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be passed to their credit on the books of the bank, and continue to bear an interest of three per cent. per annum, payable quarterly, until the 1st of October next, when the principal will be reimbursed. If it be necessary, on the delivery to you of the certificates, with powers of reimbursement, to substitute some other certificates on your part, as was done in the case of the Louisiana debt by you, you are hereby authorized to give to the parties a certificate for an amount equal to what they respectively surrender to you. 3d. The portion purchased by you will, in like manner, go to your credit when it is paid by the Government. At that time it will be for you to determine whether it shall continue to draw an interest of four per cent., (if that be the rate,) payable quarterly, or whether you would desire immediate payment. If your arrangements with others make it necessary or expedient for you to continue the loan to the bank for that period, we shall, with great cheerfulness, acquiesce in your views. If, however, it should be as consistent with your interest to receive reimbursement, the bank will be ready and willing to make it immediately. I mention this, because it may, perhaps, be convenient for you to provide funds in New Orleans for the instalments of the loan to the Union Bank, in which event you may consider the whole amount of your purchases of three per cents, or any portion of it, as immediately applicable to that object. The wish to postpone the payment of some portion of the fifteen millions reimbursable between the ist of October and the 1st of January, arose from the appearance of the cholera, which threatened to throw the business of the country into great confusion, and imposed on the bank the duty of keeping itself in an attitude of great strength, so as to interpose, if necessary, to relieve the community. The calamity having passed with less injury to the mercantile classes than was anticipated, the bank will not be called upon for any extraordinary effort, and would be content to pay, at once, the whole amount now in your hands. This would have the further recommendation, that it would relieve you from the payment of interest on the balance, which is probably equal to your purchases, In either event, whether you wished to take immediate reimbursement, or continue the loan, it is presumed that the terms of the purchases will, under this change of the arrangement, be favorable to your interest, which we are always anxious to promote... Should it, however, happen that any pecuniary loss shall be sustained by you, in consequence of these purchases, the bank will, of course, make an ample indemnity for it. The commission stipu. lated upon the whole sum will not be, in any degree, as. fected by this change, but will continue as originally de. termined between Mr. Cadwalader and yourselves. You will readily believe that nothing but an imperious sense of duty would induce the institution to propose the changes in the arrangement, and we must rely on your habitual courtesy to excuse any additional trouble which they may occasion. With great respect, yours, N. BIDDLE, President. Messrs. BARING, Broth ERs, & Co., London.
BANK U. S., October 19, 1832.
GENTLEMEN: The above is a copy of my respects of the 15th instant, since, which I have had the pleasure of receiving, this morning, your favor of the 14th ultimo. To what I had the honor of writing on the 15th instant, the only addition which it seems necessary to make, is this: the bank, in order to close the account with the Government, is anxious to obtain the certificates. It is, however, possible that some of the holders who have agreed to the postponement may prefer retaining the certificates till the period of final reimbursement. 'íhe bank is very
unwilling to give, either to these stockholders or to yourselves, any unnecessary trouble; and, should you find any reluctance on this score, you will please not to urge it, but leave the certificates in the hands of the stockholders, and we will endeavor to accomplish the object of the bank without possession of the certificates. Those for the stock purchased by yourselves, we shall be happy to receive by an early opportunity. With great respect, yours, N. BIDDLE, President. Messrs. BAmING, Brothens, & Co., London.
BANK U. S., October 2, 1832.
