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with different heights in different districts, taken pains to let no moths loose where their and of restricting industry and commerce to liberation could possibly add to the natural certain specified localities to be determined damage of the pest, believes that with the upon by careful investigation. The individual better knowledge of the habits of the insect districts will doubtless be of marty shapes and to be gained from this experiment it will be sizes, according to the topography and the possible more completely to control the transportation facilities and the present use spread of the nuisance in the future. Howof the various sections of New York City. ever, it is worth while knowing now that a This means a tremendous amount of detail mixture of one pound of paris green, fifty work and of exhaustive study.

pounds of wheat bran, and the juice of half If New York carries this gigantic task suc- a dozen oranges mixed to a stiff dough and cessfully into effect, we may hope that many spread about an infested field is very efficaother cities will follow suit, and do not only what cious in destroying the worms which hatch Minneapolis, Los Angeles, and a few other from the eggs of the moths. Clean cultivapioneers have already done-permit the resi- tion, the rotation of crops, the cleaning up of dents of certain favored sections to declare fence corners, and the burning over of waste these sections residence districts from which grass land in the spring or fall serve to prefactories and other undesirable types of build- vent a recurrence of the army-worm. Against ings are barred—but adopt a systematic dis- immediate invasion from uncared-for pasture tricting plan for their entire area which will pro- lands farmers have at times been forced tect business interests, safeguard homes, and to guard their cultivated fields by actual promote the welfare of the whole community. intrenchments. A furrow is made with a

plow between the plot to be protected and “LOOK OUT FOR ARMY-WORM MOTHS

the line of attack. Into this furrow the WITH ONE COLORED WING !"

army-worms fall as did the cavalry at the That is the request which the Department of sunken road of Waterloo, and may then be Agriculture is sending out to every one inter- crushed to death or burned up with kerosene ested in the destruction of the army-worm according to taste. pest which this summer has ravaged the crops and lawns of the northern United

BIRTH RATES, WAR, AND States east of the Mississippi with consider- CIVILIZATION able thoroughness. If you see a moth with The Berlin correspondent of the “ Medical one red or one violet wing, however, don't be Record ” tells us that before war furnished an unnecessarily alarmed, for the badge is not a all-engrossing topic of conversation for Gersign of unusual viciousness, but merely indi- mans there were few subjects discussed with cates that the moth wearing it has previously as much interest in the Fatherland as the been handled by a Government entomolo- recent rapid diminution in the birth rate. At gist, who stained the wing in order that the a meeting of the German Public Health movements of its owner about the country Society a few weeks before the beginning of might be traced and the farmers thus have hostilities Krohne, who is an authority on a better knowledge of the habits of the pest such matters, pointed out that since 1876, and be better enabled to help the Depart- when a high-water birth rate of 40.9 per ment in controlling the spread of the perni- thousand was reached, there had been a cious insect.

steady decline to 28.2 per thousand in 1912. If in your evening walk you meet a moth In the cities and among the laboring classes, with a red wing, you will know that it hails from as well as in the country districts and among Portsmouth, Virginia ; if the stain is black or the higher classes, the number of births yellow, you can rest assured that the creature had decreased. Since there had been no has visited Charlottesville, Virginia ; while if a falling off in the marriage rate and no increase moth bearing a violet flag to starboard or in venereal disease, the conclusion was that port interrupts your reading of the evening the diminution had been the result of depaper by fluttering against the chimney of liberate intention on the part of individuals your lamp, rest assured that the visitor has because of the increasing expense of bring passed through Hagerstorin, Maryland. For ing up children and because of the fact that in those three towns the Department's moth the child becomes productive much later now decorators are stationed.

than formerly. The Department of Agriculture, which has In some American medical circles the opinion has been put forward that the ten years ago the postal service of China, diminishing birth rate was a potent factor in organized as a part of the customs service deciding the Kaiser to strike now rather than under that very able administrator Sir Robert a few years later. However this may be, Hart, handled about ten million pieces of it is certain that the immediate effect of the small mail pet annum ; at present it handles war will be to make the birth rates of the war- about six hundred million pieces. It is interring countries lower than ever. History national in scope ; its officials represent eight shows that when a country goes to war, its or ten different nations; wherever railways birth rate drops off almost immediately and go the mails are carried by trains, but many does not return to normal for several years thousand miles are covered by couriers on after peace is established.

