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“ The Reformation in France. Comp. 7). Beza, Hist. Ecclest. des égl. refor. mées du royaume de France. Anv. 1580.-A. L. Ileermann, Frankt. Reb. u. Bürgerkriege im 16. Jahrb. Lpz. 1828.- Leop. Ranke, franz. Gesch, im 16. u. 17. Jalirh. Stuttg., 1852. Bu. I.-- W. G. Soldan, Gesch. d. Protestsm. in Frank. bis zum Tove Karl's IX. Lpz. 1855. 2 Bde.-G. v. Polenz, Gesch. d. franz. Calvinism. Bd I Gotha. 1837.-F. W. Barthold, Deutschl. u. d. Hugenotten. Brem. 1847.G. W’eber, I. «. (18).-L. Wachler, d'e par. Bluthoclız. Lpz. 1828.-W. G. Soldan, Frankr. u. d. Barthol. Nacht, in Raumer's liist. Taschb. 1851.-E. Stihelin, d. Vebertritt König Heinrich’s IV. Bisel. 1856.-The first occasion of the Reformation in France proceeded from Wittemberg. In 1521, the Sorbonne directed Luther's writings to be burned in Paris. But Geneva soon acquired preponderant and exclusive influence. Francis I. (1515—47) tavoured the leformation in Germany, but persecuted the Protestants (Huguenols) of his own country. llenry II. (ob. 1559), and Francis II. (ob. 1560), did likewise. Many tbousands of heroic confessors were put to death by the sword, and by fire. And yet the Reformed Church, especially in Southern France, spread rapidly, and at the first General Synod in Paris (1559) adopted the Confessio Gullicana.
Even a powerful brauch of the royal family of the Bourbons (Anthony of Navarre, aud his spirited wife Jeunne D'Albret, Anthony's brother Louis Bourbon, and Prince Louis of Condé), and persons of eminence (Adiniral Coligny, and several parlia. mentary councillors, etc.), embraced Protestantism ; whilst their political rivals
, the Guises, of the ducal house of Lorraine (Francis Guise, and his brother Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine), sought support in the hostility of the Catholics. This gave additional strength to the peculiar tendency of the Reformed Church to combine political with religious aims (according to the theocratic example of the Old Testament), in their reformatory measures, and decidedly impressed it with the character of a political party. Under the regency (from 1560) of Catherine de Medici
, the inother of Charles IX. (ob. 1574), the prospects of the Huguenots brightened. The noble Chancellor, Michael d'Hospital, a Catholic, but a loe to all sanguinary proceedings, instituted a religious conference in the Abbey of Poissy, near Paris (1561), where, among others, Theodore Beza and the Jesuit General Lainez con. fronted each other. The Edict of Saint Germain (1562) secured toleration and the free enjoyment of religious worship to the Protestants of the border cities. This encouraged large numbers of secret friends of Protestantism openly to avow their faith, and the rage of the Catholics was inflamed anew. At Cakars, a Huguenot meeting house was surrounded by the people and fired; all assembled perished; those who escaped the fire were murdered. At l'assi, in Provence, the Huguenots were gathered for worship in a barn ; Francis of Guise perpetrated a more fearful carnage, swearing he would cut the accursed Edict into pieces with his sword. The religious and civil war then broke out in consuming flames.”
Messrs. T. and T. Clark also announce a Translation of Dr. Lange's Life of Christ, edited by Marcus Dods. It is, amongst scholars, a well known and highly valued work. Bishop Ellicott speaks of it as "a work which we sincerely hope may ere long meet with a competent translator.” Also a translation of Hagenbach's History of Religion in Germany in the 18th Century, and of De Pressense on the Atonement.