DEAm Sin: The preparations for the payment of the public debt on the 1st instant, are so ample, that no inconvenience is apprehended from them at the bank, or any of its offices; and after all the immediate demands on that account are discharged at your office, it will still, in all probability, be very largely a creditor of the State banks in this city. This state of things naturally presents for consideration the course which the office should pursue towards them, and towards the community. In the present condition of the exchanges with Europe, there will probably be no demand for specie, and it would therefore be unnecessary to call upon the State banks for payment, in that form, of their balances, that being a measure to be avoided, unless to replace what may be taken from the office, should any demand be made upon it. But, while the balances continue thus heavily against the State banks, they will be unable or unwilling to do much business, and the office will therefore have an opportunity of giving to the community such facilities as these State banks have it no longer in their power to furnish. A large portion of the debt from them to the office may thus be absorbed in good paper, payable on or about the 1st of January next, when another payment on account of the public debt will be made. I therefore take the earliest opportunity, after ascertaining the probable demands against the bank on account of these payments, to submit to the consideration of the board the expediency of employing a portion of the surplus funds, now in the form of balances from the State banks, in the discount of such paper as may give facilities to the business of the city. The funds will be thus very usefully and profitably employed until they are wanted, and a great accumulation of bank balances be prevented.
Very respectfully, yours, N. Bi DDLE. Is AAc LA with NCE, F,
President toh. & D. New York.
The Asun Y DEPARTMENT, October 31, 1832.
Sin: I have been duly favored with your letter of the 27th instant, and its enclosures.
That I may be better able to understand the arrangement made by the bank, through the intervention of Mr. Cadwalader and Messrs. Barings, in regard to the three per cents. held abroad, I will thank you for copies of the letters of the 22d and 30th of August, and 6th of September, and the contract of the 22d of August, all which are referred to in your letter to Messrs. Barings of the 15th instant.
I shall be glad, also, to be informed whether the certificates for upwards of three millions, for which, in your letter to Mr. Cadwalader of the 18th of July, you state the bank to be the agent of Messrs. Barings, have been forwarded at the loan office.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
LOUIS M'LANE, Secretary of the Treasury. N. BIDDLE, Esq. President Bank U. S., Philada.
Correspondence with the Bank of the United States.
[22d CoNg. 2d Sess,
BAN KU. S., November 5, 1832. SIR: I had the honor of receiving, on the 3d instant, your letter of the 31st ultimo, and, in compliance with the request contained in it, enclose here with copies of the letters from Messrs. Baring, Brothers, & Co., of the 22d and 30th of August, and 6th of September, and also a copy of the contract of the 22d of August. I also add a copy of my letter to Messrs. Baring, Brothers, & Co., of the 31st ultimo. In regard to the sum of three millions and upwards, of which the bank is the agent, its agency has hitherto been merely to receive the dividends, not the principal. Of that amount, there have been surrendered certificates for about $344,000 on the books at Philadelphia. The amount received at the other loan offices, I do not know. But the whole will, I presume, now shortly arrive. I have the honor to be, very respectfully, yours, N. BIDDLE, President. Hon. Louis M'LANE, Sec'y of the Treasury, Washington, D. C.
LoNDoN, August 22, 1832.
SIR: We have had the honor of receiving, from the hands of Mr. Cadwalader, the letter, with which you favored us on the 18th ultimo, and in which you refer us to that gentleman for the particulars of an arrangement the institution was desirous of entering into in regard to the reimbursement of the United States three per cent. stock. You will no doubt learn from Mr. Cadwalader that no time has been lost in coming to an understanding with us as to the mode in which your views could be carried into effect; and the result of our communications with him has been a contract, of which, as he will no doubt send you a copy, it is not necessary we should say more than that we trust the board will perceive in it evidence of that earnest desire we at all times feel to put all our transactions with them on the same easy and liberal footing.
We trust you will excuse our observing that we conceive no question can now arise as to any extension of the ordinary credit which we hold at the disposal of the bank, as the liability to be called upon for large advances, for the above operation, either in the shape of drafts or purchases of stock, makes it absolutely necessary that the limit should be strictly attended to.
We have only to add, that we feel much flattered at this further proof of our possessing the confidence of the institution; and have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servants,
BARING, BROTHERS, & Co. N. BIDDLE, Esq. President U. S. Bank, Philada.
