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entirely to one large hall. The whole place an affront, either fancied or real, offered by a was even more void of furniture than the member of one society to one of another. Japanese home, the room being fitted out The bridge over the serene, lotus-covered with nothing more than the usual straw mats moat surrounding the present Seventh and a few small tables to be used during Higher School is said to have been the scene study hours. The flower decorations, the of one of the fiercest of these encounters. fine wall kakemono, and the delicate wood- The members of two sha, to the number work which give the Japanese house its dig- of about fifty, on their way to the central nity and simple beauty were wanting here. fortifications of the city, elbowed each other These things belong to the woman's province, in passing over the bridge. With a true and the sha member rises at four in the d'Artagnan resentment, each youth imagined morning of the coldest winter month to prac- himself insulted. Swords were drawn. The tice his fencing and jiu-jitsu for the very fight which took place left some three or four purpose of showing that there is nothing of mortally wounded. The whole affair was supthe feminine about him.

pressed only when a detachment of men-atOur little party was joined by two older arms from the castle engaged in the affray to lads, whom I afterwards found to be in au- cool the too fierce ardor of the youngsters' thority on that particular afternoon. The spirit. control of the society is in the hands of these With the Restoration the raison d'être of elder members, who act as coaches in the this old institution disappeared. Feudal prinathletics and tutors in the educational work. ciples have largely vanished, and the sha These youths are in turn responsible to the lives to-day chiefly in its traditions. "scout master," as he would be called in As evidenced in these traditions, the modAmerica or England, one of the Samurai of ern sha is a most picturesque institution. the district. These head men are often re- Four times each year the organizations hold tired army officers of very worthy position, special ceremonies to perpetuate the memory and spend much of their time with the sha, of their heroes and to instill a respect for the giving to it that spirit which plays so large a noble and brave. That two of these four part in its life. The superintendent of the

The superintendent of the evenings should be given over to recalling society ranked as a general of Manchurian past acts whose merit is their fierce adherforces during the late war.

ence to a primitive sense of revenge will It is impossible to give any definite date perhaps surprise the Western reader. for the origin of these societies. It seems On the 23d of June the lads journey on foot probable, however, that these sha, or Boy to a little hamlet some twenty-five miles from Scouts of Feudal Japan, as I prefer to think Kagoshima, where there is a shrine dediof them, first came into prominence at the cated to one of their old feudal lords. Here close of the sixteenth century, when Japan they camp out overnight in the inclosure of was warring with Korea. These campaigns the shrine, ready at the first gray of dawn drained Satsuma of her fighting class; the to perform their sacred dance before the fathers and elder brothers going to the wars manes ; this completed, a general pellmell left the young blood of the province under Marathon ráce takes place back to a second the tutelage of the women and old men. shrine within the precincts of the city. With Fearing a weakness in the youths thus left the rivalry which still exists between the to feminine care and indulgence, Niiro societies the affair becomes serious, the conTadamo, the Sir Philip Sidney of Satsuma testants frequently dropping from exhaustion knighthood, organized, or, perhaps better, along the route. developed, societies in the different parts But the 14th of September witnesses of the city for the training of the Samurai the greatest of the sha festivals. The sons.

habitual evening repose of the city is banAs time went on, each society in the gen- ished by the alternating high and low notes eral organization became a distinct unit suffi- of a martial chant as the Boy Scouts of cient unto itself. A spirit of exclusiveness Feudal Japan march on their yearly pilgrimgrew up which would make the rivalry of age to a shrine twenty miles inland. present-day college fraternities seem puerile. All through the late afternoon and early The lads of one district were forbidden to evening the hills near by have resounded associate with those of another, and many are with a fanfare that would be truly martial the stories of blood-letting on the streets at were the youthful buglers but a trifle more






adept. For this pilgrimage the chigo, or These Samurai had formerly been attached junior members, don the ancient dress of a to the service of a great lord, who, having time “ when reds and blues were indeed red got into a quarrel at the palace in ancient and blue"—the heavy cloth stuffs which were Tokyo, had attempted to assassinate his the garb of the Samurai on occasions which did enemy. According to the old rules, such an not call for the more protecting but cumber- attempt was punished by an enforced suicide some armor, and were much worn, even in and forfeiture of estate. These retainers, battle, by the rank and file. The older lads, ever faithful to their lord, decided on revenge, those above fifteen years, make the journey and in order to divert suspicion became clad in the full armor of metal and completely ronin, a sort of condottieri, and scattered all helmeted—a feat not to be carelessly under- over the Empire. The chief of these knights taken. In each file is a boy carrying a even went so far in his effort to blind the streamer bearing the name of his organiza- spies of the enemy as to divorce his wife, tion, just as in past days the name of the purchase a concubine, and frequent the gay knight in command was borne by his color- quarters of the town, in the hope that word bearer.

of his dissoluteness would reach Tokyo. With bugles blowing, pennants flying, and While the leader was in the depths of his dressed in these heavy trappings of war, the dissipation a Satsuma Samurai found him Samurai sons traverse the twenty miles to sleeping in a gutter, intoxicated, and, to show the village shrine consecrated to the greatest his contempt for a creature fallen so low that of Satsuma's warriors—Shimadzu Yoshihisa. he refused to revenge his lord, kicked the This Yoshihisa, the most notable of a notably drunken ronin and spat in his face. warlike family, has been canonized by the At length the ruse of these men was sucSatsuma people for his bravery at the battle cessful. All suspicion was buried, the large of Sekigahara--the Japanese Marston Moor. guard which had been maintained in the On this occasion he found himself, through Tokyo castle was dismissed, and these fortythe treachery of a supposed ally, in the midst seven men entered in the dead of night and of a fearful debacle, which threatened to wrought their vengeance. Having obtained annihilate his whole command. Undaunted, satisfaction, these retainers despatched themhowever, Yoshihisa formed a forlorn hope, selves by hara-kiri and were all buried toand with some seventy of his men cut his gether in a cemetery which is now visited way through whole regiments of the victori- yearly by thousands of pilgrims. ous forces.

