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with different heights in different districts, and of restricting industry and commerce to certain specified localities to be determined upon by careful investigation. The individual districts will doubtless be of marry shapes and sizes, according to the topography and the transportation facilities and the present use of the various sections of New York City. This means a tremendous amount of detail work and of exhaustive study.

If New York carries this gigantic task successfully into effect, we may hope that many other cities will follow suit, and do not only what Minneapolis, Los Angeles, and a few other pioneers have already done—permit the residents of certain favored sections to declare these sections residence districts from which factories and other undesirable types of buildings are barred—but adopt a systematic districting plan for their entire area which will protect business interests, safeguard homes, and promote the welfare of the whole community.

"LOOK OUT FOR ARMY-WORM MOTHS WITH ONE COLORED WING!"

That is the request which the Department of Agriculture is sending out to every one interested in the destruction of the army-worm pest which this summer has ravaged the crops and lawns of the northern United States east of the Mississippi with considerable thoroughness. If you see a moth with one red or one violet wing, however, don't be unnecessarily alarmed, for the badge is not a sign of unusual viciousness, but merely indicates that the moth wearing it has previously been handled by a Government entomologist, who stained the wing in order that the movements of its owner about the country might be traced and the farmers thus have a better knowledge of the habits of the pest and be better enabled to help the Department in controlling the spread of the pernicious insect.

If in your evening walk you meet a moth with a red wing, you will know that it hails from Portsmouth, Virginia; if the stain is black or yellow, you can rest assured that the creature has visited Charlottesville, Virginia; while if a moth bearing a violet flag to starboard or port interrupts your reading of the evening paper by fluttering against the chimney of your lamp, rest assured that the visitor has passed through Hagerstovm, Maryland. For in those three towns the Department's moth decorators are stationed.

The Department of Agriculture, which has

taken pains to let no moths loose where their liberation could possibly add to the natural damage of the pest, believes that with the better knowledge of the habits of the insect to be gained from this experiment it will be possible more completely to control the spread of the nuisance in the future. However, it is worth while knowing now that a mixture of one pound of paris green, fifty pounds of wheat bran, and the juice of half a dozen oranges mixed to a stiff dough and spread about an infested field is very efficacious in destroying the worms which hatch from the eggs of the moths. Clean cultivation, the rotation of crops, the cleaning up of fence corners, and the burning over of waste grass land in the spring or fall serve to prevent a recurrence of the army-worm. Against immediate invasion from uncared-for pasture lands farmers have at times been forced to guard their cultivated fields by actual intrenchments. A furrow is made with a plow between the plot to be protected and the line of attack. Into this furrow the army-worms fall as did the cavalry at the sunken road of Waterloo, and may then be crushed to death or burned up with kerosene according to taste.

BIRTH RATES. WAR. AND
CIVILIZATION

The Berlin correspondent of the " Medical Record " tells us that before war furnished an all-engrossing topic of conversation for Germans there were few subjects discussed with as much interest in the Fatherland as the recent rapid diminution in the birth rate. At a meeting of the German Public Health Society a few weeks before the beginning of hostilities Krohne, who is an authority on such matters, pointed out that since 1876, when a high-water birth rate of 40.9 per thousand was reached, there had been a steady decline to 28.2 per thousand in 1912. In the cities and among the laboring classes, as well as in the country districts and among the higher classes, the number of births had decreased. Since there had been no falling off in the marriage rate and no increase in venereal disease, the conclusion was that the diminution had been the result of deliberate intention on the part of individuals because of the increasing expense of bringing up children and because of the fact that the child becomes productive much later now than formerly.

In some American medical circles the

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It will be a long time, despite the progress made, before the great mass of people who speak the various dialects get into close communication with one another and the mind of the vast population of the republic is accessible to ideas and responsive to them.

A NEW USE FOIt TRIAL
BY "JOINT BOARD"

Whether or not government is by '- the consent of the governed"' is the acid test for democracy among peoples. The more '• consent" there is on the part of employees in relations between employer and employed, the less of autocracy there is in that relation also: and, generally speaking, the more efficient will be the service rendered. Mr. Marcus M. Marks, President of the Borough of Manhattan in the City of New York, has recently inaugurated in the government of that borough a system of trial for accused employees by joint boards of employers and fellows of the accused which marks a new advance in democracy.

When a man who works for the Borough of Manhattan is brought up for trial on charges, his case is heard by a board consisting of two officials of the borough and two

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employees of the same department as the accused. The result is that the man under charges has a fuller opportunity to state his case than he would if his interests were not safeguarded by his fellows, and he feels more inclined to bow with a good grace before whatever punishment is meted out to him man he would if he were not represented on the joint board of judges. The findings of these boards, although only advisory, are usually followed by the department heads.

It has been found that the workingmen called to serve as judges have not been swayed in their findings by class prejudice, and the discipline and esprit Je corps of the men working for the borough has been improved owing to the fact that after trial the men carry back to their fellows the story of an absolute " square deal."'