We enclose a list of proprietors of United States three per cent. stock, who have consented to postpone the re. ceipt of their principal until the 1st of October, 1833, the amount of their stock being, collectively, 342,646 dollars 68 cents. . As we are not acquainted with the manner in which the institution may desire to have these transactions managed, we have adopted the course of addressing you on the subject, that you may dispose of the accounts, &c. as you may deem expedient.
We have the honor to be your most obedient servants,
BARING, BROTHERS, & Co. N. BIDDLE, Esq. President Bank U. S., Philada.
London, 6th September, 1832,
SIR : We confirm what we had the honor to write to you on the 30th ultimo, and now annex a list of other proprietors of United States three per cent. stock, who wish to postpone the reimbursement of capital until October, 1833, making a total, with those already advised, of $1,609,707 42 purchases of the United States three per cent. stock on account of the institution. We conclude it may be more convenient to you to have the whole purchases up to the present date presented to the eye at one view, and we therefore enclose a detailed list, showin the total amount to be, - - - - $1,051,251 31 and purchases, but not yet delivered, - 364,994 05
We remain, sir, your obedient servants, B. B. & Co. N. BIDDLE, Esq., Philadelphia,
Messrs. Baring, Brothers, & Co., of London, and Thomas Cadwalader, of Philadelphia, on behalf of the Bank of the United States, agree, as follows, viz. For a commission of one-half per cent. on the amount, the said Baring, Brothers, & Co. agree— 1st. To invite the holders of the three per cent. stock of the United States to retain their stock until October, A. D. one thousand eight hundred and thirty-three; the bank engaging to pay the interest quarterly, until that time. 2d. To buy up the said three per cent. stocks on the best terms at which they can be obtained, both here and in Holland, at prices not exceeding ninety-one per cent. or as much higher as the running quarterly interest, in case of need. The cost of which stocks to be placed to the debit of the Bank of the United. States, in a separate account, chargeable with whatever rate of interest Messrs. Baring, Brothers, & Co. may be compelled to pay. The certificates of stock so purchased to remain with Messrs. Baring, Brothers, & Co. 3d. In case the amount of stocks so purchased, and the amount that may be retained by the ... as above, should, together, be less than the sum of five millions of dollars, then Messrs. Baring, Brothers, & Co. agree to make up the deficiency, in case the bank should find it desirable to draw for such deficiency, or any part thereof; on which sum or deficiency Messrs. Baring, Brothers, & Co. to charge the same interest as in their general account with the bank. The whole advances to be reimbursed by the Bank of the United States, in October, A. D. one thousand eight hundred and thirty-three. witness the hands of the said parties, at the city of
London, the 22d day of August, A. D. one thousand eight
BANK U. S., October 31, 1832.
GENtleMEN: My last respects were of the 19th instant; since then we have understood that the Treasury Bepartment is desirous of closing the accounts of the foreign holders of three per cents., a circumstance which increases our own anxiety to receive the certificates without delay, and induces me to request that you will have the goodness to give every facility to the transmission of them.
In regard to those purchased by yourselves, there can, we presume, be no difficulty; and as to those stockholders with whom you have agreed to postpone the payment, you will find, we trust, no indisposition to make the arrangements suggested in my letter of the 15th instant for the delivery of their certificates. Should, however, any difficulty occur, it would be agreeable to the bank if you could obviate it, either by causing the certificates to be sent to the bank for immediate reimbursement, or, if necessary, by purchasing the certificates on your own account, in the same manner as was done with those previously purchased, and taking your reimbursement in the mode most agreeable to yourselves. The whole subject is committed to your good judgment, with the respects of your obedient servant,
N. BIDDLF, President. Messrs. BARING, Brothers, & Co., London.
HALF PAY-BOUNTY LAND, &c. House of Repnes ENTAtives, January 23, 1833. Letter from the Secretary % War, transmitting the information required by a resolution of the House of Representatives of the 10th instant, in relation to half pay, bounty land, &c. to certain officers of the revolution,
DEPARTMENT or WAR, Jan. 22, 1833.
