimity were allowed to board out to comply with the requirement. Police- this British vessel, had reason to be grateful man after policeman, in directing us to the for Britain's mastery of the sea. police station, informed us that though we

ERNEST HAMLIN ABBOTT. were Americans, citizens of a neutral country, On board the S.S. Campania, August 21.

WAR ISSUES IN RUSSIA AND THE FAR EAST

BY GEORGE KENNAN
STAFF CORRESPONDENT OF THE OUTLOOK

O

NE of the most noteworthy results have been deprived even of the limited edu

of Russia's participation in the Eu- cational facilities which they enjoyed under

ropean war, so far as her internal the pre-revolutionary régime. Scores of affairs are concerned, is the sudden and com- Jewish schools have been closed upon the plete abandonment of her so-called “ national- most frivolous pretexts ; the admission of istic” policy. Ever since the accession of Stoly- Jewish students to the universities has been pin as Premier, in 1905, the Czar and his still further restricted by the lottery system; Government have been engaged in an ills and the influence of Jewish business men in advised and short-sighted attempt to crush or the commercial world has been paralyzed by cripple the Jews and to Russianize by force an order forbidding them to participate the Finns and the Poles. Thousands of Jews actively in the management of joint-stock in all parts of the Empire have been driven companies or corporations. back into the great national ghetto known as The treatment of the Finns and the Poles the Pale of Settlement, while thousands more has been equally bad, if not worse. The former were forcibly deprived of the auton- pressure of military necessity has been reomy which they had enjoyed for nearly a moved? There is reason to hope that they century, and their officials and judges were will ; but the world would put more faith in sent to Russian prisons merely because they the Czar's pledged word if he had kept his would not disregard and disobey the Finnish promises in the past. He declared, two or constitution, which the Czar himself had three different times, that he would abolish the solemnly sworn to recognize and maintain. Siberian exile system ; but political offenders Tre Poles were not deprived of their liber- are still being sent Yakutsk, Yenis

sk, and ties, because they had no liberties ; but their the provinces of the trans-Baikal. He swore schools were taken out of their control; the in his coronation oath that he would respect use of their native language was forbidden ; and maintain the Constitution given by Alextheir economic, scientific, and educational ander II to Finland, but he broke faith when societies were suppressed; and their pride in he approved the law depriving the Finnish their national history and achievements was Diet of its constitutional rights and powers. treated as a crime. Readers of the story Finally, he solemnly promised, in the Impe" . Sacrilegious Fox Hunt,” which was pub- rial Manifesto of October 30, 1905, that he lished in The Outlook a few months ago, would give to the Russian people freedom of will doubtless remember some of the persecu- speech, freedom of the press, freedom of tons to which the unfortunate Poles were religious belief, and freedom of public assemsubjected between 1908 and 1913.

bly. Nearly ten years have passed since In short, under the Stolypin régime and that time, but Governmental oppression still that of his successor, the Jews, the Finns, continues, and the nation has even less freeand the Poles were given over to the tender dom, in many respects, than it had under mercies of the Nationalists, the Double- Alexander II. The war, it is true, may result Headed Eagles, and the Black Hundreds, in the emancipation of the Finns and the whose party cry was, “ Russia for the Rus- Poles, under an international guarantee; but, sians and down with the aliens !"

