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57 N. Y. 12; 55 id. 495, 501; 15 W. D. 134; 50 N. Y. Super. 63; 27 Hun, 63; 36 id. 52; 44 id. 232; 89 N. Y. 616; 97 id. 230, 559; 100 id. 558; 13 Daly, 34, 390; 9 id. 268; 63 How. Pr. 378; 23 W. D. 60; 134 N. Y. 69; 55 Hun, 45; 67 id. 472; 72 id. 458; 8 Misc. 91; 34 N.

Y. St. Ř. 395; 45 id. 608; 51 id. 335; 54 id. 779; 19 N. Y. Supp. 499. 2. Every special promise to answer for the debt, default or miscarriage of another person. 6 T. & C. 309. 611, 632; 60 N. Y. 238; 7 Lans. 72; 1 Hun, 618; 16 Abb. Pr. N. S. 337; 36 N.

Y. Super. 341; 2 T. & C. 416; 59 N. Y. 250; 75 id. 446; 18 Hun, 31; 4 id. 414; 7 Daly, 30, 45; 57 How, Pr. 174; 3 Hun, 612; 67 N. Y, 237; 14 Hun, 559; 10 id. 343; 7 id. 583;' 9 id. 68; 15 id. 178; 23 N. Y. 496; 21 id. 337, 413; 14 id. 268; 13 id. 232; 8 id. 212; 3 id. 209, 337; 2 id. 229, 542; 29 Barb. 489; 28 id. 446; 25 id. 179, 625; 23 id. 537, 610; 22 id. 516; 21 id. 218; 20'id. 298; 19 id. 258; 18 id. 323; 16 id. 645; 14 id. 570; 13 id. 542; 11 id. 15, 144; 5 id. 501; 4 id. 131; 3 id. 209; 5 Hill, 146, 484; 4 id. 179, 211; 3 id. 587; 2 id. 664; 5 Den. 484; 4 id. 285, 562; 2 id. 162, 368, 403; 1 id. 228; 24 Wend. 40; 14 id. 247; 13 id. 114; 9 id. 273; 4 id. 657; 4 Cow. 432; 11 Johns. 223; 4 id. 416, 422; 22 How. Pr. 67; 17 id. 9; 12 Abb. Pr. 313; 10 id. 368; 4 Sandf, 31, 215, 611; 5 Duer, 87; 1 id. 199, 412; 1 E. D. Smith, 33; 38 N. Y. 189; 2 Abb. App. Dec. 154; 4 Lans. 117; 4 Bosw. 207; 17 W. D. 542; 13 Abb. N. C. 340; 9 Daly, 25; 10 id. 383; 47 N. Y. Super. 374; 49 id. 421; 31 Hun, 476; 34 id. 115; 37 id. 394; 38 id. 307; 41 id. 1, 577; 81 N. Y. 251; 82 id. 431; 86 id. 484; 93 id. 273; 98 id. 425; 104 id. 414; 24 How. Pr. 311; 27 Hun, 141; 116 N. Y. 263; 72 Hun, 506;

2 Misc. 267; 86 Hun, 122; 30 N. Y. St. R. 343; 36 id. 851; 54 id. 857. 3. Every agreement, promise or undertaking, made upon consideration of marriage, except mutual promise to marry. Id., § 2, as am'd L. 1863, c. 464. 8 Hun, 625; 8 Barb. 323; 54 N. Y. 440; 14 W. D. 59, 166; 33 Hun, 214; 36 id. 52: 99 N. Y. 29;

11 N. Y. Supp. 716, 717; 25 id. 193, 212; 4 id. 661, 950; 8 id. 284. 3 Contracts for sale, when void. Every contract for the sale of any goods, chattels, or things in action, for the price of fifty dollars or more, shall be void, unless, 6 Hun, 285; 49 N. Y. 24; 73 id. 252; 6 Daly, 429; 39 N. Y. Super. 283; 40 id. 122; 5 Lans.

