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tually than a thousand repetitions of the ko-tou. The good effects of it, indeed, have been felt already.

On the 20th of January the Embassy left Canton, receiving due honour from the Chinese ships and forts, and on the 18th of the following month they were shipwrecked in the Straits of Gaspar. The details of the wreck, the occupation of an island by the crew, and their defence against the Malays, who blockaded, and were making preparations to attack them; the good conduct of the men, and the resolute steady demeanour of Captain Maxwell; the arrangements to convey Lord Amherst and suite to Java, and the dispatch from thence of a ship to carry off the Alceste's company, are narrated by Mr. M'Leod in such a manner as to excite the greatest interest and sympathy in the occurrences which he describes. We must likewise satisfy ourselves with merely referring to the amusing accounts descriptive of the Javanese, and of the state of their island, contained in both the volumes now before us. Mr. Ellis put himself to considerable pains in order to become acquainted with the manners of this people, their political views, their manufactures, and agricultural productions; and he communicates his discoveries with candour and intelligence.

The embassy once more put to sea on the 12th of April, in the ship Cæsar, Capt. Taylor, only to run the imminent risk of dying by fire, in the middle of the Indian Ocean, instead of by water in the Straits of Gaspar. One morning the ship was discovered to be on fire; and it was not till after the greatest exertion, for nearly an hour, that the raging element was subdued.

The only other wonders set forth in these books of travels are Bonaparte and a Boa-Constrictor. There were two of the latter species put on board a ship at Borneo, but as one of them had sprawled into the sea, and was drowned, there was now only one on its passage to England. The live stock provided for his use, in the Cæsar, consisted of six goats of the ordinary size; five being considered as a fair allowance for as many months.

"At an early period of the voyage we had an exhibition of his talent in the way of eating, which was publicly performed on the quarter-deck, upon which he was brought. The sliding door being opened, one of the goats was thrust in, and the door of the cage shut. The poor goat, as if instantly aware of all the horrors of its perilous situation, immediately began to utter the most piercing and distressing cries, butting instinctively at the same time, with its head towards the serpent, in self-defence. The snake, which at first appeared scarcely to notice the poor animal, soon began to stir a little, and turning its head in the direction of the goat, it at length fixed a deadly and malignant eye on the trembling victim, whose agony and terror seemed to increase; for previous to the snake seizing its prey, it shook in .every limb, but still continued its unavailing show of attack, by butting

at the serpent, which now becaine sufficiently animated to prepare for the banquet. The first operation was that of darting out his forked tongue, and at the same time rearing a little his head; then suddenly seizing the goat by the fore leg with his mouth, and throwing him down, he encircled him in an instant in his horrid folds. So quick, indeed, and so instantaneous was the act, that it was impossible for the eye to follow the rapid convolutions of his elongated body. It was not a regular screw-like turn that was formed, but resembling rather a knot; one part of the body overlaying the other, as if to add weight to the muscular pressure, the more effectually to crush his object. During this time he continued to grasp with his mouth, though it appeared an unnecessary precaution, that part of the animal which he had first seized. The poor goat in the mean time continued its feeble and half-stifled cries for some minutes, but they became more and more faint; and at last it expired. The snake, however, retained it for a considerable time in its grasp after it became motionless. He then began cautiously and slowly to unfold himself, till the goat fell dead from its monstrous embrace; when he began to prepare himself for the feast. Placing his mouth in front of the head of the dead animal, he commenced by lubricating with his saliva that part of the goat; and then taking its muzzle into his mouth, which had, and indeed always has, the appearance of a raw lacerated wound, he sucked it in as far as the horns would allow. These protuberances opposed some little difficulty, not so much from their extent as from their points: however, they also in a short time disappeared, that is to say, externally; but their progress was still to be traced very distinctly on the outside, threatening every moment to protrude through the skin. The victim had now descended as far as the shoulders; and it was an astonishing sight to observe the action of the snake's muscles when stretched to such an unnatural extent,-an extent which must have utterly destroyed the muscular power in any animal that was not, like himself, endowed with very peculiar faculties of expansion and action at the same time. When his head and neck had no other appearance than that of a serpent's skin, stuffed almost to bursting, still the working of the muscles were evident, and his power of suction, as it is erroneously called, unabated: it was, in fact, the effect of a contractile muscular power, assisted by two rows of strong hooked teeth." . . . ." The whole operation of completely gorging the goat occupied about two hours and twenty minutes; at the end of which time the tumefaction was confined to the middle part of the body or stomach; the superior parts, which had been so much distended, having resumed their natural dimensions. He now coiled himself up again, and lay quietly in his torpid state for about three weeks or a month; when, his last meal appearing to be completely digested and dissolved, he was presented with another goat, which he devoured with equal facility."proached the Cape of Good Hope, this animal began to droop, as was then supposed, from the increasing cold of the weather, and he refused to kill some fowls that were offered to him. Between the Cape and St. Helena he was found dead in his cage; and, on dissection, the coats of his stomach were discovered to be excoriated and perforated