Sin: In compliance with the resolution of the House of Representatives of the 10th instant, directing the Secretary of War to report to that House “what construction has prevailed with the accounting officers, as to the words “all military officers,” used in the resolve of the 15th of May, 1778, relative to half pay, and the reasons for such construction; whether they have been deemed to apply to officers of the line only, or have been extended to those of the engineers, invalid artificers, Lee's legion, and other distinct and independent corps; whether there was any specific promise of land, or half pay, either to Lee’s legion, the corps of engineers, or artificers, commanded by Colonel J. Baldwin; what discrimination, if any, was made in the organization of the two last corps; and whether, in both, the promotion of officers was not confined to the corps respectively; and whether these corps were not component parts of the eighty-eight battalions raised to serve for “during the war,’ under the resolve of the 16th of September, 1776, specifically referred to in the resolve of the 12th of November, 1779; and which of the officers of either corps have obtained land, or half pay, or commutation of half pay;” I have the honor to enclose reports of the Third Auditor, and the officer in charge of the bounty land bureau, which contain the information required.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, Your obedient servant, I.F.W. CASS. Hon AN nr Ew St Evex son, Speaker of the House of Representatives.
TREAsun Y DEPA utm ENT, Third Auditor's Office, 18th January, 1833.
SIR: The resolution of the House of Representatives of the United States of the 10th instant, and which was referred to me by you on the 11th instant, for a report thereon, directs the Secretary of War to report to the House-1st. What construction has prevailed with the accounting officers as to the words “all military officers,” used in the resolve of the 15th of May, 1778, relative to half pay, and the reasons for such construction. 2d. Whether they have been deemed to apply to officers of the line only, or have been extended to those of the engineers, invalids, artificers, Lee's legion, and other distinct and independent corps. 3d. Whether there was any specific promise of land or half pay, either to Lee's legion, the corps of engineers, or artificers, commanded by Colonel J. Baldwin. 4th. What discrimination, if any, was made in the organization of the two last corps; and whether, in both, the promotion of officers was iot confined to the corps respectively; and 5th. Whether these corps were not component parts of the eighty-eight battalions raised to serve for “during the war,” under the resolve of the 16th of September, 1776, specifically referred to in the resolve of the 12th of November, 1779; and 6th. Which of the officers of either corps have obtained hand, or half pay, or commutation of half pay. In relation to the first branch of the resolution, I have the honor to furnish a copy of a report made to Congress by the commissioner of army accounts, on the 25th of August, 1786, and which embraces the report of a committee of Congress on “the memorials of several officers of the late corps of artificers, praying that, in settling their accounts, they be allowed the commutation of half pay, as founded on justice, or on the acts of Congress,” and which report contains the best explanation that I have been able to find of the construction that was given by the accounting officers to the words “all military officers,” used in the resolve of the 15th of May, 1778, relative to half pay, as well as the reasons for that construction. Understanding the second branch of the resolution to have in view the ascertainment whether or not the officers “of the engineers, invalids, artificers, Lee's legion, and other distinct and independent corps,” have been allowed half pay, or commutation in lieu thereof, I have to state, that, in accordance with the resolve of the 22d of March, 1783, commutation has been allowed to “corps not belonging to the lines of particular States, and who are entitled to half pay for life,” amongst which were the corps of engineers, of invalids, Lee’s legion, and Armand's corps. In relation to the third branch of the resolution, I have to state, that, in the resolution of Congress of the 21st of October, 1780, making provision for a new