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however, can only be included in such an under- public sense of national honor. Germany's standing when it is recognized in that country disregard of her treaty obligations by her inthat the attempts hitherto made in the Cislei
vasion of Belgium has disappointed this hope. than half of the monarchy to introduce a liberal system are based on a mistaken policy, as are also the national experiments in a Polish direction.
CONCERNING CLOTHES The Czar is now aligned with republican
Mark Twain, who made fashions for himFrance and democratic England, and has at self, wore white flannel during the later years least pledged his support to “ a new national of his life, and, like every other man or experiment in a Polish direction.” Austria
woman who departs from the modes of the has satisfactorily purged herself, so far as hour, was accused of self-advertising. There Germany is concerned, of her mistaken sym
was method in his madness, however, as there pathy for liberalism. Though the players often is in the seeming insanity of original have shifted sides, the conflict is the same.
people. Dark clothing, he explained, was depressing to him after passing his seventieth
year, while lighter colors cheered him ; he WHY?
could not compel others to wear white, but he
could wear it himself, and accordingly he Many of our German-American citizens wore it. cannot understand why Americans sym- There is reason and also good sense in the pathize with the Allies in a war between the conventions about dress that rest on good taste most progressive and the most reactionary and a nice sense of propriety, which some Empire on the European Continent. In this “come-outers " discard, but which are a probrief statement we tell them why.
tection to privacy, to feeling, or to instinct. Big Austria attacked little Servia. With- The only reason for the uniformity of most out demanding an impartial investigation of of the clothes we wear, however, is the stimulaAustria's charges against Servia, Germany tion of business. We wear garments devised, allied herself with Austria. Germany's first not by artists, but by expert promoters of mistake.
trade, and the fashions change every six Sir Edward Grey made earnest efforts to months simply because the exigencies of secure the co-operation of Germany in an business demand the discarding of the old in endeavor to obtain for Austria and Servia order that something new may be in demand. justice without war. Germany refused. Ger- When one thinks of it, the general submismany's second mistake.
sion of society to the dictates of a group of Germany, England, and France had guar- irresponsible fashion-makers is one of the anteed, by sacred treaty, the neutrality of extraordinary facts about the Western peoples Belgium. Germany, in her plan of campaign,
of to-day. Our ancestors had the idea that disregarded her pledge and asked Great dress ought to be becoming, and that what Britain to disregard her pledge also.
was appropriate in one decade was appromany's third mistake.
priate in another ; we have the idea that Americans do not believe in condemning dress ought to be varied from year to year an accused without giving him an impartial and that it ought to be standardized. The hearing. They do not believe in war without artist is brought in when it is a question of exhausting every endeavor to secure justice making a woman beautiful for a particular by peaceful measures. They do not believe purpose or occasion ; the rest of the time the in regarding a solemn treaty as a scrap of tailor rules her with a rod of iron. An unpaper which may be discarded whenever it feeling man recently said that his heart would interferes with the interests of either of the never be moved by the appeals of the parties to the treaty. If a nation can break · slaves " for freedom so long as they volunits solemn obligations without penalty, there tarily wear skirts in which they cannot walk is an end to any international good relations. with comfort or run under any circumstances.
The agitation for international arbitration The obstacle in the way of individuality --the substitution of the appeal to reason and freedom in dress is the publicity which for the appeal to force—has led thousands any departure from the fashion of the moof Americans to hope that henceforth treaties ment entails on the innovator. The man would require no other enforcement than the who wears a coat of a past design, or
woman who devises a garment that follows in his shirt sleeves” insulted his audience the lines of the figure instead of the lines of and lost the election. An evening coat is, in the fashion-plate, is likely to be photographed certain places and at certain times, as much by the newspapers and written up" for a working dress as the dress of a man who those who think that gossip is news. And plows or lays railway ties or carries a hod. there are still people in the world who shrink A well-known public man who is noted for from association in the public prints with his skill in "keeping his ear to the ground murderers, “ crooks," and the venders of was traveling toward his home in clothes of quack remedies!
a strictly orthodox fashion ; as he neared his After many years of abstention from wear- “ district " he excused himself, retired to his ing collars, Jean Paul Richter posted a note stateroom, and presently reappeared in a on the official bulletin-board in Weimar negligée shirt, a loose coat minus a waistcoat, announcing that, as he intended to oppose and a slouch hat. He had dressed for his the world on essential matters, he would save part as a man of the people.” It is said his strength by conforming in non-essentials in Italy that Radical deputies are often oband henceforth wear a collar! The wearing served leaving Rome in first-class carriages ; of collars is in most cases a matter of good but when the train makes its last stop before taste, and even when the question of taste reaching the town where the deputy is to be is not involved and the collar is merely a met by a delegation and welcomed as convention, the people who dare omit it are defender of popular rights, he changes to a few, and ought to be few ; for the collar or third-class carriage and becomes one of the its equivalent is a sign of civilization. The people. An eloquent politician who is a noted individuality which expresses itself in eccen- "friend of the people" reproached a little tricity of dress is not an adventure for free- group of men who had bravely announced dom; it is either abnormal or it is a bid for their opposition to the platform of a popular notoriety. It is not a defiance of convention, candidate. He declared that they had needbut of good taste. Shabby clothes are some- lessly jeopardized their popularity because times cheap bids for popularity, and an eve- the man could not be elected ; and he laid ning coat is often more democratic than a down this fundamental principle for their negligée shirt.
