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sorships supported by it at Columbia will be enlarged. Those who are interested in securing for women the same educational advantages that the men enjoy should not be content to ask the old foundations to do double duty; they ought to be glad to prove, in some such way as this, that the old foundations will themselves be strengthened, if they lend themselves to the new work.

“It is thus to be tested by experiment, as the second alternative, whether it will continue to be thought worth while to provide for women, separately from the men, this university instruction in such subjects as history, political economy, and mathematics. As to the college work we are all agreed; the young men and young women are taught separately, and should continue to be so taught. As to the advanced work, however, in the opinion of many the case is different. Oxford, Cambridge, the Scotch Universities, to say nothing of the usual American practice or of the occasional German courtesy, all throw open their university courses to women in common with men. Under such a system it is clear that the addition of three professors to the staff of the university would add just so much to the privileges enjoyed both by the men and by the women. ('nder the system actually insisted upon by our university council, a system of offsets, Barnard does indeed secure the educational privileges for which it pays; but the men of ('olumbia lose as many courses from our old professors as they gain from the new, so that the men are better off than they were before only by the greater range that can be covered by the larger number of professors. I doubt whether public sentiment, either ouside of the university or within it, will long consider this separateness of instruction of women in the higher courses worth maintaining at so heavy a cost. However, that is precisely what is to be determined by this experiment."

It has been Mr. Low's good fortune to assume the government of this great college at the time when everything was ready for a sudden and brilliant development. The increasing number of college graduates looking forward to scientific rather than professional careers were ready to welcome new opportunities for training. The growing importance of economic and political studies gave inevitable success to a well-organized attempt to teach these subjects to advanced students. The scholarly study of the law had become a crying need of the time. The feasibility of carrying on in this country original research of the highest character in the various departments of pure science had been demonstrated by the success of the Johns Hopkins l'niversity. A more scientific training in medicine, not only for the teacher, but for the practitioner, was becoming a recognized necessity.

The work accomplished in these few years shows that the opportunities have been clearly seen and firmly grasped. Not the least significant feature of the new Columbia is its power of absorption by affiliation. In this way it has knit closely to itself Barnard College

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for Women, the Teachers' ('ollege, two theological seminaries, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and the Museum of Natural History. It has also established connection with Cooper Institute by means of lecture courses delivered there by Columbia professors. Its policy is by affiliation with all the greatest agencies of the city's life to become the scientific and scholarly representative of the city and to make itself a vital power in shaping the develonment of the city. If rightly appreciated by the people of New York and wisely guided in its future course, Columbia, it can be safely prophesied, is only entering upon the long period of its greatness.'

BIBLIOGRAPHY.

1. CHARTER AND ACTS OF THE LEGISLATURE RELATING TO COLUMBIA COLLEGE

IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK.

The charter of King's College in the city of New York. October 31,

1754. Statutes, 1785. An act to institute an university within this State and for other purposes therein

mentioned. April 13, 1787. (Sess. 10, ch. 82, secs. 8, 9, 10, 11. Greenleaf's edition, Vol. I, p. 437.)

(This art renewed the charter and changed the name to Columbia College in the city of

New York An act to encourage literature by donations to Columbia College and to the several

academies in the State. April 11, 1792. (Sess. 15, ch. 69, secs. 1, 3. Green

leaf's edition, Vol. II, p. 479.) Supplemented byAn act for the payment of certain officers of government and other contingent

expenses. April 11, 1796. (3 Greenleaf, 340.) An act respecting Union College and for the purposes therein mentioned. March

30, 1797. 3 Greenleaf, 449.) (Appropriation for the preservation of the

Anatomical Museuin. ) An act to amend the act entitled "An act for the encouragement of literature."

April 3, 1-11. (S8.25, ch. 10.5, secs. 1, 2. Webster's edition, Vol. III, p. 163.) An act relative to ('olumbia (College in the city of New York. March 23, 1810.