arrangement of the army, “two partisan corps” are provided for, one of which was to be commanded by Colonel Armand, and the other by Major Lee; and, by said resolution, all the officers who should serve to the end of the war were promised half pay for life, and, of course, half pay was promised to the officers of said partisan corps. By the resolution of the 14th of November, 1780, “the officers of the engineering department” were “put on an equal establishment with the officers of the line.” No promise of half pay appears to have been made to the officers of the corps of artificers commanded by Colonel Baldwin; on the contrary, they are excluded from the allowance. (See resolve of 16th of November, 1779.) In relation to the fourth branch of the resolution, I have to state that it appears, by the resolution of the 11th
of March, 1779, the engineers were formed into a corps, and styled the “corps of engineers,” and were to “take rank, and enjoy the same rights, honors, and privileges, with the other troops on the continental establishment;” and that they were to “take rank in their own corps according to the dates of their respective commissions.” By the resolve of the 12th of November, 1779, the “eleven companies of artificers raised by the quartermaster general” were to “be reformed, and incorporated and arranged in such manner as the commander in chief shall deem proper.” By the same resolve, the officers, on receiving their commissions, were to have “rank only in their own corps,” and “to hold regimental courts martial in cases that concern their own corps only, and are usually cognizable by regimental courts martial of the line.” In regard to the fifth branch of the resolution, I have to state, that I infer from the report of the commissioner of army accounts of the 25th of August, 1786, (here with transmitted,) that the provision in the resolution of the 12th of November, 1779, “that the officers and men of the said corps (artificers) be considered as part of the quotas of the eighty battalions, as apportioned on the several States to which they respectively belong,” was not considered, either by the commissioner of army accounts, or by Congress, as forming “component parts of the eighty-eight battalions raised to serve for “during the war,’ under the resolve of the 16th of September, 1776,” in such a sense as to entitle them (the officers of the corps of artificers) to the grant of half pay or commutation. In relation to the sixth and last branch of the resolution, I have to state, that I cannot find that any officer of the artificers, commanded by Colonel Baldwin, has obtained “half pay, or commutation of half pay;” on the contrary, the report of the committee of Congress embraced in the report of the commissioner of army accounts of the 25th of August, 1786, closes with a resolution, that the officers of the “late corps of artificers” were not entitled to it. Officers of engineers have received commutation. With great respect, PETFR HAGNER, sluditor.
Hon. Lewis CAss, Secretary of War.
Office of An My Accounts,
The commissioner for settling the accounts of the late army of the United States, to whom was referred the petition of A. Baird, requesting the commutation, in lieu of half pay for life, as a deranged surgeon in Baldwin’s corps of artificers, begs leave to report: That Doctor Baird founds his claim on the resolution of January 17th, 1781, granting generally the half pay to the hospital department; and that of May 3d, 1782, granting the same particularly to a surgeon of artificers. That Congress did, on the 19th of October last, refer to your commissioner a report made by a committee of Congress on the petition of sundry officers of the late corps of artificers for half pay or commutation, which report your commissioner was directed to take order on, and is in the following words, viz. “The committee, consisting of — , to whom was referred the memorials of several officers of the late corps of artificers, praying that, in settling their accounts, they be allowed the commutation of half pay, as founded on justice, or on the acts of Congress, beg leave to report: “That the claims of those officers do not appear to be founded on the usage of nations, nor in equity. They believe that half pay has been allowed to military officers, partly from a regard to the hardships and personal dan
Half pay—commutation--Bounty Land, &c.
