« 上一頁繼續 »
way. The Turkish army is mobilized; a first place, there is Russia. The possession Turkish army of the first line of 200,000 of the Bosphorus by Russia would open the men all Mohammedans, is formed ; a body door for her fleet and her commerce of the of 72 German superior officers is incorpo- Black Sea into the Mediterranean and the rated in the Turkish army.
Atlantic Ocean. It would make Odessa a In a very few days Turkey, although she great center almost at once.
Even now, denies it, is expected to declare war against without the free passage to the sea, Odessa Russia, and a general uprising of the Mo- is the greatest harbor and commercial town hammedan world is within the possibilities. in Russia.
The “ Balkan War" is a sort of perma- The fact that the Balkan peninsula is innency in Europe. Since the fall of the East habited principally by Slavic tribes who, Roman Empire and the taking of Constan- though all the time in bitter strife among tine's capital Turkey has been a power of one another, are of the same Russian Greek varying strength in Europe. Step by step religion, makes Pan-Slavism an excellent prethe Turks advanced northward, spreading text to Russia for trying again and again to terror wherever they came, until, in 1683, gain territory there and approach Constantiwhen they besieged Vienna, they were driven nople. After Sebastopol, her fortress in the back by Sobieski's Poles and some German Crimea, had fallen in 1851, and she had to regiments. Since then there has been a yield to her enemies England, France, Italy, * Balkan War” whose flames sometimes and Turkey, she tried again in 1878. With sprang high up, at other times were secretly the help of Rumania she advanced victorismoldering under the ashes. Such events ously får south, and hoped to dictate the as the Crimean War and the last Russo-Turk- terms of peace in the Treaty of San Stefano ish War and the latest uprising in the Balkans in the very outskirts of Constantinople ; but are episodes only in the European efforts to Disraeli sent an English fleet into the Darreduce and finally drive out Turkey from danelles and frustrated Russia's intentions. Europe. Yet, though his holdings of terri- Bismarck called the Powers to convene in tory in Europe have dwindled down to very Berlin, and peace was established in the little, the “Sick Man” is still in possession Treaty of Berlin. England acquired Cyprus. of that wonderful place, Constantinople, on Eventually Austria got Bosnia and Herzegothe Bosphorus. When the Turk has to leave vina. Germany gained in prestige without Constantinople and go back to Asia, whence having drawn her sword. Pan-Slavism had he came, who shall be his heir and successor ? to wait. Germany wanted peace. Constantinople is the bridge between Europe England could wait. Holding Gibraltar and and Asia. It leads to the lands of those Malta, and Egypt, Cyprus, and the Suez Canal, teeming millions of people, industrious and she was master in the Mediterranean and conintelligent, whose dreaming and whose work trolled the shortest way to India and China. have for many centuries contributed to Euro- With Germany as a friend of Austria and pean wealth, to our philosophy and our of Turkey, an actively helping friend, whose religions, to our arts, our poetry, our archi- advice and example and whose officers led tecture. They still send us the products of them to improve their armies and defend their industry—their wonders of silks, of em- their possessions against the pressure from broideries, of rugs, of porcelains, and a hun- East and West, the necessity of uniting dred other things. To them we owe dawned on England and Russia. Constantioranges and our peaches, our coffee and tea, nople could never be won by either of them our sugar and spices, as well as our fairy as long as Germany had to be reckoned with. tales. Such is the land of Arabia and Persia And so the unnatural alliance of the two old and India and China. It is the land of our enemies was achieved, and France was easily dreams and our desires.
attracted as a very desirable third by the No wonder that Constantinople, the bridge hope of having her revenge for 1870. to all this, is jealously watched by the nations The three watched for their opportunity, of Europe, for it will bring new wealth and and it came along with the Serajevo incident. power to the successor of the present régime. Servia intended to cause an uprising of the
Three great Powers are competitors for Slavs in Austria, and knew Russia would this succession, and whenever one of them support her. The result was the great Euroseems to get nearer to the coveted goal the
pean war. It is really an Oriental war. uther two will be her bitter enemies. In the When and where will it end?
A JAPANESE VIEW
BY K. K. KAWAKAMI
AUTHOR OF “ ASIA AT THE DOOR."" AMERICAN JAPANESE RELATIONS," ETC.
HE characterization by Mr. Bullard, with Russia, in virtue of which the Czar was
The Outlook's war correspondent, of free to occupy the Liaotung Peninsula, the
the Japanese ultimatum to Germany self-same territory from which the Kaiser and as “brutal and provocative" is not quite Czar compelled Japan to withdraw only two right. Taken in itself, the ultimatum does
You can well imagine how indeed sound brutal, but to understand chagrined Japan was. Japan's course of action in the present case The German seizure of Kiaochau, followed we must take into consideration Germany's by the Russian occupation of the Liaotung, attitude towards Japan during the past twenty the English occupation of Weihaiwei, and years.
the French occupation of Kwanchau Bay, Most people know how Germany treated were largely responsible for the Boxer disJapan at the end of the Chino-Japanese War, turbance of 1900. When the Boxers besieged which cost Japan a hundred thousand lives the Legation quarters in Peking, Japan proand a billion dollars. But few Americans posed to the Powers that she be permitted know that Germany's interference with the to rush her troops to rescue the beleaguered Chino-Japanese peace terms was only the foreigners. The Kaiser put his foot upon first of many unpleasant experiences which Japan's proposal, and insisted that unless Japan has had with Germany.
