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LOCAL HISTORIES.

1. Picture of New York, by S. Latham Mitchill, New York, 1807. 2. The Documentary History of the State of New York, arranged under the direc

tion of the Hon. Christopher Morgan, secretary of state, by Ed. Burke

O'Callaghan, M. D., Vol. IV, pp. 375, 381, 466, and 635. Albany, 1850. 3. Documents relative to the colonial history of the State of New York, procured

in Holland, England, and France, by John Romeyn Brodhead, edited by Ed. Burke O'Callaghan, M. D., LL. D. Albany, 1856. General index (Vol.

XI) sub verbo “College, Kings." 4. Description of the City of New York, by James Hardie, A. M. New York,

1827, pp. 218 and 275. 5. History of the State of New York, by James Macauley. New York and

Albany, 1829. Vol. II, p. 85: Vol. III, pp. 4 and 433-434. 6. History of New York, by William Dunlap. New York, 1839. Vol. I, pp. 483

and 486-487; Vol. II, p. 257; appendix, miscellaneous matter, CLXXVI,

CLXXXII, CLXXXVI, CLXXXIX, CXCI, and cxcv. 7. A Geographical History of the State of New York, by J. H. Mather and L. P.

Brockett, M. D. Utica, 1818, p. 120. 8. Historical Collections of the State of New York, by John W. Barber. New

York, 1851, pp. 191 and 197 9. What I Saw in New York, by Joel H. Ross, M. D. Albany, 1851, p. 249 et seq. 10. History of the City of New York, by Mary L. Booth, New York, 1863. Index

sub verbo - Colleges." 11. Old New York, by John Wakefield Francis, M. D., LL. D. New York, 1866. 12. History of the City of New York, by William L. Stone. New York, 1872,

pp. 174-179 13. History of New York, by Thomas Jones. New York. The New York Histor

ical Society, 1879. Index sub verbis College" and "Kings College." 14. History of the City of New York, ly Mrs. Martha J. Lamb, New York and

(hicago: A. S. Barnes & Co., 1890. Indices sub verbis: Vol. I, .. College, Kiugn." Vol. II, " Columbia College," "College of Physicians and Surgeons,"

* l'niversity of the State of New York." 15. New York, by Ellis H, Roberts, in American Cominonwealth's series. Boston

and New York, Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1587. Index sub verbo: “ College.” 16. The Story of the City of New York, by Charles Burr Todd. New York and

Loni, n. 1954, pp. 179-199. 17. Historic Towns. New York, by Theodore Roosevelt. London and New York:

Lugnans, Gireen & Co., 1891. Index sub verbis: "Columbia College," and ** Kings ('ollege."

3. I'NION COLLEGE, 1795.

By Robert (. Alexander.)

l'usot t'tirereity, Andres V 1 Raymond, D D., LL. D.president-l'nion College; Albany

law hindi Altany Medical College; Albany (ollege of Pharmacy.

The history of t'nion College is, in its origin and during its early Frans, a narrative of toil, sacrifice, faith, constancy, indomitable energy, and ultimate success. Long before its incorporation the struggle betal. As early as 1779 petitions were circulated, addressed to the governor and legislature, in response to which a charter was drawn, but for some reason never signed or sealed. It recited that

Whereas a great number of respectable inhabitants of the counties of Albany, Tryon (Montgomery), and Charlotte (Washington), taking into consideration the great benefit of a good education, the disadvantages they labor under for want of means of acquiring it, and the loud call there now is, and no doubt will be in a future day, for men of learning to fill the several offices of church and state, and looking upon the town of Schenectady in every respect the most suitable and commodious seat for a seminary of learning in this State, or perhaps in America, have presented their humble petition to the governor and legislature of this State, earnestly requesting that a number of gentlemen may be incorporated in a body politic, who shall be empowered to erect a college in the place aforesaid, to hold sufficient funds for its support, to make proper laws for its government, and to confer degrees.

This institution was to have been called ('linton College, in honor of New York's great governor. It contemplated the creation of a corporate body by an executive act, therein following the colonial precedents. Seven years later the board of regents was created, and upon that board thereafter devolved the chartering of New York colleges. The petition of the “respectable inhabitants" seems to have been favorably received, but the exigencies of the war probably diverted attention from the project, and the unsealed charter in the State Library at Albany contains all that is known to-day of Clinton Collego.

