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parents who cannot afford to pay for instruc- Although the economic development of tion is a political crime which is punishable Galicia is considerably thwarted by exorbitant by imprisonment or even exile !

taxation and by the policy of the Viennese Prussia has been following a ruthless pol- Government favoring particularly the German icy of extermination of the Polish nationality, provinces of Austria, the Poles of Galicia are and has been, to her eternal shame, cruelly pretty well satisfied and are loyal to the flogging small children because they prayed in dynasty. They value the atmosphere of Polish. She has been spending untold mill- political freedom much more highly. than ions for the German colonization of prov- economic well-being. Moreover, the Hapsinces which have been since times imme- burg dynasty is the only one of the three morial the home of the Pole. By inhuman

By inhuman spoils-sharers that has kept faith since 1866, legislation prohibiting a Polish peasant from and the only one that the Poles learned to building a house on acquired land, she has trust. forced him and his family to live in carts The present imbroglio in Europe is not and wagons; but, despite all that, she has ab- a mere accident, an unforeseen and unfortusolutely failed in making him sell his land, nate result of the blind play of unknown leave the country, and abandon his native forces. It is but a dramatic expression of tongue. The Prussian colonization policy the high tension which has existed ever since proved to be an absolute fiasco. It has Russia entered upon her boundless and achieved results contrary to those expected. reckless imperialistic career. Then, the It has increased the solidarity of the Polish sudden appearance of a great and consolimass, made them cling more tenaciously than dated German power in the center of Europe, ever to everything Polish, to cultivate their vying with Russia in offensive militaristic land more scrupulously, amass wealth, develop despotism, defeating France, and threatening co-operative schemes of rural credit, and to the supremacy of Great Britain, aggravated nurture a most exalted devotion to national the tension which was bound to result in an culture, which, despite all handicaps, has blos. armed conflict. There is no doubt that the somed and developed. There is not a field real causes of the present war are Russia and of artistic or scientific endeavor which lies Germany, all the others being merely drawn fallow in Poland. Denied freedom on the into it by force. Austria would not have prepolitical arena, all the energies of a gifted race cipitated the trouble were she not emboldened went into activities that made for art, science, by her ally, who has all kinds of Machiaveland culture. Musicians, sculptors, painters, lian designs and imperialistic interests in the scientists, writers, of the highest rank and Balkans and the Near East, and were she not magnitude are so plentiful in Poland that exasperated by Russia's insolence and her they cannot find sufficient outlet in their na- feverish activities among the Slavs of the tive artificially cramped quarters, and go out Balkans and of the Dual Monarchy. The in large numbers to serve in Europe's fore- perfidious pan-Slavic or pan-Russian propamost temples of learning and art, and to ganda, with its immense bribes and an elaboparticipate in state administration wherever rate spy system, is reported to be unbearable this is not denied them. Within the last by those who observe conditions at close decade or so three Poles were Finance Minis- range. To preserve her peaceable developters of Austria.

ment and dignity Austria had to act. The Austria, once one of the most reactionary Sarajevo outrage, which revealed the compowers of Europe, recognized, after her defeat plicity of the “ inspired” agents of the Servby Prussia in 1866, the imperative need of ian Government, was but the last drop in a political reforms, made peace with Hungary, bitter cup. Austria's hand was forced indiand granted home rule to her component rectly by Russia, which, being utterly irresponnationalities, among them to Galicia. A sible and having a tremendous half-starving new era was started in the Polish provinces peasantry and an immense standing army, is of Austria. The Polish national spirit and a constant danger to peace, rivaled in its forPolish culture began to Aourish. All the midableness by Germany alone. schools from the lowest to the highest became As to the Poles, they have repudiated the Polish, and instruction in the Universities of pan-Slav movement. They know what it Cracow and Lemberg as well as in all the high aims at, and they do not trust Russia. Long professional schools is carried on exclusively before the present war began, its possibilities in Polish.