foot or horseback, or by any other means Germany, however, is not the only country of conveyance. In many places the service in which parenthood has become scarcer is not only up to the standard of service in recently—the same tendency to some extent American cities, but is superior to it. In the is found in every civilized country. In the city of Peking there are twelve deliveries a large cities this tendency is particularly day. Letters are carried everywhere within marked-in fact, New York is almost the the country for one cent. The parcels post only large city in which there are more babies and money order systems are in successful born to every thousand persons now than operation all over China.

operation all over China. The special dethere were thirty years ago. The following livery letter service is especially efficient. table, with the approximate birth rates of Mail marked - express letter service " is New York, London, Berlin, Paris, and Brus- placed in special bags as soon as it is depossels in 1880 and in 1912, is interesting : ited. These bags often contain only two or

1880.
1912.

three letters. They are taken out by couriers Berlin .... 10

20.4

in waiting, who, mounted on bicycles, go at London. 35.2 23.5

full speed to the address, deliver the letter, Paris.

25.5
16.7

and wait to receive an answer. This service
Brussels
32.5 16.2

is confined to large towns, and the cost of New York.. 23

26.2

sending such a letter is five cents. It will be noticed that of the five cities the It will be a long time, despite the progress greatest decrease was in Brussels and Berlin, made, before the great mass of people who while New York was the only one to gain. speak the various dialects get into close com

While birth rates have almost universally munication with one another and the mind of dropped in civilized countries, it must be the vast population of the republic is accessiremembered that there has been a general ble to ideas and responsive to them. decline in death rates also.

A NEW USE FOR TRIAL

BY "JOINT BOARD" CHINA

Whether or not government is by “the Among the many difficulties which face the consent of the governed " is the acid test for establishment of popular government in China democracy among peoples. The more “ c0:is the absence of a common language and of sent” there is on the part of employees in means of rapid and complete communication relations between employer and employed, the of news.

There are probably hundreds of less of autocracy there is in that relation also ; thousands of Chinese who do not yet know and, generally speaking, the more efficient that the Manchu dynasty has fallen. The will be the service rendered. Mr. Marcus report in the New York - Tribune" of an M. Marks, President of the Borough of official of the Chinese postal service recently Manhattan in the City of New York, has in this country is therefore very significant. recently inaugurated in the government of

After calling attention to the fact, known to that borough a system of trial for accused emevery one who knows anything about China, ployees by joint boards of employers and that the people are supremely interested in fellows of the accused which marks a new work and that as long as they can work advance in democracy. under proper conditions they care nothing When a man who works for the Borough about politics, and that they want to be let of Manhattan is brought up for trial on alone, to be at peace among themselves and charges, his case is heard by a board consistwith the whole world, this official said that ing of two officials of the borough and two

MAIL SERVICE IN

a

employees of the same department as the weeks. They look forward with pleasure to accused. The result is that the man under these study periods, during which they are charges has a fuller opportunity to state his receiving full pay, by the way, and they are case than he would if his interests were not just as much interested in learning matters safeguarded by his fellows, and he feels more relating directly to their daily work—as, for inclined to bow with a good grace before instance, that the first slit skirt was decreed whatever punishment is meted out to him by Lycurgus--as they are in mastering the than he would if he were not represented on intricacies of batting and catching in the the joint board of judges. The findings of gymnasium during the play period. these boards, although only advisory, are While in this way the human side of the usually followed by the department heads. girls is reached and their interest aroused in

It has been found that the workingmen their work, at the same time their efficiency called to serve as judges have not been is carefully studied so that each girl may get swayed in their findings by class prejudice, credit on the pay-roll for her own work. and the discipline and esprit de corps of the Instead of the unfair and unpopular “ permen working for the borough has been im- centage system,” the girls are paid on proved owing to the fact that after trial the graded weekly salary basis, and when it is men carry back to their fellows the story of necessary to reduce expenses, instead of an absolute - square deal.”

immediately lopping off salaries the plan will

be to look for possible leakages and wastes. A SCHOOL FOR

In the short time it has been in operation SALESGIRLS

the school of salesmanship has won the apPractice in choral singing and indoor base- proval of the girls, while it has demonstrated ball may not seem to be essential to skill in to all store managers that scientific education disposing of lingerie behind a sales-counter of employees pays in dollars and cents as in a large department store, but the manage- well as in the increased contentedness of ment of Lord & Taylor's new store in New employees. York and the directors of the Department Store Education Association have included these two specialties with other branches of

FIGHTING FOR THE MASTERY physical training as part of the curriculum in the new school of salesmanship just opened The defense offered for the war is thus in the New York store.

expressed by a German supporter : This is not the first attempt to teach indi- This war had to come. Everybody in Europe vidual salesgirls how to sell their own spe- has known it for years. Sooner or later it had cialty, but it is the most successful effort on to be decided which was to be master in Europe, record to teach the girl her function in rela- the West or the East. The West-that means tion to the whole store, to make each cog Germany, France, England, and Italy. The understand its relation to the whole wheel ; East-Russia.' in short, to organize a department store like It is because France and England refused a baseball team, each unit having its particu- to join Germany and Austria in war against lar function, but being ready in emergencies Russia that Germany is peculiarly incensed to perform the function of some other unit. against France and England.