A SCHOOL FOR
SALESGIRLS

Practice in choral singing and indoor baseball may not seem to be essential to skill in disposing of lingerie behind a sales-counter in a large department store, but the management of Lord & Taylor's new store in New York and the directors of the Department Store Education Association have included these two specialties with other branches of physical training as part of the curriculum in the new school of salesmanship just opened in the New York store.

This is not the first attempt to teach individual salesgirls how to sell their own specialty, but it is the most successful effort on record to teach the girl her function in relation to the whole store, to make each cog understand its relation to the whole wheel; in short, to organize a department store like a baseball team, each unit having its particular function, but being ready in emergencies to perform the function of some other unit.

The school is the result of the effort of three New York women: Mrs. Henry Ollesheimer, Miss Virginia Potter, and Miss Anne Morgan. I; has already made good in the Lord & Taylor store, and will doubtless be adopted by many others. The reason that baseball and choral singing are practiced during the forty-fiveminute period at the beginning of the day is that the physical well-being of the salesgirl U essential to good salesmanship. Other subjects taught are the psychology of selling. fashion study, store system, etc.

The girls are divided into groups, each group going to school four times every three

weeks. They look forward with pleasure to these study periods, during which they are receiving full pay, by the way, and they are just as much interested in learning matters relating directly to their daily work—as, for instance, that the first slit skirt was decreed by Lycurgus—as they are in mastering the intricacies of batting and catching in the gymnasium during the play period.

While in this way the human side of the girls is reached and their interest aroused in their work, at the same time their efficiency is carefully studied so that each girl may get credit on the pay-roll for her own work. Instead of the unfair and unpopular '; percentage system," the girls are paid on a graded weekly salary basis, and when it is necessary to reduce expenses, instead of immediately lopping off salaries the plan will be to look for possible leakages and wastes. In the short time it has been in operation the school of salesmanship has won the approval of the girls, while it has demonstrated to all store managers that scientific education of employees pays in dollars and cents as well as in the increased contentedness of employees.

FIGHTING FOR TH E MASTERY

The defense offered for the war is thus expressed by a German supporter:

This war had to come. Everybody in Europe lias known it for years. Sooner or later it had to be decided which was to be master in Europe, the West or the East. The West—that means Germany, France, England, and Italy. The East—Russia.1

It is because France and England refused to join Germany and Austria in war against Russia that Germany is peculiarly incensed against France and England.

Why must either West or East be master in Europe? Why must either the Teuton or the Slav dominate?

In the eighteenth century Roman Catholicism and Protestantism fought to determine which should dominate Europe. In England the Puritans and the Episcopalians fought to determine which should dominate England. To-day neither Roman Catholicism nor Protestantism dominates Europe ; neither Puritanism nor Episcopalianfsm dominates England. The Roman Catholic Church is better because it has a Protestant neighbor. The Protestant Church is better because it has a Roman Catholic neighbor. Nowhere are Protestantism and Roman Catholicism more efficient religious forces than in America, where neither attempts to dominate.

1 Dr. Hanns Heinz Ewers, born in Diisseldorf. on the Rhine, is said to be one of the most celebrated authors of the day. His article in "The Fatherland," an American weekly published for the purpose of defending Germany and Austria, begins with the sentence quoted above.

In the eighteenth century France and England fought to determine which should be master on this continent. England won, only to lose her mastery in half the continent through the American Revolution, and to divide her mastery with France in the other half. It is true that Canada is an English dependency. But it is also true that in Canada the English do not dominate and do not try to dominate the French. The two races live in peace and friendship, each learning from the other. English Canada has had a French Premier. In Quebec a FrenchCanadian solution of the school question is adopted. In Manitoba an English-Canadian solution of the school question is adopted.

The United States is occupied by a heterogeneous population in which all races live peaceably together. Politically the Irish have dominated New York City; the Germans have dominated Wisconsin. But the Anglo-Saxons have not fought with the Celts in New York nor the native Americans with tHe Germans in Wisconsin. The AngloSaxons have learned something from the Irish and the Irish something from the Anglo-Saxons. The native Americans have learned something from the Germans and the Germans something from the native Americans. All races live peaceably together because each race recognizes and respects the good qualities of its neighbor, and there is a free commerce in ideas as well as in goods.

We Americans repudiate absolutely this idea that either the East or the West, either the Slav or the Teuton, must dominate Europe, as we absolutely repudiate the idea that either the East or the West, either Slav, German, or Celt, must dominate America. Once the South attempted to dominate, and a terrible war resulted. Then, for a little time, the North attempted to dominate, and a disastrous political anarchy resulted in the South. Now neither North nor South attempts to dominate. The whole country recognizes the truth that the interests of North and South, of East and West, are one. At one time, in America, the white race dominated

the colored race. The result, slavery, was equally disastrous to both races. Then, in the reconstruction period, the colored race dominated the white race. The result, political corruption, was equally disastrous to both races. Now the constitutions of the six most progressive Southern States provide that intelligence and thrift shall dominate ignorance and idleness. And where this solution is honestly accepted and honorably lived up to, peace and prosperity follow.