in the light of past history, the promises of Suddenly, a few weeks ago, Russia became the Czar are not to be inplicitly trusted. involved in war, and under the pressure of a When he was harrying and persecuting the great peril the nationalistic policy, with its Jews, the Finns, and the Poles, he should intolerance, its aggressiveness, and its brutal have foreseen that at some future time he disregard of Jewish, Finnish, and Polish might need their good will and their help. rights, instantly went to pieces. General The actual or potential interference with Rennenkampf, a bitter reactionist and Jew- British commerce in the Far East by German hater, began to attend Jewish religious serv- cruisers from the Kaiser's naval station at ices in the synagogue at Vilna; the order Tsingtao, in Kiauchau Bay, led Japan, the prohibiting the participation of Jews in the Far Eastern ally of Great Britain, to send to management of joint-stock companies was the German Government a seven-day ultimarescinded ; and a little later it was announced tum demanding that the Far Eastern fleet of that the Czar would shortly grant to the Jews Germany disarm or withdraw at once, and all the civil and political rights enjoyed by that the German leased territory of KiauRussians of orthodox faith and pure Slavic chau be surrendered to the Japanese authoriblood. About the same time the Russianiz- ties not later than September 15, for eventing campaign against the Finns was sus- ual restoration to China. The Japanese pended; and last week the Czar issued a Government based its action on the necessity proclamation in which he announced his in- of “ removing the cause of all disturbances of tention to restore the ancient boundaries of the peace in the Far East, and safeguarding the Kingdom of Poland, and to give its in- the general interests as contemplated by the habitants complete autonomy, with the removal agreement of alliance between Japan and of all restrictions on language and religion. Great Britain.” As, by noon of August 23,

These concessions to Jews, Finns, and Poles the German Government had not uncondihave been made, of course, under pressure, tionally agreed to comply with this demand, and with a view to unifying the nation in Japan and Germany are now at war. spirit for the impending struggle with Ger- As Germany has spent twenty or thirty many and Austria. The question now is, million dollars in improving and fortifying Will the Czar's promises be kept when they her position in Kiauchau Bay, and as she has have served their purpose, and when the there a fleet of thirteen cruisers and gunboats, it is not at all likely that she will sur- weakened that they may be taken by storm render without a long struggle. Japan and without undue loss of life. Great Britain have blockaded the entrance Kiauchau Bay, with about two hundred to the Bay, and Japan has begun siege oper- square miles of circumjacent territory, was ations on land for the reduction of the for- taken from China by Germany in 1898 as tress. These operations will be carried on indemnity for the murder of two or three mainly, of course, by the Japanese, whose German missionaries. Since they acquired experiences on the Liaotung peninsula qualify it, the Germans have erected at Tsingtau a them pre-eminently for the task. The forts typical German city; have connected it with of Tsingtau, however, are said to be even the valley of the Hoangho by means of a stronger than those at Port Arthur, and if railway through the province of Shantung; they are well supplied with provisions and and have made it a naval base, as well as a ammunition they will not be easily taken. point of vantage for commercial enterprise But the Japanese are experts in sapping, in all that part of China. They have conmining, and trench-fighting, and they will not structed three extensive granite piers, and a again sacrifice fifteen or twenty thousand steel floating dock large enough to accommen, as they did at Port Arthur, in trying to modate any battle-ship now in Far Eastern take strong intrenchments by storm. They waters. The loss of this colony, naval base, will invest the German fortress; approach it and commercial outpost will perhaps be a slowly through zigzag trenches and saps ; more serious blow to Germany than the loss destroy the German fleet by accurate high- of all her possessions in Africa, while the angle fire from heavy siege guns ; shatter the capture of it will enable Japan to “ get even forts by means of mining operations and with the Power that was most active in takbombardment, and not attempt an assault in ing Port Arthur away from her after the war force until the intrenchments have been so with China.

AN AMERICAN WOMAN FLEES FROM

PARIS We have received from a reader of The Outlook-an American woman traveling in Europe-a letter giving an interesting account of her experience with the American refugees who hurried to London from Paris after the French declaration of war. We wish space permitted us to print it in full ; but the following extracts, read in connection with the account given by our staff correspondent last week, present a vivid picture of the perplexities, discomforts, and distress of mind and body which European travelers suffered after the outbreak of hostilities. The little touches of humor and sympathy disclosed in this letter are a grateful offset to the tales of horror and bloodshed which must inevitably be the chief printed product of the war.THE EDITORS.