(Sess, 33, ch. ). Webster & Skinner's edition, Vol. VI, p. 24.) Statutes, 1811.) An act to render the provost of Columbia College in the city of New York eligible

to be a trustee thereof. February 14, 1812. (Sess. 35, ch. 6. Webster &

Skinner's edition, Vol. VI. p. 318.) An act instituting a lottery for the promotion of literature, and for other par

poses. April 13, 1911. (Sess. 37, ch. 120, secs, 6, 7. Webster & Skinner's edition, Vol. III, p. 142.)

The granted the Britanic (arden to (Columbia with conditions, which were removed hy the founder Wahoo art An act srlative to (Columbia (College in the city of New York. February 19, 1819.

(Statute. 1991.) in g. 12, ch. 19. (tould & Co.'s edition, Vol. V, p. 26.) Original charter October 31, 174, with the acts of the legislature altering and

ainradi. the mone* or rating to the college. 1436,

: The President Annual Rprt for 1-9, vires valuable information, statistical in part, about the growth of the university during his presidency.

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Schermerhorn Hall.

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VIEW FROM BARNARD COLLEGE, APRIL 15, 1897.

for Women, the Teachers' College, two theological seminaries, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and the Museum of Natural History. It has also established connection with Cooper Institute by means of lecture courses delivered there by Columbia professors. Its policy is by affiliation with all the greatest agencies of the city's life to become the scientific and scholarly representative of the city and to make itself a vital power in shaping the develonment of the city. If rightly appreciated by the people of New York and wisely guided in its future course, Columbia, it can be safely prophesied, is only entering upon the long period of its greatness."

BIBLIOGRAPHY.

1. CHARTER AND ACTS OF THE LEGISLATURE RELATING TO COLUMBIA COLLEGE

IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK.

The charter of King's College in the city of New York. October 31,

1754. Statutes, 1785. An act to institute an university within this State and for other purposes therein

mentioned. April 13, 1787. (Sess. 10, ch. 82, secs. 8, 9, 10, 11. Greenleaf's edition, Vol. I, p. 437.)

(This act renewed the charter and changed the name to Columbia College in the city of

New York.) An act to encourage literature by donations to Columbia College and to the several

academies in the State. April 11, 1792. (Sess. 15, ch, 69, secs. 1, 3. Green

leaf's edition, Vol. II, p. 479.) Supplemented byAn act for the payment of certain officers of government and other contingent

expenses. April 11, 1796. (3 Greenleaf, 340.) An act respecting Union College and for the purposes therein mentioned. March

30, 1797. (3 Greenleaf, 449.). (Appropriation for the preservation of the

Anatomical Museum.) An act to amend the act entitled "An act for the encouragement of literature."

April 3, 1802. (Sess, 25, ch, 105, secs. 1, 2. Webster's edition, Vol. III, p. 163.) An act relative to Columbia College in the city of New York. March 23, 1810.

(Sess. 33, ch. 85. Webster & Skinner's edition, Vol. VI, p. 24.) Statutes, 1811.) An act to render the provost of Columbia College in the city of New York eligible

to be a trustee thereof. February 14, 1812. (Sess. 35, ch. 6. Webster &

Skinner's edition, Vol. VI, p. 348.) An act instituting a lottery for the promotion of literature, and for other pur.

poses. April 13, 1814. (Sess. 37, ch. 120, secs. 6, 7. Webster & Skinner's edition, Vol. III, p. 142.)

(This act granted the Botanic Garden to Columbia with conditions, which were removed

by the following act): An act relative to Columbia College in the city of New York. February 19, 1819.

(Statutes, 1821.) (Sess. 42, ch. 19. Gould & Co.'s edition, Vol. V, p. 26.) Original charter October 31, 1754, with the acts of the legislature altering and

amending the same or relating to the college. 1836.

The President's Annual Report for 1897 gives valuable information, statistical in part, about the growth of the university during his presidency.

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