The Queen's English : Stray Notes on Speaking and Spelling. By IIenry Alford, D.D., Dean of Canterbury. Strahan and Co., London. 1864.---The command of pure English is an acquirement which many comparatively well educated people never attain. Yet without it, it is not only difficult, but frequently impossible, to convey an adequate idea of what we mean, or even correctly to describe some material object. The ludicrous mistakes continually arising from this defect afford, it is true, no little amusement; but we are inclined to think that the numerous mispronunciations and provincialisms which grate so harshly on the cultivated car soon etface all sense of the absurd. With the view of maintaining the purity of our language, Dean Alford points out the true meaning of many words commonly
misapplied, while he gives us some most useful and pungent remarks both on speaking and spelling. The character of a people's language is not altogether void of importance; for, as he remarks, the national mind is reflected in the speech, and every important feature in a people's language is reflected in its character and history. “If the way in which men express their thoughts is slipshod and mean, it will be very difficult for their thoughts themselves to escape being
If it is high-flown and bombastic, a character for ne tional simplicity and truthfulness, we may be sure, cannot be long maintained.”
Should our readers conclude that the volume must from its very nature be dry, we assure them that on giving it a perusal they will find themselves agreeably mistaken. Dean Alford commences by humorously comparing the English language to the Queen's highway, open to all of common right, and the general property of our country, over which all thought and all speech can travel smoothly and safely. "Along it the lawyer and the parliamentary agent propel their heavy waggons, clogged with a thousand pieces of cumbrous and antiquated machinery. Along it the poet and moralist drive their airy tandems, dependent for their success on the dust which they raise, and through which their varnished equipages glitter. On the same road divines, licensed and unlicensed, ply once a week and more," &c.
The following is a fair specimen of the way in which the abuse of our language is illustrated :-"A lady, who was not perfect in her aspirates, arriving rather late at a dinner party, by way of apology said, ' she was very sorry they were after their time, but they had some ale by the way.' Her weli known infirmity suggested the charitable explanation, that it was a storm, and not à TIPPLE, which had detained them."
We observe, too, some keen remarks on the mispronunciation by our clergy of many of the proper names which occur repeatedly in the New Testament. This, however, is a subject of frequent comment, and in our opinion a very fair amount of pedantry is displayed upon it. Proper names, whether Greek or Latin, which have stoord upon
pages of an English Bible five hundred years, have a right to claim their place as honest English subjects, and to be pronounced accordingly. If not, let us be consistent, and if we must have Aristobewolus, for instance, in the Epistle, let us know if we are in like manner to be bound to the classical pronunciation of all Greek and Latin proper names in the New Testament, and of all Hebrew ones in the Old ? And if so, why not proceed a step further, and speak of the Gospel of Matthæus and the Epistle of Jacobus. supposing all this accomplished, who is the wiser, who is the better? What, after all, is gained ? No doubt it is well to be correct in small matters as well as great ones, but correctness may be attained without pedantic uniformity; and on the whole, we are inclined to think that the English way of pronunciation is the best. It was the all but universal custom in former days, and till within the memory of most
The Spiritual Casket. By John Evangelist Gossner. Translated from the German. London: John F. Shaw and Co. 1864.—Holy meditation is essential to the developinent of the spiritual mind, and tends much to adorn the Christian character with the graces of tenderness, and regard for the feelings of others. The Spiritual Casket is a geries of short Bible meditations for every day throughout the year; similar to Bogatzky's well known Golden Treasury. Perhaps a short extract will convey a more correct impression of what this volume is than a mere description. We therefore subjoin the following:
“This know also, that in the last days perilous times shall come. For men shall be lovers of their own selves-lovers of pleasure, more than lovers of God.' (2 Tim. ji. 1-3.) We that are strong ought to bear the infirmities of the weak, and not to please ourselves. For even Christ pleased not himself.' (Rom. xv. 1-3.)