V the afternoon, at the Bon Marché, in 84.95 francs, we were given change, of which the course of our purchasing, we were we little grasped the later value to ourselves.

asked in what shape we carried our In crippled French we tried to understand money, and when we showed a hundred-franc from the bookkeeper what the trouble was, note were told with a grave look that money was and couldn't in the least grasp any satisfacvery scarce, and that giving too much change tory answer as to why a war in Servia should to us, in silver, would be a greater evil than make Parisians hoard their gold. losing the entire sale. In other words, you From the Bon Marché we crossed the simply couldn't buy 15 francs' worth of stuff street to a chocolate shop. There, before if a 50-franc note was all you could offer in putting up our candy, they asked us if we payment. Such a difficulty is easily met by had exactly two francs to pay for it, as they the feminine mind, at a counter of hand- had no change whatever. That looked seriembroidery; and as our purchases came to We bought a paper and sat at a table

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outside a restaurant and tried to make out we ate luncheon at the hotel, so as to what and how serious the trouble was. pay for it out of our paper money, of which

our hotel bill, a little over 200 francs, took All of this alarmed us sufficiently to send us our last piece. the next morning to cash some money. It We heard on the train of some difficulty in was on the next day that the crowds besieged securing taxicabs, but ours was ready as we the banks. At Cook's the office was came out from luncheon, and, with our two crowded that we cashed money at the trunks and two suit-cases, we made our way American Express Company after waiting in to the Gare du Nord. There was a dreada long line. Paper money and one or two ful scarcity of porters, but in time we had pieces of silver were all we could get. From our trunks registered, and took a very probthe express office we went to the Consulate, able farewell of them, at the door of the lugwhere many anxious Americans were waiting gage office. their turns, and where we heard bits of their At the window where we paid the excess problems. One woman had paid for a tourist on our luggage we were offered English gold ticket to Switzerland, and back to the coast at only one-half franc for exchange. This we to sail in about two weeks' time, and couldn't were afraid to take, still fearing delay at well afford to lose the money she had paid Boulogne. for the ticket ; would it be wise for her to It was then one o'clock. We went at once go ahead with her plans ? Two nurses had to the gate from which our train was to come, having heard that there would be a leave, and until 3:30 stood waiting, with our demand for expert nursing, but were advised suit-cases beside us. It wasn't long before to return to America and give up the idea. the crowd before the gate grew; but we One woman, a widow, had a German name, were well up towards the front, and expected and wanted identification and residential no difficulty in getting seats, as they had told papers. We were planning to go to Switzer- us at the express that none would be reland, and wanted to know whether we had served. The crowd at the gate was anxious, better go at once. The Consul advised our but patient and long-enduring. The heat waiting developments in Paris. Although was great, and frequent luggage-trucks were all these people at the Consulate seemed sent through the crowd, with a consequent anxious, it was an anxiety about a future pushing on each side, during which it was some ten days or two weeks off ; the im- hard not to fall over the suit-cases beside us. mediate need of action seemed not to impress The two men who had helped us at the exany.

press office were cheering every one, and

tried to reserve compartments for their party There was an anxious time of consulta- and a number of women near them, who tion, in the midst of which our friends tele- were traveling alone. There was some chaff. phoned to say they were leaving for London One woman said : Aren't the French awful! just as early as possible, and urging us to do You can't understand a word they say, and the same. They might even go north in a they won't take their own money." motor if the trains seemed uncertain. That turned the scale of our indecision, and we There was a terrible tension on the train ; decided to get to London as soon as possible. with us it was the greatest point of strain we Money was by this time a grave problem. experienced. There was the possibility of We wanted to carry a sufficient amount of being held back at Boulogne by lack of passFrench money to safeguard a possible over- ports, by the boat not running, or by its night's delay at Boulogne. On the other being overcrowded; the crossing in a rough hand, we didn't want French paper on our sea would be frightful, and there had been hands in England. We counted out our a rumor that the lighthouses were dark ; money very carefully, and had about 400 · there was fear again that the train at Folkefrancs in paper, 70 francs' in gold, and pos- stone might be inadequate to carry so large sibly 70 more in silver. The gold was left a booking; and, lastly, London must be frightwer from that we had brought from London fully overcrowded, and we had little hope of on Tuesday.

finding any place to lay our heads. The next

day was Sunday, and we had French money, We hurried back to the hotel, and packed and no idea how much difficulty we might as rapidly as possible. Contrary to advice, have in cashing American Express checks

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