"As we ap

by worms. Nothing remained of the goat except one of the horns, every other part being dissolved."

On the 27th of May, the embassy reached the Cape of Good Hope, and touched at St. Helena exactly a month after. The exterior of the island is described as having much of that appearance which induced Madame Bertrand to call it the birth-place of the demon of Ennui; but the interior, it is added, is not destitute of beauties, there being many pleasant spots situated in its different valleys.

"Bonaparte had, for a considerable time, been very retired and difficult of access, but he was perfectly disposed to see Lord Amherst; and on the day previous to our departure, his Lordship rode out there, accompanied by the gentlemen of his suite. He was introduced by General Bertrand with not a little form, and had, as well as Mr. Ellis, a very long private conversation previous to the introduction of the other gentlemen; who, in the mean time, were attended by Generals Bertrand, Montholon, and Gourgand, in the next room. At last, they also were ushered in; and a ring having been formed by the Marshal round the principal personage of the groupe, Lord Amherst presented to him first Captain Maxwell, to whom he bowed very civilly, and said his name was not unknown to him; observing, he had commanded on an occasion where one of his frigates, La Pomone, was taken in the Mediterranean. Vous etiez tres mechant. Eh bien! Your government must not blame you for the loss of the Alceste, for you have taken one of my frigates.' He said he was very happy to see young Jeffery Amherst; and good-humouredly asked him what presents he had brought with him from China, and so forth. The author of this narrative he interrogated about the time he had served, and whether he had been wounded; repeating the last question in English. Proceeding next to Mr. Abel (who was introduced as naturalist), he inquired if he belonged to the Royal Society, or any of the public institutions, or was a candidate for that honour; asking if he had been happy in this voyage, in making any discoveries in natural history which could add to our stock of knowledge on that subject; whether he knew Sir Joseph Banks, whose name he said was a passport in France, and his wishes always attended to even during war. Mr. Cooke's name induced him to ask if he was a descendant of the celebrated navigator; observing, You had a Cook who was indeed a great man.' He requested to know, on Dr. Lynn being presented, at what university he had studied? 'At Edinburgh,' was the reply. Edenboorg!' he repeated; and went on to interrogate him whether he was a Brunonian in practice; or if he bled and gave as much mercury as our St. Helena doctors. Mr. Griffiths, the chaplain, was next introduced, whom Bonaparte termed l'Aumonier, and pronouncing also in English, clair-gee-man. 'Well, Sir,' he continued, have you found out what religion the Chinese profess?' Mr. Griffiths replied it was somewhat difficult to say, but it seemed a sort of Polytheism. Not appearing to understand the meaning of this word spoken in English, Bertrand remarked, 'Pluralité de Dieux. Ah, pluralité de Dieux,' said he; do they believe in


the immortality of the soul?' I think they have some idea of a future state,' was the reply. Well,' said Bonaparte, when you go home you must get a good living; I wish you may be made a prebendary, Sir. Proceeding to Mr. Hayne, he also questioned him in some general way; and having now completed the circle, and said something to every body, he courteously bowed to each of the party as they retired; who all felt much gratified at the opportunity of the interview. Although there was nothing descending in his manner, yet it was affable and polite; and, whatever may be his general habit, he can behave himself very prettily if he pleases."