gers to which they were exposed, but chiefly from a con
sideration that, by long continuance in the military line, they may have lost those habits by which they formerly had been enabled to provide for themselves or family; which reasons do not apply so fully to the officers of artificers. “Your committee are of opinion that their sole rule on this occasion must be the acts of Congress respecting the officers in the corps of artificers; and they do not find any resolution by which they are entitled to half pay or commutation; on the contrary, they seem to be expressly cut off from any such claim. “The original act of Congress of May 15, 1778, by which half pay was promised for seven years, confined the same to military officers, which certainly did not include the artificers; and your committee are of opinion that, in all subsequentacts which relate to halfpay, the same denomination of officers must be intended, unless in cases where other officers are expressly mentioned. Surely, the act of October 2d, 1780, promising half pay to officers who might be deranged, never could be construed as giving half pay to any class of officers who had no claim to half pay, had they continued in service to the end of the war. If any doubts could have arisen whether the artificers were intended in the promise of half pay, it must be fully removed by the act of the 16th of November, 1779: it was then resolved that it be recommended to the several States to allow the corps of artificers established by Congress on the 12th instant, all the benefits provided for officers and soldiers in the line of their quotas of the continental battalions, except the half pay. After this pointed and express exclusion of those officers from the allowance of half pay, your committee are of opinion that nothing but a subsequent promise, equally pointed and express, can give them a title to the same. ... None such has been made; wherefore they submit the following resolve: That the officers of the late corps of artificers in the service of the United States are not entitled to half pay, or the commutation for half pay.” Your commissioner therefore supposes that he is not warranted to grant the commutation to the memorialist, unless he has the direction of Congress. P J. P. Chan Les Tito Miso N, Esq.
Secretary of War.
DEPARTMENT or WAR, Bounty Land Office, January 21, 1833.
Sin: So far as information appears to be required from this office, by the resolution of the House of Representatives of the United States of the 10th instant, referred to this office on the 19th instant, to report thereon, I have the honor to state, in reference to the inquiries “whether there was any specific promise of land, either to Lee's legion, the corps of engineers, or artificers commanded by Colonel J. Baldwin,” that the two first named being military corps on the continental establishment, the officers attached thereto were embraced in the several resolves of Congress providing bounty lands for such of them as continued in service to the close of the war.
No returns exist in this office of the names of the officers of the corps of artificers commanded by Colonel J. Baldwin; nor does it appear that land warrants have issued to any of the officers of that corps, except to Samuel A. McCoskey, surgeon, and William McCoskey, surgeon's mate; and these issues appear to have been made in virtue of the resolution of Congress of the 3d of May, 1782, as follows: “Resolved, that, as the dispersed situation of the corps of artificers, commanded by Captain Wyley, will no ionger require the services of Dr. A. McCoskey: and Dr. William McCoskey, his mate, they be considered as reduced and retiring from the service on the 10th instant, and the surgeon be entitled to all the emoluments
heretofore allowed to reduced regimental surgeons;” from which it would appear that these officers had been retained in service until the 10th of May, 1782, being a period of more than thirteen months after the corps of artificers commanded by Colonel J. Baldwin had been dissolved under the resolution of Congress of the 29th of March, 1781, by which resolution it is explicitly declared that “all officers of the regiment of artificers not retained by virtue of these resolutions, be no longer considered in the service of the United States.” The officers retained by the resolution just referred to, were, it is believed, incorporated with the reduced corps of artillery artificers, and continued in service; the names of some eighteen or twenty of whom are returned on the records of this office as being entitled to, and as having received, bounty lands from the United States. The officers of the regiment of artillery artificers, being attached to the artillery in the field, were, it is believed, considered military officers: hence, those of them who served to the end of the war were embraced in the resolves of Congress providing bounty lands. The duties of the officers of the corps of artificers of (as it is believed) confined to the superintendence of workshops, laboratories, &c., and to the control and direction of the artisans attached thereto, and not being required to act in the field, were not, it is presumed, considered military officers. Their names were therefore not returned on the list of officers on file in this department, among those entitled to land bounties from the United States. Had they been considered military officers, it is presumed that Congress, when, by their resolution of March, 1781, they declared the corps of artificers “dissolved, and no longer in the service of the United States,” would at that time have designated them as reduced and supernumerary officers, and, as such, entitled to all the emoluments in land and half pay. That Congress did not so consider the officers of that corps, is manifested by the discrimination made in the cases of the two Doctors McCoskey, before referred to. If the surgeon of that name (surgeons' mates not being entitled to half pay) had been considered, at the time of the dissolution of that corps, (to which he then belonged,) as entitled to “all the emoluments heretofore allowed to regimental surgeons,” further legislation in behalf of that officer would have been superfluous. The records of the War Department, from the earliest period succeeding the war of the revolution, exhibit no amount of bounty land to an officer or private of the corps of artificers, except in the two cases referred to in the aforegoing. This fact indicates the construction applied to the resolutions of Congress, in reference to that corps, by the individual who first presided over the department, who was himself an officer of the highest grade in the army. I have the honor to be, very respectfully, Your obedient servant, W.M. GORDON. The Hon. SEch ETAlty of WAIt.