The school is the result of the effort of three Why must either West or East be master New York women : Mrs. Henry Ollesheimer, in Europe? Why must either the Teuton Miss Virginia Potter, and Miss Anne Morgan. or the Slav dominate ? It has already made good in the Lord & Taylor In the eighteenth century Roman Catholstore, and will doubtless be adopted by many icism and Protestantism fought to determine others. The reason that baseball and choral which should dominate Europe. In England singing are practiced during the forty-five- the Puritans and the Episcopalians fought minute period at the beginning of the day is to determine which should dominate Eng. that the physical well-being of the salesgirl land. To-day neither Roman Catholicism is essential to good salesmanship. Other nor Protestantism dominates Europe ; neither subjects taught are the psychology of selling.

1 Dr. Hanns Heinz Ewers, born Düsseldorf, on the fashion study, store system, etc.

Rhine, is said to be one of the most celebrated authors of The girls are divided into groups, each

the day. His article in “ The Fatherland," an American

weekly published for the purpose of defending Germaak group going to school four times every three and Austria, begins with the sentence quoted above.

races.

Puritanism nor Episcopalianism dominates the colored race. The result, slavery, was England. The Roman Catholic Church is equally disastrous to both races. Then, in better because it has a Protestant neighbor. the reconstruction period, the colored race The Protestant Church is better because it dominated the white race. The result, politihas a Roman Catholic neighbor. Nowhere cal corruption, was equally disastrous to both are Protestantism and Roman Catholicism

Now the constitutions of the six most more efficient religious forces than in Amer- progressive Southern States provide that inica, where neither attempts to dominate. telligence and thrift shall dominate ignorance

In the eighteenth century France and and idleness. And where this solution is England fought to determine which should honestly accepted and honorably lived up to, be master on this continent. England won, peace and prosperity follow. only to lose her mastery in half the continent We do not deny the right of a nation to through the American Revolution, and to exclude from its territory a foreign and individe her mastery with France in the other harmonious race. We affirm that right. half. It is true that Canada is an English Austria may forbid the migration of Slavs to dependency. But it is also true that in Can- her Empire. But it is one thing for a nation ada the English do not dominate and do not to exclude from her territory a foreign and try to dominate the French. The two races inharmonious race; it is quite another thing live in peace and friendship, each learning for one race in a nation to demand the right from the other. English Canada has had a to dominate another race in the same nation, French Premier. In Quebec a French- or one nation to demand the right to domiCanadian solution of the school question is nate other nations in the family of nations. adopted. In Manitoba an English-Canadian Russia wants free access to the Meditersolution of the school question is adopted. ranean. She needs it and ought to have it.

The United States is occupied by a hetero- But that does not give her a right to wrest geneous population in which all races live Constantinople from Turkey. Austria wants peaceably together. Politically the Irish free access to the Ægean. She needs it and have dominated New York City; the Ger- ought to have it. But that does not give mans have dominated Wisconsin. But the her a right to annex Servia. Canada wants Anglo-Saxons have not fought with the Celts free access, winter and summer, to the in New York nor the native Americans with Atlantic Ocean. She needs it and ought to the Germans in Wisconsin. The Anglo- have it. But she does not make war on the Saxons have learned something from the United States and seek to annex Maine. She Irish and the Irish something from the would not if she had the power. She builds Anglo-Saxons. The native Americans have a railway to Portland, and enjoys the same learned something from the Germans and access to that port that is enjoyed by the the Germans something from the native citizens of Maine. Americans. All races live peaceably together Political domination is not necessary for because each race recognizes and respects commercial extension. To suppose that one the good qualities of its neighbor, and there nation or one race must dominate Europe in is a free commerce in ideas as well as in order to secure peace and order in Europe goods.