were discussed in a lively way in Polish political literature. Poland is in a most unfortu- From the point of view of the Poles the nate position with reference to this war, as her ideal outcome of this present gigantic mix-up territory is the natural theater of hostile activ- would be an independent Poland, which would ities. Before the war is over, and whatever act as a buffer between the ever-quarreling its result, her wealth will be annihilated, her neighbors and would supply the balancepopulation decimated, her soil drenched in wheel in the struggle for supremacy between blood, and her sons incorporated in three the Russian and Germanic world. If this be hostile armies, killing off one another. Shall unattainable at present, the next best solution she not be compensated for this unexampled of the Polish question would be a unification and innocent loss? Can she rely on the of the entire Polish nation into an autonomagnanimity or sense of justice of any of the mous unit under the sovereignty of AustriaPowers engaged in the war? History sup- Hungary. Outside of the Pole's most vital plies a somber reply. She has counted vainly and intense interest in his national existence, on justice and help and sympathy too many there is not anything which touches him more times to entertain any foolish hopes at pres- deeply than art and culture. He conse ent. She has to count on herself if she is to quently would like to see the great Northern live. A people of over twenty millions, with Bear defeated and pushed back to the wild a history ten centuries old, with a high forests of Russia, where he properly belongs; and distinct culture, cannot afford to die but it would make his heart bleed to see simply because three militaristic and land- France or England beaten by Germany. He grabbing neighbors have so decreed. She hopes that France will recover her lost provhas to meet them on their own terms, and inces and expand her benevolent and radiatshe has been constantly asserting herself ing cultural influence over Europe. A defeat despite all oppression. Some of her political of France is a defeat of civilization, and spells writers see a winning chance in a conflict like complete supremacy of sword and gross and the present one. There is no doubt that the brutal materialism over refinement and culsympathies and help of the people of Poland ture. Similarly, a victory of Germany over are going to be a factor of great importance England is too horrid to think of. It would in the present struggle of supremacy between mean a destruction of political liberty, freethe Russian and the Germanic world. A dom of thought, initiative, and action, and the considerable number of writers advise a de- dominance of the insolent Prussian over the cided pro-Austrian direction, a complete world. Even the Germans themselves, outaffiliation with the Dual Monarchy and a life- side of Prussia, dread it as the greatest calamand-death struggle against Russia. For the ity. It would mean, incidentally, the deathdefeat of Russia may mean, if not an entire knell to Holland, Denmark, Belgium, and independence, then at least a concentration Switzerland, and a destruction of their beauof the greater part of the Polish provinces tiful civilizations and free institutions. under one sovereign power. The splitting The present war bears within it all these of the nation into three parts under three possibilities. It is a bitter disappointment to different rules was the greatest calamity that all those who had faith in reason and culture could have befallen Poland. It estranged to see the destinies of the world's greatest the people from one another and made con- nations and their civilizations depend on the certed action almost impossible. Although blind forces of passion and destruction. It a victory of the Germanic forces over Russia will be a still greater disappointment to would be a distinct gain to Poland, yet an Poland if, after the new political units overwhelming Prussian victory would be un- emerge from the sea of dissolution and anfortunate, as the bulk of Poland might fall to archy, she, having borne the brunt of a devasPrussia, which in her spirit and manner is as tating three-cornered war, with all her popuoffensive as Russia to a people of a refined lation actively and passively engaged in it. spiritual culture and of republican inheritance. should not gain a breath of freedom so pasMoreover, the Poles have another common sionately fought for during the last one bond with Austria in their religion.

hundred years.

1-THE WAR OF KINGS

BY CLINTON SCOLLARD

From dawn to dusk reign horror and affiright,

And the sad night no healing respite brings ;
In all its hideous panoply of might,

This is the war of kings !

The people are but pawns upon the board;

What of their wants, their woes, their sufferings ?
Speak, Death, dark watcher both by field and ford,

In this grim war of kings !

Will history still repeat the sanguine past,

With all its trail of ruthless anguishings ?
Oh, may this slaughter-carnival be the last-

The last dread war of kings !

II-WAR AND DEATH

BY HELEN COALE CREW

Two figures out of the gloom of despair on man's vision broke;
And one, colossal, brute-visaged, vengeful, and pitiless, spoke-
"I am War! And behold in the courts of the gods none is greater than I !
Farth quivers and reels at my gauntlet's touch, and the dome of the sky
Is shattered and torn by my trumpet's blare and the flash of my sword ;
And man at my coming is fearful and fain of the help of the Lord.
Yea, black is the doom that I spread on the world, and the ruin is wide.
Man may pray himself dumb! Can he slay me in fear who begot me in pride ?”
but he, the other, benignant, pitying, quiet of breath,
Smiled, “ You shall know me and fear me not. I am but Death !"

III-AMERICA

BY CONRAD AIKEN

We lay and smiled, to see our sky

So blue, so luminous with sun ;
Lo, far off, wailed an ominous cry;

We heard a thunder of footsteps run

Under a darkness settling there,

Some huge and sinister wing's eclipse ;
Smoke fouled the east; a baleful glare

Lightened beneath ; and maddened lips

Took up that cry, while darkness stirred

And heaved, and like a wounded thing

Bled, by the utterance of one word

Which bade a myriad war-swords sing.

What murderous shadow troubled so

Our summer dream ? ... The sunlight ceased.
A sick and fetid wind came slow

From the stale tenements of the east.

Brother to slay his brother rose,

The shambles fell, and from that gloom
Came the hoarse herded cry of those

Who blindly massed to fight for room.
Room! Give us air ! A breathing space!