Japan could guarantee that her action would In the war against China Japan was con- by no means interfere with the interests of vinced of the justice of her cause.
When other Powers he could not accept the prothe war came to an end, therefore, Japan posal. Such incidents clearly show the thought she could demand of China the ces- Kaiser's mental attitude towards Japan. sion of the Liaotung Peninsula without vio- During the Boxer disturbance Russia was lating the dictates of justice. But Germany, scheming to add Manchuria to her own map, perhaps anxious to ingratiate herself with the and it was an open secret that the Kaiser was Czar, peremptorily ordered Japan out of the encouraging this ambition of the Czar's. peninsula. To my mind that advice was About this time the London “ Times” pubfar more “brutal” than the Japanese advice lished an article reporting the existence of a recently given Germany. On the day the secret treaty by which the Kaiser was to peace treaty was signed between China and render clandestine assistance to the Czar in Japan all Japan was celebrating; the next the event of a Russo-Japanese war. day the whole country was in mourning be- While Japan was measuring swords with cause of that German advice. Not that Russia, Germany's attitude towards the MusJapan was sorry to part with the newly covite Empire was the virtual violation of acquired peninsula, but because her pride neutrality. The Berlin Government permitted and her sense of honor were outraged by the a German steamship company to sell a numoverbearing attitude of Germany. The ber of steamships to the Russian navy and German advice was far more peremptory to help Rozéstvenski's Baltic squadron secure than the French and Russian notes on the coal en route to the Japan Sea. What was same occasion. The Kaiser's note, in its more surprising, a German officer who was original form, even asserted that Japan could by Japan's special courtesy permitted tu not afford to disregard the counsel of such a accompany the Japanese army to the front powerful country as Germany. And the was found secretly reporting to his Govern masterful manner in which the German ment the activities of the Mikado's forces Ambassador presented it to the Foreign without the permission of the censoring Department is still a topic of gossip in officers. Tokyo.
To say that Japan is, in the present juna When Germany occupied Kiaochau on a ture, actuated solely by sense of obligatior slight pretext, she had a secret understanding towards the treaty of alliance with England would be hypocritical. While it is absolutely article of August 9. Japan has acted in true that Great Britain approached Japan this matter in entire accord with the tradiwith a view to securing her aid in this war, it tions of European international usage. Her must be frankly admitted that Japan has not actions seem to me to have been as brutal forgotten the hurts which Germany has so and provocative as Austria's toward Servia. frequently inflicted upon the pride of Japan. England has taken Egypt and Cyprus, France In her ultimatum to Germany, Japan, as you has taken Morocco, with just as unsportsmansay, " did not cite a single grievance;" but did like disregard for the fact that their opponents Germany cite any grievance in ordering Japan were helpless. If Japan desires any further out of the Liaotung?
precedent to justify her attitude, she can
refer to the way in which Germany took [NOTE.— It was not my intention to hold Kiaochau from China in the first place.Japan up for any particular blame in my ARTHUR BULLARD.]
The following article was prepared for The Outlook at its request by a Roman Catholic ecclesiastic-an American pastor and writer who has studied the questions involved, both at home and abroad. - The EDITORS.
HERE is very little known on this enslave Europe, he will have to contend with
side of the world about the person- the same arrogant spirit that created the
ality or characteristics of the man Falk Laws and the Kulturkampf. Should who has so suddenly been elevated to the the Allies prove victorious, Rome will be headship of the great Roman Catholic com- most intimately brought in contact with the munion. He succeeds one “by birth a overwhelming power of the Greek Orthodox peasant, by vocation a saint,” who, ascend- Church, its most deadly enemy. The triumph ing the Throne of the Fisherman utterly of Russia will sound the death knell of Roman unknown to the great world, has left an Catholicism in eastern Europe. Either alterimpress on his Church deeper than any native will certainly require the exercise of Pontiff for five hundred years, and con- the shrewdest diplomacy on the part of the vinced a skeptical world that the virtues Papacy, for there will no longer be the peculiar to the meek and lowly Christ are prestige of a great Catholic power like Austria still able to conquer where the more fas- to give it material backing. cinating characteristics of earthly power What the intellectual condition of Europe fail. Pius X was called to rule
HarChurch that had regained through the nack has proclaimed that the struggle is masterly diplomacy of Leo XIII its position really between Teutonic and Muscovite culof acknowledged importance in the affairs of ture. It is a new thought to us, at any rate, the world. By the diplomacy of the undi- that the world that has successively passed luted Gospel he brought that Church to a under the intellectual yoke of Greek 'and height of spiritual development unparalleled Latin, Celt and Teuton, should come to be for many centuries. Benedict XV comes to dominated by the Slav. But it is in the rule when all the arts of diplomacy and the range of possibilities, and, in the event of disinterestedness of the highest spirituality will Russian victory, of probabilities. One fact be needed to enable the Papacy to regain its is prominent in this war, and that is the rôle as peacemaker and to revive religion in appeal to God. Prussian atheism has made those fair countries of Europe which now that appeal as well as Christian England, are devastated by terrific war, and whose sad while infidel France immediately suspended condition even now may furnish at least one the decrees of expulsion issued against cercommentary on the cryptic prophetic symbol tain religious communities, and the mobilizing of the new Pope, " Religio depopulata." The troops welcomed with affection the car-loads external task confronting Benedict XV is of nuns who were hurried with them to the stupendous. If Germany should win and front to serve as nurses. All the world must have been touched by the evidently sincere office, Benedict XV comes to the throne weil and sincerely simple religious faith of the equipped for the tremendous task set before Czar in calling his people to arms. The him. His rumored appointment of Cardinal mushroom religious philosophies for the Ferrata as Secretary of State is an indication moment have disappeared.