But the widespread belief that there should be a college in Schenectady was too deep rooted to be readily abandoned. Dominie Dirck Romeyn, pastor of the Reformed Dutch Church in Schenectady, who more than any other man is entitled to be styled the founder of Union C'ollege, was unremitting in his efforts to secure the charter, as is evident from his letters during the period 1779–1795.

Again, in 1779, as appears from the assembly journal of that year, "a petition was received from John Cuyler and 512 inhabitants of Albany and Tryon counties, and from Thomas Clarke and 131 others of Charlotte (ounty, for a college at Schenectady.” No action seems to have been taken on the petition, possibly because the inhabitants were not so“respectable" as the petitioners for Clinton ('ollege charter.

An interesting recital is that which follows, contained in the memorial of 1795 to the board of regents:

In the year 1782 the citizens of the northern and western parts of this State, together with the inhabitants of the town of Schenectady, amounting to near 1.200 subscribers, applied to the legislature, in session in the town of Kingston, for the institution of a college in the town of Schenectady, for founding which the citizens of Schenectady alone proposed an estate valued at nearly eight thousand pounds principal.

That is all that history tells us of the application of 1787, but in the light of those thrilling times how eloquent it is of the spirit which animated the Revolutionary patriots! The war was not yet closed. The smoke was still rising from the smoldering ruins of burned habitations on the northern and western borders, and the echo of the Indian war whoop had not yet died away in the valley of the Mohawk. The long struggle for liberty had left the people decimated, weary, and impoverished. Yet 1,200 of the citizens on the northern and western frontier subscribed from their meager fortunes to the cause of higher learning, and the citizens of Schenectady alone proposed to contribute to the new college a sum of £8,000. The extent of this sacrifice is apparent when it is remembered that by the State census fourteen years later the whole population of the town was but 3,472, of whom 683 are electors and 381 slaves." Yet this second application, even with so much of heroic self-sacrifice behind it, fared no better than Clinton College.

In February, 1785, measures were taken for the establishment of a private academy in Schenectady, by mutual agreement among leading citizens, and it was placed in the charge of 12 trustees. An academy building was erected a few years later on the northwest corner of what are now Union and Ferry streets. It was of brick, two stories high, about 50 by 30 feet on the ground plan, and cost about $3,000. It afterwards became Union College, and was its only edifice until 1804. The school was opened under the care of Col. John Taylor, of New Jersey, and appears to have been conducted with much ability, being well sustained by the community in which it was planted. This academy was the germ of l'nion College.

In December, 1791, the managers of the academy in Schenectady memorialized the legislature for a grant of land in the Oneida Reservation to their institution, “ in order to be in possession of an estate that would enable them at an early day to apply to the regents for incorporation as a college, and to have an amount of property that would justify the establishment of a college.” The assembly records show that the committee reported it to be “derogatory to the interest of the State to grant the request.”

In February, 1792, the trustees of the academy sent another petition to the regents, in which they stated that they had at that time about 80 students in the English language, and that they had nearly 20 pursuing the study of the learned languages and higher branches, in preparation for the first or more advanced classes in college. They were fully convinced of their ability to establish and maintain a college, and had made efforts that led them to confidently depend upon raising the fund needed for endowment, and asked for a college charter. As a foundation for their fund, the town of Schenectady was willing to convey to the trustees of a college as soon as they were appointed, and by good and ample title, a tract of land containing 5,090) acres. pledge of 700 acres more was offered from individuals, and a further subscription of near £1,000 in money, to be paid in four installments, was promised from citizens. The consistory of the Dutch (hurch offered to give a building called the “ Academy" for college use, and not to be alienated, estimated as worth £1,500, and a sum of money collected for a library, amounting to £250, was likewime to be given.

But as these funds could not be realized or applied unless there was created a board of trustees capable of holding them, they prayed for an act of incorporation from the regents, with all the powers and privileges conferred by law upon Columbia College, and that the name of the institution should be “The College of Schenectady."

The regents, on the 27th of March, denied this application, upon the ground that sufficient funds had not been provided.