The sunlight and the land for all !
Each lifted up a stifled face,

And battered door, and beat at wall,

And surged against resurgent horde

For space to sow his little seed.
Lo, they would plow the earth with sword,

Strew dead on earth that earth might feed.

And we—where now our summer bliss ?

From the stale tenements of the east
Stole fear lest we should come to this,

And prove us brother to the beast.

PROLOGUE

BY HERMANN HAGEDORN

THE

Written for the opening of an outdoor stage at Boulder Farm, Chocorua, New Hampshire, and acted, as a prelude to an exhibition of Old English Folk Dances, on July 18, 1914, with Professor George Pierce Baker, of Harvard University, as the Mountain Spirit.

From the distance THE SPIRIT OF (Savagely) What do they here? Their faces MOUNTAIN, a wild, shaggy, uncouth being, say, is seen coming, darting from tree to tree, from “We wait.” For what? What do they think rock to rock, until with a leap he reaches the my pines top of the boulder at left, back of stage. Will wisely utter to that waning moon,

Death-stricken on th' unruffled blue of day, The MOUNTAIN SPIRIT:

That they sit there with quiet eyes, and wait?

Oh, foolish humans ! Though my pines cry (Laughing derisively in the distance.)

low Ho, ho ! What's here ? Ho, ho ! What Ultimate wisdom, and my grasses cry

Secrets, and my undying rivulets Humans! Ho, ho! Men! Women! Decked Murmur the hidden meanings of the worlds

Why should they wait? (Scornfully) They A crowd such as the cities know, beneath

cannot understand. My boughs, my pines, my green and low

(He leaps from the rock to the stage.) voiced pines

What's this? A raked and rolled and tended A crowd!

place

game is on?

and gay

can cry,

Here in my woods? A flat place, robbed

Woods" are heard. The Mountain of ferns

Spirit listens, suddenly rigid, enAnd roots and running vines and cones and

tranced.) leaves,

What voice? What voice? What voice ? Washed and respectable as city souls

Those notes were stolen from your lyre, my On city highways ? I made no such place

pines! To mock the musings toward eternity

What wondrous thief came hither on tiptoe, Of my austere, green trees. My glades are Ravishing music? Sing! Once more, once rough,

more! With snags and tangles for unpracticed feet, Oh! alien robber, whither hast thou Aed ? Poisons and small white bells and agéd

(He turns about, bewildered.) stones.

You spoke, my pines ? These humans, too, But this is smooth. My pines, what does it mean?

Uttering love and longing ? Hark! A voice ! (He listens.) What's that ? A stage ? What is a stage ?

VOICE OF ROMEO : A stage !

Lady, by yonder blessed moon I swear, A place for shows ? For shows! (Savagely)

VOICE OF JULIET: So, is it that? (With scorn and anger at first con- Oh, swear not by the moon, the inconstant

trolled, then breaking into loud moon,
derision.)

That monthly changes in her circlèd orb,
For that you wait, you humans !

For a

Lest that thy love prove likewise variable. show!

ROMEO : Think you that I will bring my mountains down

What shall I swear by? To give you pleasure, rouse my sleepy winds

JULIET: On Passaconaway, my thunder-men

Do not swear at all ; On old Chocorua, on Ossipee

Or, if thou wilt, swear by thy gracious self, My dancing girls, my rains ; from Kearsarge

Which is the god of my idolatry, call

And I'll believe thee. My spearsmen that hurl lightning through the night,

ROMEO : For your sweet pleasure ? I, who am this

If my heart's dear loveworld? Go, go! Back to your houses and your

JULIET : streets,

Well, do not swear. Although I joy in thee, Back to your halls of barter and your shows ! I have no joy of this contráct to-night : For you I fling no thunder through the hills, It is too rash, too unadvised, too sudden ; No fire across the dayfall, no sweet rains, Too like the lightning, which doth cease to be Myriad-footed o'er the tops of trees !

Ere one can say, " It lightens.Sweet, goodI cry it, I! You get no shows from me!

night! (He listens.)

This bud of love, by summer's ripening breath, A voice! You spoke, my pines ? My birches, May prove a beauteous flower when next we you?

meet. Speak it once more. These humans dull my Good-night, good-night! as sweet repose and

rest They do not call on me for tricks, you say ? Come to thy heart as that within my breast. Why are they here? Who else can tell of love,

THE MOUNTAIN SPIRIT: Of moonlit rapture, passionate arms upraised Voices ! The bee's voice in the lily-cup, In infinite yearning, anger, pain, despair ?. The thrush's voice beside his airy home. Who else can cry of birth and death as I ? Voice of my rosy dawns along the dew, Have human hearts a voice like unto mine? When stags peer forth and dreamy birds Have humans-birds ?

awake. (Faintly, then more loud, the opening Humans, whence did you steal my morning

bars of MacDowell's In Deep light?

ears.

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