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count the data of biology. Our native tend-
ency to Platonism. Thinking as classifying.
What happens when we have an insufficient
number of classes. Nature of mathematical
knowledge. It is not knowledge of nature,
but deals with pure ideals. It is a set of con-
sistencies with a certain applicability in the
concrete world. Physical science deals with
artificially isolated systems in a concrete whole
which is not a system, a mechanism, but a life.
Why metaphysics must be empirical.

89

CHAPTER VII
THE ANSWER OF

THE MECHANISTS
Sir Ray Lancaster speaks for the materialists
in science. His attitude to philosophy and his
criticism of Bergson. The eye of the Pecten.
Huxley's theory that we are conscious auto-
mata. The average man's interest in the is-

involved. Evils of unconscious meta-
physics. Logical outcome of the automaton
theory. The individuality of life. It does not
fit into systems. School systems. Injustice of
all classifications of living men. Tolstoy's per-
ception of this fact.

sues

OF

CHAPTER VIII
LIGHT FROM BERGson's THEORY KNOWLEDGE
UPON BIOLOGICAL PROBLEMS

107
The puzzles of evolution. Failure of attempts
at mechanical explanation. Darwin's theory
of the accumulation of insensible variations.
Insuperable difficulties. The eye of the Pec-
ten. Heteroblastia. The mutation theory.
Bergson points the way to a solution. Our
baseless assumption that nature builds organic
structures after the manner of a manufac-
turer. The difficulty is due to the nature of
our minds, or rather to our intellectual bias,
and lies in our mistaken conception of what
constitutes an explanation in the problems of

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