will be after the war no man can say.
of his sympathy with what may be termed In their awful danger men, so far as they the Broad party in the Church. The new are religious, have gone back to the elements Secretary of State has been a consistent of religion. God has become a reality for friend of Cardinal Mercier, of Mechlin, who them and prayer a necessity. On the whole, was continually in trouble with the last admina decidedly healthy spiritual element is dis- istration on account of his modern ideas as cernible in the part of the world involved. expressed in his Institute of Philosophy at With the high spiritual condition of the Louvain. This would seem to indicate some Church achieved under Pius X, the future of relaxation of the rigidity that many had come Benedict XV would therefore seem to prom- to fear in the scholastic policy of Pius X. ise auspiciously as far as his own Church is That policy served its purpose. Modernism concerned. But what are the prospects of will never again be heard of in the Catholic that Church exerting any influence upon a Church. The present cataclysm, bringing victorious Prussia, essentially atheistic though men, as it surely will, back to primitive and apparently Christian, or a triumphant Russia, fundamental notions, will clear away many of strong in her orthodoxy? We must not for- the fantastic difficulties created by a fatuous get, either, that recent incidents illustrating intellectualism. And clear thinking on the the theological division in the English Estab- part of the rulers of the Church of Rome, lished Church have made manifest the decay freed from any extravagances or rigor induced of patristic Christianity in England, and conse- by a natural hysteria at the discovery of the quently rendered more difficult the task of rank treachery disguised as Modernism, will Rome to impress herself upon that great attract the attention of those emerging from nation. Such are some of the elements of the débâcle and genuinely seeking light and the problem that confronts Benedict XV. truth. Such would seem to be the attitude What is his equipment to deal with them ? of the Papacy as suggested by the appoint
It is quite obvious that the secretary of ments thus far made. Cardinal Rampolla must be a trained diplo- The pronouncements attributed to the mat. Under that masterful, patient, learned Pontiff during the Conclave with regard to the mind the knowledge acquired during the pro- position of the Papacy in the present strugtracted, diverse, and delicate negotiations gle are an augury of much promise for a conducted in the reign of Leo XIII with the successful diplomacy. They were absolutely Great Powers of Europe must prove of im- without partisanship, and presented not only mense advantage to the new Pontiff, called a high but the only true conception of the now to originate such negotiations for him- duty of a Pope claiming to be the representaself. It is equally obvious that his diplomacy tive of Christ. Utterly disinterested, without or policy lacks sympathy with that pursued by a trace of worldliness, they proclaimed the Cardinal Merry del Val. It is no secret that office of a shepherd seeking to calm and the latter was responsible for the removal of restrain his unruly sheep. The most striking Mgr. della Chiesa from Rome; and it is feature of these utterances was that they quite legitimate to infer that there will be a placed the Pope in the position, not of radical divergence in policy. The experience one who held aloof until the battle was acquired by Benedict XV as actual adminis- fought and won, but who in the thick of the trator of the important see of Bologna will mêlée sought to make his voice heard and to be invaluable to him now, as the pastoral bring back the combatants to a sense of service of Pius X proved of such benefit to reason and of right. They betokened fearhim and his Church. So that, from the point lessness -a great quality in one who sits in of view both of diplomacy and the pastoral the chair of Peter.
HT BY UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD
THE NEW POPE omo della Chiesa, now Benedict XV, was born at Pegli, in Italy, November 21, 1854, and consequently is now nearing his sixtieth birthday. He was ordained a priest in 1878: in 1887 he became secretary to the late Cardinal
Rampolla; in 1907 he became an Adviser to the Holy Office, and in the same year was made Archbishop of Bologna ; only last May was he elevated to the Cardinalate. The new Pope is a man
of aristocratic lineage, in this respect being in decided contrast to the late Pope,
issue discusses the personality and probable tendencies of the new Pope