180: 3 Daly, 365: 48 N. Y. 19; 42 id. 499; 49 Barb. 69; 38 id. 206; 26 id. 140: 47 id. 556: 10 id. 74; 4 id. 451; 1 id. 387; 23 Wend. 270; 8 Cow. 219; 18 Johns. 57; 3 id. 398; 32 N. Y. 519; 17 W. D. 445, 463; 20 id. 144, 575; 21 id. 48; 13 Abb. N. C. 215, 326; 12 Daly, 230, 522; 36 Hun, 481; 40 id. 415; 93 N. Y. 337; 94 id. 431; 96 id. 561; 5 Wend. 141; 4

Rob. 220; 9 Daly, 505; 43 N. Y. St. R. 708; 56 id. 162; 13 N. Y. Supp. 303. 1. A note or memorandum of such contract, be made in writing, and be subscribed by the parties to be charged thereby: or, 1 Hun, 400; 4 id. 565; 1 T. & C. 3, 258; 51 N. Y. 652; 72 id. 598; 2 Rob. 344; 24 N. Y. 58;

56 id. 230; 6 id. 11; 19 Barb. 455; 18 id. 323; 8 id. 346; 26 Wend. 347; 3 id. 112: 1 Duer, 132, 277; 5 Sandf. 105; 12 Johns. 105; 4 Johns. Ch. 659; 39 Barb. 622; 30 How. Pr. 436; 89 N. Y. 508; 97 id. 52, 220; 100 id. 140; 101 id. 644; 3 Daly, 495; 4 Rob. 322, 402; 119

N. Y. 592; 116 id. 273; 72 Hun, 113; 64 id. 476; 46 N. Y. St. Rr. 732. 2. Unless the buyer shall accept and receipt part of such goods, or the evidences, or some of them, of such things in action: or, 1 T. & C. 3, 258: 6 Hun. 229; 61 N. Y. 1; 65 id. 484; 68 id. 598: 63 id, 587; 14 Hun, 149; 7

Daly, 410; 4 Hun, 709; 67 N. Y. 538; 74 id. 621; 5 Lans. 248; 3 Daly, 495; 3 Bosw. 180; 4 Rob. 26, 322, 402; 5 N. Y. 542; 1 id. 265; 32 Barb. 631; 16 id. 277; 12 id. 572; 11 id. 36; 2 id. 624; 1 E. D. Smith, 144; 2 Alb. L. J. 283; 20 Wend. 433; 17 id. 336; 6 id. 397; 2 Duer, 497; 2 Sandf. 239; 7 Cow. 86; 43 Barb. 341; 31 How. Pr. 6; 9 Daly, 363; 33 Hun, 553; 37 id. 610; 101 N. Y. 515; 49 Barb. 69; 119 N. Y. 592; 73 Hun, 40; 3 Misc. 92; 51

N. Y. St. R. 607. 3. Unless the buyer shall, at the time, pay some part of the purchase money. 2 R. S. 136, § 3. 56 N. Y. 375; 53 id. 114; 17 Hun, 135: 60 N. Y. 413; 1 Abb. App. Dec. 188; 5 Hill, 205; 14

W. D. 377; 20 Hun, 416; 101 N. Y. 515; 84 id. 549; 62 Hun, 598; 55 N. Y. St. R. 539;

67 id. 21; 22 N. Y. Supp. 370; 25 id. 305. 4 Sales at auction. Whenever goods shall be sold at public auction, and the auctioneer shall, at the time of sale, enter in a sale-book, a memorandum specifying the nature and price of the property sold, the terms of the sale, the name of the purchaser, and the name of the person on whose account the sale is made, such memorandum shall be deemed a note of the contract of sale, within the meaning of the last section. Id., § 4. 26 Wend. 351: 19 id. 550; 12 id. 552; 10 Paige, 537; 1 Duer. 132: 3 id. 395; 14 Johns. 484; 56

Barb. 648; 63 N. Y. 76; 8 Daly, 261; 15 N. Y. Supp. 99.

5 Sales, etc., without delivery and change of possession. Every sale made by a vendor, of goods and chattels in his possession, or under his control, and every assignment of goods and chattels, by way of mortgage or security, or upon any condition whatever, unless the same be accompanied by an immediate delivery, and be followed by an actual and continued change of possession, of the things sold, mortgaged or assigned, shall be presumed to be fraudulent and void, as against the creditors of the vendor, or the creditors of the person making such assignment, or subsequent purchasers in good faith; and shall be conclusive evidence of fraud, unless it shall be made to appear, on the part of the persons claiming under such sale or assignment, that the same was made in good faith, and without any intent to defraud such creditors or purchasers. 2 R. S. 136, § 5. 17 N. Y. 28; 10 id. 310; 4 id. 303, 580; 1 id. 90, 496; 56 id. 8, 273; 37 id. 591, 610; 55 id. 107;