Failing in this effort, an application was made in November of the same year for the incorporation of the private institution as the “Academy of the Town of Schenectady.” This application was successful, and an academic charter was granted in January, 1793.

Early in 1794 the regents were again petitioned for a college charter for the academy, but this was denied upon the ground that the state of literature in the academy did not appear to be far enough advanced nor its funds sufficient to warrant its erection into a college.

On December 18, 1794, was presented the final and successful petition to the board of regents. It thus begins:

We, the subscribers, inhabitants of the northern and western counties of the State of New York, taking into view the growing population of these counties, and sensible of the necessity and importance of facilitating the means of acquiring useful knowledge, make known that we are minded to establish a college upon the following principles:

1st. A college shall be founded in the town of Schenectady, county of Albany and State of New York, to be called and known by the name of Union College.

2d. The said college shall be under the direction and government of twenty-four trustees, the majority of which trustees shall not at any time be composed of persons of the same religions sect or denomination.

These two provisions mark a new era in college erection. Of the colleges which antedated l'nion, we find Harvard, Yale, Dartmouth, and Williams were distinctively Congregational; William and Mary, St. John's, and Columbia, Episcopaı; Brown, Baptist; Princeton and Ilampden-Sidney, Presbyterian; Rutgers, Reformed; and Dickinson, Methodist. l'nion was the first strictly nonsectarian college in the country. The name itself was given as expressing the intention of uniting all religious sects in a common interest and for the common good by offering equal advantages to all, with preference to none. It was designed to found an institution upon the broad basis of Christian unity, and this idea has ever since been faithfully followed in the spirit of the original intention, no particular religious denomination having at any time claimed or attempted to control its management or to influence the choice of trustees or faculty. Its motto, “In necessariis unitas, in dubiis libertas, in omnibus caritas," has been characteristic of the perfect harmony and genuine catholicity which has marked its entire history.

At last success crowned the efforts of the “citizens," and on February 25, 1795, a charter was granted to Union (College, naming twentyfour trustees, giving full power for granting degrees, and the most

and impoverished. Yet 1,200 of the citizens on the northern and western frontier subscribed from their meager fortunes to the cause of higher learning, and the citizens of Schenectady alone proposed to contribute to the new college a sum of £8,000. The extent of this sacrifice is apparent when it is remembered that by the State census fourteen years later the whole population of the town was but 3,472, of whom 683 are electors and 381 slaves." Yet this second application, even with so much of heroic self-sacrifice behind it, fared no better than Clinton College.

In February, 1785, measures were taken for the establishment of a private academy in Schenectady, by mutual agreement among leading citizens, and it was placed in the charge of 12 trustees. An academy building was erected a few years later on the northwest corner of what are now Union and Ferry streets. It was of brick, two stories high, about 50 by 30 feet on the ground plan, and cost about $3,000. It afterwards became Union College, and was its only edifice until 1804. The school was opened under the care of Col. John Taylor, of New Jersey, and appears to have been conducted with much ability, being well sustained by the community in which it was planted. This academy was the germ of Union College.

In December, 1791, the managers of the academy in Schenectady memorialized the legislature for a grant of land in the Oneida Reservation to their institution, “in order to be in possession of an estate that would enable them at an early day to apply to the regents for incorporation as a college, and to have an amount of property that would justify the establishment of a college.” The assembly records show that the committee reported it to be “derogatory to the interest of the State to grant the request.”

In February, 1792, the trustees of the academy sent another petition to the regents, in which they stated that they had at that time about 80 students in the English language, and that they had nearly 20 pursuing the study of the learned languages and higher branches, in preparation for the first or more advanced classes in college. They were fully convinced of their ability to establish and maintain a college, and had made efforts that led them to confidently depend upon raising the fund needed for endowment, and asked for a college charter. As a foundation for their fund, the town of Schenectady was willing to convey to the trustees of a college as soon as they were appointed, and by good and ample title, a tract of land containing 5,000 acres. A pledge of 700 acres more was offered from individuals, and a further subscription of near £1,000 in money, to be paid in four installments, was promised from citizens. The consistory of the Dutch Church offered to give a building called the “ Academy" for college use, and not to be alienated, estimated as worth £1,500, and a sum of money collected for a library, amounting to £250, was likewise to be given.

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