is to assume that international law is nothing We Americans repudiate absolutely this but an application to international affairs of idea that either the East or the West, either the law of the jungle. the Slav or the Teuton, must dominate Europe will not win peace by the dominaEurope, as we absolutely repudiate the idea tion of East over West or West over East, of that either the East or the West, either Slav, Slav over Teuton or Teuton over Slav. German, or Celt, must dominate America. will win peace only when the various EuroOnce the South attempted to dominate, and pean races respect each other, recognize the a terrible war resulted. Then, for a little truth that each race can learn from the neightime, the North attempted to dominate, and boring races, and all the peoples-Russian, a disastrous political anarchy resulted in the German, Austrian, Servian, Belgian, English, South. Now neither North nor South attempts French-realize that they possess a common to dominate. The whole country recognizes interest in the success of Europe overwhelmthe truth that the interests of North and ingly greater than any possible gain in the South, of East and West, are one. At one domination of one people over another. time, in America, the white race dominated It is the attempt of Russia to dominate

It

the Finn and the Jew that has created and von Moltke. In the interests of civiliRussian revolution ; the attempt of Austria zation, to which Germany has made such to dominate the Croatian and the Slav that splendid contributions, they desire the overhas constantly threatened her national integ- throw, not of Germany, but of militarism in rity; it is now the acknowledged attempt of Germany. the Germanic peoples to dominate Europe that has plunged Europe into this awful war. The mastery of the world must be won

1870-1914 peaceably by ideas, not forcibly by the can

The Outlook believes that fundamentally non and the bayonet. The cannon and the bayonet have sometimes their use. They

the European conflagration is a war of miliare sometimes necessary to preserve order,

tary monarchism against liberalism. In supthat ideas may have a chance for expression.

port of this conclusion a brief quotation from

Busch's “ Bismarck : Some Secret Pages of They never can alone establish a true su

His History," may be of interest and value premacy. The German lion did not pro

to our readers. Moritz Busch, acting as mote his national health by swallowing the Alsatian lamb.

Bismarck's secretary and authorized biograAll he got was an attack of political indigestion. Supremacy is produced pher, describes in the following passage from by intelligence, not by force of arms; by pold of Bavaria and the Iron Chancellor. At

his diary an interview between Prince Luitcommerce in ideas, not by conflicts with

the time at which Dr. Busch was writing, cannon. In the hand that holds the plow rather than in the hand that holds the cer

September 12, 1870, Bismarck had appartificate of paper sovereignty will be vested ently little thought to waste upon that Slavic the control of this world.

peril and uncultur against which Germany One month ago Germany was

has now assumed the right to raise the

a great world leader. Her educational system had

banner of civilization. The purpose and subbeen borrowed by all democratic communi- ject of this interview between the Prince and

the Chancellor Dr. Busch describes and paraties, with modifications, adapting it to their several conditions. Her industrial activities

phrases as follows: had stimulated ingenuity in every nation

I have reason to believe that this interview with which she had commercial relations.

was the beginning of negotiations (which were

several times interrupted) between the ChanHer commercial fleets were carrying her

cellor of the Confederation and the Emperors influence to every part of the habitable

of Austria and Russia, which gradually led globe. She had the respect and the admira

to an understanding, and finally resulted in tion of all peoples. That she aroused the the so-called “ Drei Kaiser Bündniss," or jealousy of some was an almost unavoidable Three Emperors' Alliance. The object of these incident of her wisely directed energies. She “historical and political statements” was to has dealt a blow to her commerce from induce Prince Luitpold to write a letter to his which it will take her a long time to recover. brother-in-law, the Archduke Albrecht, submitShe has embittered the hostility of some

ting certain views to the personal consideration nations, and brought upon herself by her

of the Emperor Francis Joseph. ... They were course the almost universal condemnation of

as follows: The turn which events have taken in

Paris renders it possible to regard the present the neutral peoples. In appealing to the

war between Germany and France as a defense cannon to make her master in Europe she of monarchical conservative principles against has thrown away the world leadership which the republican and socialistic tenets adopted her schools, her industry, and her commerce by the present holders of power in France. were giving to her.

The proclamation of the Republic in Paris has Americans have a great admiration for been welcomed with warm approval in Spain, the Germany of scholarship—the Germany

and it is to be expected that it will obtain a like of Kant, Hegel, and Eucken ; for the Ger

reception in Italy. In that circumstance lies many of music—the Germany of Beethoven,

the great danger for those European states Mendelssohn, and Wagner; for the Germany

that are governed on a monarchical system.

The best security for the cause of order and of literature—the Germany of Heine, Schil

civilization against this solidarity of the revoluler, and Goethe ; for industrial Germany—for tionary and republican elements would be a its vocational schools, for its manufactured closer union of those countries which, like Gerproducts, for its splendid merchant marine. many, Russia, and Austria, still afford a firm

But they dread the Germany of Bismarck support to the monarchical principle. Austria,

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