future guidance: “ Always give the people There is plenty of sham democracy in the what they want if you are sure they can't world, and hypocrisy in dress is one of its get it." These men are sure in the end to most popular forms. The man who wears be discovered and sent to the rear. working clothes as a means of winning the In dress, as in ways of living, honesty and vote of every class of workers is a hypocrite of sincerity are essential to good taste, and a very mean kind. The candidate for Gov- appropriateness for the occasion and a due ernor in a State election who went from a regard for what is becoming and attractive dinner at a club to a meeting of working- are the evidences of self-respect and respect men and took off his evening coat and spoke for others.
COMMERCE AND FINANCE
A WEEKLY ARTICLE BY THEODORE H. PRICE
A GREAT FINANCIAL EMERGENCY: HOW IT HAS BEEN MET
HAVE been in. Washington for four days in attendance upon a Conference
called by the Secretary of the Treasury to consider ways and means of meeting the problem presented by interruption to the export of cotton, tobacco, naval stores, and the various agricultural products other than foodstuffs, through the sale of which under normal conditions our annual indebtedness
abroad is paid. For the past four years the average annual balance of trade in favor of the United States has been about $550,000,000. During the same period the average annual value of the cotton and tobacco exports has been about $600,000,000. For the same time our net exports of gold and silver have averaged only $25,000,000 annually. These figures make it clear that
it is in cotton and tobacco that we pay our less, it would have been worth while for the debts to Europe, and that any depreciation in sympathy it has established between the the value of these two great commodities business men of the country and the Adminmeans a corresponding impairment of our istration, and for the words of financial soberdebt-paying power, the impoverishment of a ness and sanity which Secretary McAdoo has large portion of our agricultural population, spoken. and widespread loss to the Nation.
In reply to the repeatedly urgent request Just how the emergency has been faced that the Government should in some way so and met I shall endeavor to explain in detail increase the issue of currency that unlimited in a subsequent article. It is sufficient for borrowing would be possible Mr. McAdoo the present to say that it has been met, and met without any departure from what is " There is enough currency authorized by considered conservative finance, and without law to-day to wreck the United States of any concession to the semi-Socialistic demand America, and the danger in this situation is that the Government should follow the disas- that by ill-considered views and ill-considered trous methods adopted by Brazil in “ valoriz- actions we may put out so much inflationary ing" coffee, and interpose the National credit paper money that we will ruin the country. to sustain the price of our more important You gentlemen must remember that this agricultural products. Only those who have currency is not Government money. The been in Washington upon such occasions as Government has not got money that it is this can appreciate the relentless importunity. going to hand out to anybody. The only with which the Government is besought to money in the Treasury of the United States extend its paternalism to protect people to-day is the gold fund, the surplus over and against their own mistakes or against mis- above its liabilities, amounting to about fortune.
$130,000,000, and that is none too much to That these demands have been resisted is enable this Government to carry on its busigreatly to the credit of Congress and the ness, and to take such reasonable measure of Administration, and particularly to the credit protection for the general interests of the of Secretary McAdoo, upon whose depart- country as the use of any surplus part of that ment most of these wild proposals insistently fund may enable it to do." converge.
The effect of these words upon the hunOne cannot but be impressed with the dred and fifty men present at the Conference public spirit of the Government officials in was to reinvigorate their self-confidence, reWashington, who are now at their desks awaken their courage, and send them home night and day, Sundays and holidays, patiently with the optimism that is always born of listening to the impossible suggestions of self-dependence. people from all over the country, who come A committee of the Conference appointed here obsessed with the idea that in the pres- by Secretary McAdoo has submitted a report ent emergency it is the duty of the Govern- making certain recommendations that are ment to assume or avert the loss and inter- most interesting. Meanwhile the hysteria ruption of business which must inevitably that has led to mistaken reliance upon the fall upon nearly every one in business in a hope of Government relief has passed, European war that is wasting the world's and people have gone home with renewed wealth at the rate of $100,000,000 a day. confidence in themselves, the Nation, and
If the conference that has been in progress the sane beneficence of our Governmental here for three days had been otherwise result- institutions.
COPYRIGHT BY UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD
THE LATE POPE PIUS X Giuseppe Melchiore Sarto was born June 2, 1835, and was therefore in his eightieth year at the time of his death. He was ordained in 1858; became Bishop of Mantua in 1884 ; was created Cardinal in 1893; and was elected Pope in 1913. His simplicity and straightforwardness of character caused him to be universaliy respected even by
political and ecclesiastical opponents. For an account of his career see The Outlook for August 29