But it is a forty-eighth grave which interThe Satsuma people have that all too rare ests the sha boys--that of the Satsuma worship for the hero even in his defeat. It knight who had insulted the drunken leader has probably never occurred to them that in the street. Hearing that the dissipation their lord was defeated. He is their hero, of the chief of the band had been part of and as such still lives in their ceremonies. the general scheme, this old Satsuma warrior

The last of the year's celebrations returns journeyed to the little shrine in the inclosure to the austere idea of revenge which we saw of the cemetery where they were interred, characterizing the umbrella burning. On the and, beseeching pardon for his mistake, himevening of December 14 the lads assemble self committed hara-kiri. in their respective sha, and under the leader- This, in outline, is the story hundreds of ship of their seniors read that famous old Satsuma youths listen to from the lips of drama of the Forty-seven Ronin. The their elders. Many writers have taken occareading begins about seven, and is carried on sion to lament the influence that such teachcontiruously by alternating readers until fif- ing must have on the children. Yet, withal, teen small volumes are gone through—usu- it is such as was necessary to meet the ally about four in the morning.

demands of the morality of feudal Japan. The story of the Forty-seven Ronin is too long for detailed narration here ; indeed, Stern training in the heat of summer and it forms a history of itself, and is too well the cold of winter, constant attention to the known to foreign readers through Mitford's code of Bushido and to a mediæval ethics, ** Tales of Old Japan ” to bear repetition. together with a sterling sense of loyalty to Suffice it to say that it is a story whose lord and piety towards parents, were the motif lies in a revenge brought about by forty- services which these societies of Boy Scouts seven knights after long months had elapsed. in Feudal Japan were organized to promote.





This article concludes the series of three articles by Mr. Cromie about Eight Minutes' Common-Sense Exercise." The first, Exercise for the Busy Man," appeared in The Outlook for June 23. The second, Exercise for the Nervous Woman," appeared in the issue of July 25.- The Editors.


N dealing with the subject " Eight Min- tion or superfluous energy, but the life of utes' Common-Sense Play for the Grow- impulse and instinct alone can make special

ing Child ” I shall also speak of the forms of play comprehensible to us. All child's early training in the mental, social, that is needed to set the claws of a kitten in and moral aspects, as these and the physical motion is to roll a ball of cord toward it, while cannot be dissociated. During the first few the full-grown cat starts up at the sight of a years of life all of these natures of the child mouse. If a father gets upon his hands and can best be developed through the agency of knees in the nursery, the child instinctively play.

is ready for a romp. The feeling-fit theory is

all right as far as it goes, but it does not go PLAY LIFE

far enough. Recreation or play appeals to one Before taking up the play life of the child, when one is tired or exhausted and still does let us see if we can determine what play is. not wish to rest or sleep. Play is the diverThere are four view-points in the theory of sion of thought from the weightier conflicts play, all of which should be considered. The of life to the seemingly lighter diversions of “ feeling fit,” or overflowing with surplus the hour. As the strings of a violin and the energy, is advanced by H. Schiller and string of a bow should not always be taut if Herbert Spencer, while directly opposed to the instrument is to retain its usefulness, so this is the idea that play is an opportunity does man need the relaxation of play. When (Lazarus's theory) afforded for the relaxation a student plays a game of baseball or tennis, of exhausted powers. Professor Karl Groos he tones up his relaxed mental powers at the claims that play is important in the devel- same time that he finds a means of relieving opment of the individual, while, opposing his accumulated motor impulses, repressed this, Professor G. Stanley Hall explains play during his work in the clinic, laboratory, or as a rehearsing of ancestral activities. Her- at the drawing-board. Play which disposes bert Spencer, in his “ Principles of Psychol- of his surplus energy, and, again, which reogy," in upholding the first of these four views, stores his lost powers, is a valuable suppleclaims that “play is characteristic of nerve ment to the Schiller-Spencer idea, but still processes—that the superfluous integration does not solve the theory of play. New of ganglion cells should be accompanied by recreative activity is often closely related to an inherited readiness to discharge.” This the work of which one is weary, as the changsounds quite technical ; it means that on ing from one scientific book to another. account of the advanced development of man When almost exhausted from long, continuhe has more force than is needed in order to ous walking on the level, I have found diverdigest, breathe, keep the organic processes sion and become rested by up-and-down-hill going, and is able to allow some of his walking, and vice versa. This is due to the processes longer periods of rest while others fact that different sets of muscles are emare being exercised.

ployed. The swimmer becomes rested by Imitation seems to be quite general in the turning over on his back. play of the child, who dramatizes the acts of While the theory of surplus energy accounts adults in the dressing of dolls and the building for play in the case of many children when there of toy houses ; still, imitation cannot be called is no need for recreation, this need may pro the universal standard of play. Not imita- duce play, as illustrated by adults with whom

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