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tory." This noble liberality was emulated by Mr. William C. Schermerhorn, who at the same time offered to erect a building for natural science, not to exceed in cost $300,000.
President Low, in his report for 1894-95, says:
Inasmuch as King's, afterwards and still Columbia College, has now developed into the university that it aimed from the beginning to become, I think the time has arrived when the entire institution should be known upon our statutes, even if the name of the corporation remain unchanged, either as Columbia University or as the University of Columbia College. By a resolution of the trustees, passed June 1, 1891, I am already authorized to refer to the institution in any publication or announcement as a university.
I shall shortly submit proposed amendments to the statutes intended to give effect to the use of the name university for the institution as a whole, and of Columbia College for the school of arts. I trust these proposals will meet with favorable consideration.
This leads me to consider the university and its policy from another point of view. Whatever may have been the case twenty-five years ago, there is no doubt that to-day, in the United States, there is growing up a tolerably distinct conception of the difference between a college and a university. A college is conceived of as a place for liberal culture; a university as a place for specialization based on liberal culture. In this sense, it is true that Columbia is both a college and a university, and as yet but partially a university.
In the school of law only 47 per cent are college graduates; in the school of medicine barely 36 per cent; and in the school of mines only 13 per cent. It goes without saying that a man need not be a college- bred man in order to be a good lawyer, a good physician, or a good engineer. But it is the general testimony of experience, and the uniform testimony of all the faculities, that the best men, with rare exceptions, are those who have first had the broadening training and the mental discipline of a liberal course.
I conceive, therefore, that it should be Columbia's policy, slowly, if you please, but steadily, to raise the requirements for admission to all her professional schools until a liberal training, equivalent to the old-time college course, is demanded as a condition for admission to every one of them. I hope such a declaration of policy may shortly be made. I think it would give consistency to our own development, and be of service to the cause of higher education throughout the United States.
RELATION OF BARNARD COLLEGE TO COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY.
[From President Low's Report, 1894-95.) “A matter of great moment, having important consequences, has been discussed by the University Council. The relations of Barnard College to Columbia College as to the first three years of the college course are perfectly distinct. For these years Barnard College provides separate instruction for its young women, almost exclusively by instructors connected with Columbia. As a result of the discussion alluded to, the ultimate relation of Barnard College to Columbia, as to graduate work, is about to be determined by experiment along two different lines. The senior year being merged at Columbia with the first year of university work does not call for separate consideration.
Under the statutes of the trustees, students of Barnard College are at liberty to attend lectures at Columbia in the two faculties of philosophy and political science, the consent of the president and the professor delivering the course being first obtained. Under this provision a considerable number of courses in philosophy and letters have been available to the students of Barnard for several years. No embarrassment or difficulty has arisen from this arrangement in any instance or in any direction. This is one alternative.
“The faculty of political science, on the other hand, has uniformly declined to open any of its courses to Barnard students. The courses in higher mathematics, as being in the faculty of pure science, are also closed to the young women, that faculty having been established since the statute that deals with this question was adopted. Under these circumstances, Barnard College found itself unable to offer to women advanced courses in history, political economy, and mathematics. The students of Barnard can not attend the lectures on these subjects at Columbia, and the professors delivering the lectures declined, for lack of time, to repeat them at Barnard. In the meanwhile Columbia had undertaken to give its degree to the graduates of Barnard College. This is the problem, then, to which the University Council addressed itself. The first proposition was to take the necessary action to throw open to the students of Barnard the desired courses given at Columbia. The University Council declined to adopt this course, and it seemed for the moment as if the whole scheme for the higher education of women in the city of New York for which Barnard College stands, was in danger of shipwreck. Happily the friends of Barnard and of the higher education of women were equal to the emergency, so that what threatened to be a crushing disaster was converted into a distinct advantage to both Barnard and Columbia. Barnard proposed to furnish to Columbia the money for the salaries of three professors, one in history, one in political economy, and one in mathematics, who should divide their time between Columbia and Barnard, provided that professors already connected with Columbia in the same subjects should give as many hours of instruction at Barnard as the professors provided by Barnard should give at Columbia.
“This proposal met with the approval of the university council, and upon their recommendation it has been adopted by the trustees of Columbia and successfully carried into effect. It has one undoubted merit. Barnard thus becomes a source of positive strength to Columbia instead of making new demands upon Columbia's strength. It also provides for the women, separately, advanced courses in history, political economy, and mathematics, for the time being ample in number and in range, by the same professors that teach the men at Columbia. I hope the time will never come when Barnard shall cease to support these professorships. As Barnard College increases in financial strength it is reasonable to hope that the number of profes