75 id. 251; 79 id. 19; 77 id. 461; 86 id. 332; 111 id. 560; 25 Barb. 428; 57 id. 164, 254, 671; 10 N. Y. Supp. 923, 924, 926; 12 id, 667; 14 id. 285; 16 id. 476, 495; 15 id. 98, 99; 17 id. 308; 26 id. 326; 12 id. 424; 8 id, 64; 14 id. 749; 4 id, 645; 20 id. 27; 19 id. 455; 17 id. 316; 15 id. 599; 13 id. 326; 12 id. 530; 9'id. 440; 8 id. 123; 6 id. 94; 4 Hill, 162, 272; 1 id. 449; 26 Wend. 511; 25 Wend. 398; 24 id. 116; 23 id. 653; 21 id. 118; 20 id. 19; 19 id. 183, 446, 515; 17 id. 55, 494; 16 id. 523; 15 id. 213, 629; 12 id. 298; 8 id. 378; 2 id, 446; 3 Cow. 166; 4 T. & C. 280; 8 Bosw. 174; 10 id. 423; 5 Duer, 220, 441; 2 id. 99; 13 Abb. Pr. 155; 3 Sandf. 73; 2 id. 594; 8 How. Pr. 310; 4 Den. 174; 1 E. D. Smith, 448; 2 Hun, 68; 1 id. 519; 1 Sweeney, 393; 63 Barb. 311; 36 N. Y. Super. 58; 65 Barb. 227; 19 Hun, 172; 10 Daly, 450; 25 Hun, 504; 31 id. 606; 33 id. 562, 43 id. 148; 38 id. 473; 40 id. 330; 115 N. Y. 139; 121 id. 219; 136 id. 305, 316; 56 Hun, 236; 57 id. 239; 62 id. 90; 30 N. Y. St. R. 723; 31 id. 67; 32 id. 663; 35 id, 170, 965; 36' id. 783; 38 id. 370, 192; 39 id. 204; 41 id.

588; 42 id. 584; 49 id. 402, 742; 55 id. 373; 56 id. 853; 59 id. 520; 9 N. Y. Supp. 751. 6 Who deemed creditors. The term “creditors," as used in the last section, shall be construed to include all persons, who shall be creditors of the vendor or assignor, at any time whilst such goods and chattels, shall remain in his possession or under his control. Id., § 6. 63 Barb, 318; 103 N. Y. 115; 10 Bosw. 423; 19 Wend. 183; 86 N. Y. 332; 25 Hun, 504; 43 id

148; 62 id. 90; 42 N. Y. St. R. 584; 49 id. 742; 16 N. Y. Supp. 476; 17 id. 308; 16 id. 749, 751. 7. Two last sections qualified. Nothing contained in the two last sections, shall be construed to apply to contracts of bottomry or respondentia, nor to assignments or hypothecations of vessels or goods, at sea, or in foreign ports. Id., § 7.

26 Wend. 511.

8 Subscribing by agent. Every instrument required by any of the provisions of this title,* to be subscribed by any party, may be subscribed by the lawful agent of such party. Id., $ 8. 10 Paige, 537; 5 Sandf. 101; 42 N. Y. 499; 13 Abb. N. C. 212, 248; 64 N. Y. St. R. 643.

General Provisions as to Fraudulent Conveyances and Contracts. 9 Conveyances intended to defraud, etc., void. Every conveyance or assignment, in writing or otherwise, of any estate or interest in lands, or in goods or things in action, or of any rents or profits issuing therefrom, and every charge upon lands, goods, or things in action, or upon the rents or profits thereof, made with the intent to hinder, delay or defraud creditors or other persons, of their lawful suits, damages, forfeitures, debts or demands, and every bond or other evidence of debt given, suit commenced, decree or judgment suffered, with the like intent, as against the persons so hindered, delayed or defrauded, shall be void. 2 R. S. 137, § 1. 4 Abb. App. Dec. 94; 3 id. 76; 52 Barb. 26, 272; 32 id. 240; 24 id. 120; 22 id. 550: 21 id.