NORTHWESTEIRN INDIANS. House of Repnes ENTATIves, March 2, 1833. Letter from the Secretary of War, transmitting a copy of a report of Schoolcraft's expedition among the Northwestern Indians.
DEPARTMENT of WAR, March 2, 1833. Sin: I have the honor to transmit a copy of the report of Henry R. Schoolcraft, Esquire, of the expedition performed by him among the northwestern Indians, last year, under orders from this department. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, LEW. CASS. Hon. AN pur.w Stev ENso N, Speaker of the House of Representatives.
Office INDIAN AFFAIRs, NorthwestERN AG ENcy, Sault Ste. Marie, December 3, 1832.
FL BERT HERRING, F sq
Indian Bureau, Washington:
SIR: The condition of the Indians, situated in the area of country traversed by the St. Croix and Chippewa rivers, has not essentially varied since the date of the report which I had the honor of transmitting to the department on the 22d of September, 1831. I beg leave now to solicit your attention to the observations made during my recent visit to the bands living northwest of that point in our geography. From a very early period war has existed between the Chippewas and Sioux; and although the condition of independent bands, separated by local position and local interests, has produced intestine feuds, they have united in defending their respective frontiers, and have not hesitated to make inroads into the hunting grounds of each other whenever circumstances have favored them. The Chippewas assert that their warfare has been one of self-defence, and that their inroads have been the inevitable consequence of a successful assertion of their territorial rights. The Sioux complain that their hunting grounds have been intruded on, and that they cannot restrain their warriors. Each party lays claim to the title of forbearance and generosity. Neither appears to omit any opportunity of inflicting injury on the other. Every blow is a fresh invitation to aggression. A state of perpetual insecurity and alarm is the consequence. Time has exasperated their feelings; and much of the severity of their condition is owing to the pertinacity with which the contest is kept up. In this state the Chippewas, who are particularly the object of this report, were found, in 1806, by our Government, who, in that year, directed the late General Pike to visit the Upper Mississippi. Owing to their remote position, little attention was, however, bestowed upon them until the summer of 1820, when Governor Cass, who then administered the Government of Michigan, conducted an expedition through the country. By his recommendation, a military post and agency was established on the avenue of their trade at the foot of Lake Superior, and the usual means adopted to regulate the trade and intercourse of our citizens with them. They were counselled to remain at peace, to intermit their visits to the Canadian posts, and to pursue their usual occupations on their own lands. It was immediately found, however, that the force of their hostilites fell upon their western frontier, where they bordered on the Sioux, and where the dispute respecting territorial boundary gave scope to continual and afflicting aggressions. In 1825 the Chippewas were invited to meet the other tribes in a general council at Prairie du Chien, which, after a full discussion, resulted in a treaty of limits. This treaty was fully explained to the northern Chippewas, convened at Fond du Lac in 1826, and assented to in a treaty signed at that place. The following season delegates of this nation, living on its southern border, attended, and became parties to the treaty of Butte des Morts, on Fox river, in which the subject of boundaries was finally carried out and adjusted between themselves and the Menominees and Winnebagoes. With the latter tribes, there has been no subsequent dispute respecting limits; but the delineation, on paper, of the extensive line between them and the Sioux, without an actual survey and marking of it, gave rise to disficulties on that frontier, and the pretext was thus given for renewed aggressions. Several instances of these have been reported from this office to the department. The hardships of a people short of resources were thus increased, and those citizens who were licensed by the Indian office to carry on trade, com