Mr. Ellis thinks that Bonaparte declaimed rather than conversed, and that he seemed anxious to impress his sentiments upon his auditors, as if for the purpose of being repeated.

"His style," says he, "is highly epigrammatic, and he delivers his opinions with the oracular confidence of a man accustomed to produce conviction: his mode of discussing great political questions would in another appear charlatanerie, but in him is only the developement of the empirical system, which he universally adopted. He used metaphors and illustration with great freedom, borrowing the latter chiefly from medicine: his elocution was rapid, but clear and forcible; and both his manner and language surpassed my expectations. The character of his countenance is rather intellectual than commanding, and the chief peculiarity is in the mouth, the upper lip apparently changing in expression with the variety and succession of his ideas. In person Bonaparte is so far from being extremely corpulent, as has been represented, that I believe he was never more capable of undergoing the fatigues of a campaign than at present. I should describe him as short and muscular, not more inclined to corpulency than men often are at his age."

We have already given our opinion as to the wisdom and policy of the conduct pursued by Lord Amherst, at the court of Pekin: and it must appear, we think, that, on any future misunderstanding with the local authorities at Canton, strong measures and the application of positive force, in case of resistance, will best answer the purpose of maintaining our character and furthering our interests.

ART. VIII.-Histoire de l'Astronomie Ancienne.

Par M. Delam

bre, Chevalier de Saint Michel, et de la Légion d'Honneur; Secrétaire perpétuel de l'Académie Royale des Sciences pour les Mathématiques, &c. History of Ancient Astronomy 2 vols. 4to. with 17 folding plates. Paris, 1817.

THE science of astronomy is not merely interesting in itself, as an object of speculation and research; or on acccount of its

tendency to aid and exalt our conceptions of Nature's God, but on account of its essential importance to geography, navigation, gnomonics, and chronology, departments of knowledge so prac tically valuable in every civilized country. Proportioned to this high estimate of the science, will be the interest we shall take in tracing its origin and progress; and hence it is, that few sciences have had so many historians as that to which our attention is now to be directed. The historians of astronomy, however, have not been so considerable in value as in number; and it would, perhaps, be difficult to name more than three or four, whose works could be consulted with any prospect of deriving either pleasure or information from the perusal.

The History of Astronomy published by Costard, in 1767, evinces throughout considerable erudition and a very respectable knowledge of the subject; but it has many features of offensive peculiarity, and is defective in arrangement and taste.

Weidler's History of Astronomy, published in 1741, is a laborious catalogue of the works of astronomers of all ages and countries. It is a collection in many respects useful to consult; but it is defective in discrimination; and its author seldom attempts to point out, from among a variety of sources, those to which a student may most advantageously apply.

Montucla, the industrious and ingenious author of the Histoire des Mathématiques, in four quarto volumes, has devoted a very fair proportion of his work to the subject of astronomy. Yet, it has happened, as was naturally to be expected, considering the multifarious topics of his research, that he has often taken his information at second-hand, and has therefore become involved in mistakes, which he would, doubtless, have avoided, had the attention, which in his undertaking was scattered over a diversity of subjects, been concentrated upon one.

In 1804, Dr. Robert Small published, in an octavo volume, “An Account of the Astronomical Discoveries of Kepler; including an Historical Review of the Systems which had successively prevailed before his time." This is a work of considerable ability, by which the author has judiciously filled the chasm that subsisted between the ancient and the modern astronomy, and traced the process by which Kepler freed himself from the influence of erroneous hypothesis, and established, before the publication of Bacon's Novum Organum, the legitimate connexion of theory and experiment; " of experiments suggested by theory, and of theory submitted without prejudice, to the test and decision of experiments."

But this performance, as is evident, was limited in its object. Bailly's Histoire de l'Astronomie, more celebrated by far than any we have yet named, has no such limitation. It is comprised in

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