55, 128, 469; 19 id. 176, 455; 18 id. 274, 549, 612; 17 id, 316; 16 id. 544; 15 id. 56, 560. 599, 618; 14 id. 39; 12 id. 46, 168; 9 id. 256; 6 id. 91, 187, 470; 4 id, 232, 332; 57 id. 164. 252, 671; 58 id. 389, 625; 35 id. 384, 554; 29 id. 480; 26 id. 562; 65 id. 136; 60 id. 62, 288, 317; 30 id. 47; 36 id. 291, 298; 38 id. 302; 40 id. 22; 42 id. 98, 171, 300; 43 id. 395, 498; 46 id. 157, 540; 50 id. 512; 2 Daly, 372; s. c. 36 How. Pr. 74; 4 Rob. 171; 10 Bosw. 13, 419, 645; 5 id. 363; 1 id. 281; 7 id. 480; 3 id. 267; 8 id. 129; 5 id. 587; 9 id. 503; 3 Rob. 348; 56 How. Pr. 46; 57 id. 75; 52 id. 505; 18 Hun, 134, 219, 355, 464; 63 N. Y. 74, 434; 9 Hun, 161, 514; 17 id. 403; 53 How. Pr. 250, 342, 405; 19 Hun, 362; 54 How. Pr. 47; 5 Hun, 79, 110; 12 id. 306, 497; 3 id. 605, 692; 7 id. 146, 563, 591; 22 id. 573; 23 id. 45, 95, 648. 1 id. 499, 513, 519; 14 id. 465; 10 id. 39; 16 id. 168; 11 id. 254; 27 id. 200, 359; 31

* This subject, SS 1-8.

id. 65, 280, 282; 36 id. 167; 34 id. 460; 39 id. 29; 42 id. 221, 528; 45 id. 411; 35 id. 128; 51 id. 74; 50 id. 390; 52 id. 46, 486; 2 Abb. N. Ć. 222; 7 id. 240; 61 N. Y. 626; 17 id. 9, 22, 28; 15 id. 9, 334; 14 id. 569; 52 id. 274; 56 id. 273; 21 id. 23, 594; 24 id, 623; 25 id. 315; 9 id. 598; 10 id. 189, 202; 33 id. 139; 34 id. 386; 35 id. 403; 36 id. 412; 37 id. 591; 39 id. 164; 42 id. 421; 47 id. 299; 48 id. 125, 684; 50 id. 676; 51 id. 660; 54 id. 125; 9 id. 150, 213; 6 id. 515; 27 id. 603; 88 id. 418; 96 id. 75; 99 id. 451; 101 id. 229; 84 id. 522; 104 id. 575; 105 id. 171, 476; 66 id. 344; 65 id. 73; 110 id. 195; 111 id. 295; 114 id. 350; 113 id. 485; 45 N. Y. Super. 615; 1 Rob. 131, 340; 1 Johns. Ch. 261; 2 id. 35, 283; 3 id. 446; 4 id. 450; 5 id. 431; 13 Johns, 471; 14 id. 493; 15 id. 162, 261; 16 id. 189; 20 id. 472; 2 T. & C. 292, 508; 5 id. 195; 7 Lans. 345; 5 id. 149, 183; 5 Rob. 26; 4 Abb. Pr. N. S. 210; 15 id. 248; Hoff. Ch. 79, 419; 3 Barb. Ch. 645; 1 id. 220; 6 Hill, 433, 438; 1 Den. 195; 4 id. 174, 217, 287, 439; 4 Wend. 100, 300; 3 id. 411; 5 Cow. 554; 7 id. 301, 732; 18 Johns. 427, 516; 4 Sandf, 283; 20 How. Pr. 123, 339, 343; 15 How. Pr. 95, 193, 355; 14 id. 11, 333; 3 Duer, 166; 2 id. 362; 3 Sandf, 69, 311; 13 N. Y. 488; 3 id. 310; 1 Paige, 305; 2 id. 54; 6 id. 62, 526; 7 id. 87; 8 id. 417; 9 id. 132; 4 Hill, 162, 271; 1 id. 143; 10 Paige, 126, 210; 8 Wend. 9; 26 id. 511; 7 id. 436; 18 id. 353, 375; 1 Cow. 622; 4 id. 599, 617; 9 id. 73; 25 How. Pr. 513; 19 id. 353, 410; 1 E. D. Smith, 448; 1 Sandf. Ch. 4, 83, 135, 251; 2 id. 139, 353; 3 id. 35; 2 Edw. Ch. 197; 4 id. 62; 17 W. D. 81, 238, 519; 18 id. 24, 186, 16 Abb. N. C. 46, 23, n.; 22 id. 105, 346; 10 Abb. Pr. 390; 12 id. 143, 158, 232, 390; 14 id. 64; 19 id. 416; 10 How. Pr. 175; 17 id. 556; 19 id. 353, 410; 20 id. 343; 23 id. 69; 27 id. 357; 28 id. 333; 32 id. 313; 42 id. 294; 44 id. 381; 46 id. 347; 129 N. Y. 1; 131 id. 300; 138 id. 369, 435; 148 id. 270; 55 Hun, 120; 56 id. 175, 204; 62 id. 149; 66 id. 8; 74 id. 542; 76 id. 557; 66 id. 209; 87 id. 236, 547; 30 N. Y. St. R. 841; 31 N. Y. St. R. 119; 33 id. 970; 37 id. 801; 41 id. 204, 755; 43 id. 199; 49 id. 192; 52 id. 881; 53 id. 16; 58 id. 250; 59 id. 295; 66 id. 742; 70 id. 351, 352; 69 id. 461; 67 id. 726; 14 N. Y. Supp. 12; 9