“Shameless self-love is so prone to flatter even the godly, that they are delighted with themselves, set themselves above others, set too much by themselves, and even go the length of despising the weaker brethren. There is no more banefui poison to be found in any laboratory than that which thou, beloved brother, bearest about in great store in thyself, and which, if thou art not sufficiently on thy guard, poisons all thy actions, and embitters all thy pleasures. This is thy vain self-conceit, thy blnud self-love. Only do not exonerate thyself, thou lovest thyself yet very dearly; acknowledge and confess it freely, and if thou wilt not by degrees lose all grace, seek an antidote for this fatal poison ; seek the kingdom of grace, and pure love to God, through Christ thy Lord, who alone can bruise in thee the head of this serpent, and beal in thee its venomous stings. Watch, pray, implore untiringly, if thou wilt root out this adder's brood from thy heart, and not die by it."
We are glad to learn that this work has had a large and rapid circulation in Germany. This fact speaks well for the state of religion abroad; and we with confidence commend it as a faithful help to holy meditation.
The opening of Parliament, on the 4th of the month, has been the signal for the introduction of many important subjects, foreign and domestic; and, having so few pages at our disposal for public affairs, we are overwhelmed with their number, and, if we attempt a selection, distracted by their variety. In the Speech from the Throne, the nation was congratulated, and not without reason, upon its prosperity. Our foreign relations, though delicate, were not such as to involve the probability of war. At home, the national finances, and, generally speaking, the state of trade and commerce, were satisfactory; and some amendments or reforms were hinted at, which have already been more fully disclosed ; and prove to be, as regards the Church at least, of no trifling character.
Following the order of the Speech, we are led, in the first place, to notice the angry state of Europe. With or without a cause, it seems resolved to try its fortunes once more in the dreadful, yet to the multitude the always alluring, game of war. The Prussian and Austrian armies have already invaded Schleswig, and driven the Danes, not without considerable bloodshed, beyond their Dannewerk-an antient barrier similar to those earthworks of the same date which their forefathers left, and which, after a thousand years, are still to be distinctly traced, upon our own soil. England remonstrates with the aggressors against the enormous wrong, but feels that she is not called upon to interfere by force of arms. Denmark, it is probable, may lose one or both of her provinces ; but the crime of the invasion will, without a doubt, be visited on the invaders. The smaller German
States are already quarrelling with Prussia for her contemptuous disregard of their little nationalities, and she will probably some day find an avenger of Denmark questioning her own rights on the banks of the Rhine. Austria, too, will find employment, if the murmurs of certain Italian "patriots are not empty as the wind, in defending her famous quadrilateral frontier and her rich Italian territories. On the north-east of Europe, the Polish insurrection, or war of independence, smoulders on amidst horrible cruelties on the side of Russia, which provoke, no doubt, similar atrocities from the Poles. England has remonstrated with Russia for her barbarous conduct; and our last remonstrance was so plain spoken, that the Russian minister, being informed of its nature, gave our ambassador an intimation, that if it were formally presented it would be resented by his Court. What this resentment might amount to, we are not informed; but for the present our protest is withheld, and we are still at peace with the most encroaching, the most dangerous, and the least civilized of European nations.
The war with the Maories in New Zealan 1 has proved more fatal to our troops than any conflict we have waged with savage tribes. But we hope it is now at an end. Whatever may have been the origin of the rebellion, it became necessary to subdue it by force. afraid that the experiment of an independent Maori State must be considered to have failed; and we confess that we part with the once bright vision of a native people raised to independence, and living ennobled by their presence in the midst of their European invaders, not without a sigh. The destruction of Kagosima by the guns of Admiral Kuper has provoked a warm discussion in Parliament. That a British subject, bearing an official post, was basely murdered by the Daimio, or feudatory lord of the town, or his creatures; that no redress could be obtained ; and that, when the British Admiral sailed up the river, he was fired upon by the forts, are, we believe, undisputed facts. The Admiral returned the fire, which communi. cated to the town, and in consequence it was destroyed, without, as it appears, intention on our part. We must wait for fuller information. But if this outline of the story be correct, however we may deplore the melancholy event, we cannot see that our admiral is to be blamed.