We do not deny the right of a nation to exclude from its territory a foreign and inharmonious race. We affirm that right. Austria may forbid the migration of Slavs to her Empire. But it is one thing for a nation to exclude from her territory a foreign and inharmonious race; it is quite another thing for one race in a nation to demand the right to dominate another race in the same nation, or one nation to demand the right to dominate other nations in the family of nations.

Russia wants free access to the Mediterranean. She needs it and ought to have it. But that does not give her a right to wrest Constantinople from Turkey. Austria wants free access to the ,-Egean. She needs it and ought to have it. But that does not give her a right to annex Servia. Canada wants free access, winter and summer, to the Atlantic Ocean. She needs it and ought to have it. But she does not make war on the United States and seek to annex Maine. She would not if she had the power. She builds a railway to Portland, and enjoys the same access to that port that is enjoyed by the citizens of Maine.

Political domination is not necessary for commercial extension. To suppose that one nation or one race must dominate Europe in order to secure peace and order in Europe is to assume that international law is nothing but an application to international affairs of the law of the jungle.

Europe will not win peace by the domination of East over West or West over East, of Slav over Teuton or Teuton over Slav. It will win peace only when the various European races respect each other, recognize the truth that each race can learn from the neighboring races, and all the peoples—Russian, German. Austrian, Servian, Belgian, English, French—realize that they possess a common interest in the success of Europe overwhelmingly greater than any possible gain in the domination of one people over another.

It is the attempt of Russia to dominate the Finn and the Jew that has created Russian revolution; the attempt of Austria to dominate the Croatian and the Slav that has constantly threatened her national integrity; it is now the acknowledged attempt of the Germanic peoples to dominate Europe that has plunged Europe into this awful war.

The mastery of the world must be won peaceably by ideas, not forcibly by the cannon and the bayonet. The cannon and the bayonet have sometimes their use. They are sometimes necessary to preserve order, that ideas may have a chance for expression. They never can alone establish a true supremacy. The German lion did not promote his national health by swallowing the Alsatian lamb. All he got was an attack of political indigestion. Supremacy is produced by intelligence, not by force of arms; by commerce in ideas, not by conflicts with cannon. In the hand that holds the plow rather than in the hand that holds the certificate of paper sovereignty will be vested ;he control of this world.

One month ago Germany was a great world leader. Her educational system had been borrowed by all democratic communities, with modifications, adapting it to their several conditions. Her industrial activities had stimulated ingenuity in every nation with which she had commercial relations. Her commercial fleets were carrying her influence to every part of the habitable ?k>be. She had the respect and the admiration of all peoples. That she aroused the jealousy of some was an almost unavoidable incident of her wisely directed energies. She has dealt a blow to her commerce from which it will take her a long time to recover. She has embittered the hostility of some nations, and brought upon herself by her ourse the almost universal condemnation of the neutral peoples. In appealing to the cannon to make her master in Europe she has thrown away the world leadership which her schools, her industry, and her commerce were giving to her.

Americans have a great admiration for the Germany of scholarship—the Germany of Kant. Hegel, and Eucken; for the Germany of music—the Germany of Beethoven, Mendelssohn, and Wagner; for the Germany of literature—the Germany of Heine, Schiller, and Goethe; for industrial Germany—for tts vocational schools, for its manufactured products, for its splendid merchant marine. But they dread the Germany of Bismarck

and von Moltke. In the interests of civilization, to which Germany has made such splendid contributions, they desire the overthrow, not of Germany, but of militarism in Germanv.

1870-1914

The Outlook believes that fundamentally the European conflagration is a war of military monarchism against liberalism. In support of this conclusion a brief quotation from Busch's " Bismarck: Some Secret Pages of His History," may be of interest and value to our readers. Moritz Busch, acting as Bismarck's secretary and authorized biographer, describes in the following passage from his diary an interview between Prince Luitpold of Bavaria and the Iron Chancellor. At the time at which Dr. Busch was writing, September 12, 1870, Bismarck had apparently little thought to waste upon that Slavic peril and unculhtr against which Germany has now assumed the right to raise the banner of civilization. The purpose and subject of this interview between the Prince and the Chancellor Dr. Busch describes and paraphrases as follows:

1 have reason to believe that this interview was the beginning of negotiations (which were several times interrupted) between the Chancellor of the Confederation and the Emperors of Austria and Russia, which gradually led to an understanding, and finally resulted in the so-called "Drei Kaiser Biiinliiiss" or Three Emperors' Alliance. The object of these "historical and political statements" was to induce Prince Luitpold to write a letter to his brother-in-law, the Archduke Albrecht, submitting certain views to the personal consideration of the Emperor Francis Joseph. . .. They were as follows: The turn which events have taken in Paris renders it possible to regard the present war between Germany and France as a defense of monarchical conservative principles against the republican and socialistic tenets adopted by the present holders of power in France. The proclamation of the Republic in Paris has been welcomed with warm approval in Spain, and it is to be expected that it will obtain a like reception in Italy. In that circumstance lies the great danger for those European states that are governed on a monarchical system. The best security for the cause of order and civilization against this solidarity of the revolutionary and republican elements would be a closer union of those countries which, like Germany, Russia, and Austria, still afford a firm support to the monarchical principle. Austria,

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