An appalling calamity has occurred at Santiago, in South America. The priests had determined to celebrate the Roman Catholic festival of the Immaculate Conception with unusual splendour. They set up their image of the Virgin, arrayed as the Queen of heaven, in an edifice constructed of wood and pasteboard, flaunting with muslin and cotton drapery, and lighted with ten thousand lamps. Into this treacherous building they invited a crowd of upwards of two thousand five hundred souls. More would have crushed in, but could not gain admittance. In a moment an awful flash of fire dashed round the edifice. The roof was in flames-escape was impossible--and within fifteen minutes two thousand five hundred human beings, chiefly young women of the higher class, lay, or rather yet stood upright, so closely were they jammed together, one frightful, silent, blackened mass of death. Very few were dragged out still living ; the priests alone secured a safe retreat. They saved, too, their " sacred vessels," but they barred escape, through the door by which they themselves withdrew, against their shrieking victims.
Rome herself scarcely matches this in horror and cruelty; but it is strictly true. The calm indifference to human suffering, with the fanatical reverence for sacred vessels, is quite in character with Rome. The priests had the effrontery to contradict the statement; and the consequence is, that the Santiago newspapers point out the house where the articles in question are to be seen, giving a description of each, and enumerating not only sacred vessels, but arm-chairs and other pieces of vestry furniture. The next day the chief priest announced-we almost tremble to repeat the blasphemy—that God himself had long been waiting for martyrs from His church in South America, and had thought fit at length, in this manner, to make a noble offering to Himself. We perceive that the Tablet, our London Roman Catholic newspaper, is frantic with indignation that such accusations should be credited. And the Romish priests in various parts of England vehemently deny their truth. But all this signifies nothing. When the reputation of his Church is at stake, neither the word nor the oath of a Roman Catholic priest is worth a straw. We say this without hesitation, because we are prepared to prove it; if, indeed, after the evidence of the Irish bishops and clergy before the House of Lords, in 1825, to say nothing of the two Blue Books on Maynooth, and the extracts from Romish writers of the highest authority, made within the last twelve months in our own reviews of Paroissien and M. Cayla, any Protestant reader should think it reasonable to demand further evidence. Indeed, while the Tablet is raving, Mr. Oakley, the pervert of Islington, is writing to the Daily News, “ that every Catholic Church contains what is more precious to Catholics than their own lives--the Blessed Sacrament, in which they believe their Saviour to be present.” If so, the priests did right no doubt; only they lost a noble opportunity of showing their own devotion. They should have returned into the burning edifice and died, comforting with their presence their agonizing Hock! There was in the building, the scene of this awful catastrophe, a Post-office to the Virgin Mary; into which her miserable devotees were encouraged to drop their letters. This too is indignantly denied by a priest at the Oratory; but here Mr. William Wilberforce comes to our assistance, and spares us the pain of contradiction. In his own journal, the Weekly Register, he tells us the whole story of a celestial postoffice, that of St. Aloysius at Rome; how the letters are duly posted ; and how the saint- ." whose acts,” he says, “are not for us to criticise" - makes himself acquainted with their contents. Altogether, the Santiago tragedy is perhaps the most appalling scene of horror, blasphemy, and fanaticism, that even the Church of Rome herself ever exhibited to an astonished world.
But we return from our discursive flight; for our Ecclesiastical affairs at home are of more than usual importance. The Queen has issued a Royal Commission “ to consider and revise the various forms of subscription and declaration required to be made by the clergy of the United Church of England and Ireland, on ordination, or on appointment, admission, or induction to any ecclesiastical dignity, benefice, curacy, lectureship, or office, and to report their opinion how far they may be altered and simplified, consistently with due security for the declared agreement of the clergy with the doctrines of the Church and the conformity to its ritual.” Thus the work of change, and, since