id. 360; 11 id. 408, 410; 9 id. 232; 8 id. 767; 26 id. 633. 10. Grants of trusts to be in writing. Every grant or assignment of any existing trust in lands, goods or things in action, unless the same shall be in writing, subscribed by the party making the same, or by his agent lawfully authorised, shall be void. Id., $ 2. 5 Johhs. Ch. 11; 48 N. Y. Super. 70; 129 N. Y. 1; 136 id. 101; 138 id. 435; 41 N. Y. St. R.

204; 14 N. Y. Supp. 11; 8 id. 730. 11 Heirs, etc., of creditors. Every conveyance, charge, instrument or proceeding declared to be void, by the provisions of this chapter,* as against creditors or purchasers, shall be equally void against the heirs, successors, personal representatives or assignees, of such creditors or purchasers. Id., $ 3. 4 Hill, 272; 129 N. Y. 1; 138 id. 435; 41 N. Y. St. R. 204; 59 id. 520; 67 id. 726.

12 Question of fraudulent intent. The question of fraudulent intent in all cases arising under the provisions of this chapter,* shall be deemed a question of fact and not of law; nor shall any conveyance or charge be adjudged fraudulent as against creditors or purchasers, solely on the ground, that it was not founded on a valuable consideration. Id., § 4. 60 Barb. 68; 15 id. 56; 13 id. 326; 12 id. 530, 168; 44 id. 194; 10 Bosw. 13, 423; 1 id. 317: 7

id. 490; 2 Abb. Pr. N. S. 304; 6 T. & C. 322; 65 N. Y. 73; 53 How. Pr. 342; 16 Hun, 168; 14 N. Y. 567; 9 id. 213; 4 id. 303, 580; 32 id. 649; 39 id. 167; 24 id. 364, 629; 25 id. 316; 56 id. 8; 1 id. 496; 85 id. 421; 92 id. 637; 93 id. 17; 77 id. 461; 101 id. 229; 4 Den. 174; 23 Wend. 654; 19 id. 184, 445; 15 id. 213, 629; 11 id. 251; 17 id. 494; 3 Paige, 564; 4 Sandf. 283; 3 id. 69; 5 Duer, 220; 2 id. 99; 15 How. Pr. 355; 65 Barb. 233; 6 Hill. 433 438; 4 id. 272; 1 E. D. Smith, 448; 22 W. D. 430; 53 N. Y. Super. 101; 31 Hun, 274; 27 id. 359; 34 id. 70; 36 id. 79; 37 id. 312; 39 id. 280; 41 id. 243; 13 Daly, 233; 115 N. Y. 122, 138, 139; 119 id. 459; 129 id. 1; 134 id. 568; 138 id. 435; 57 Hun, 239; 60 id. 248; 73 id. 347; 76 id. 557; 86 id. 339; 36 N. Y. St. R. 184; 39 id. 205; 41 id. 204; 43 id. 199: 48 id. 161: 55 id. 765; 58 id. 250; 14 N. Y. Supp. 4, 707, 710, 749, 750, 757, 758; 8 id. 64; 7 id.

931; 15 id. 98, 99; 6 id. 41. 13 Rights of purchaser for value. The provisions of this chapter* shall not be construed, in any manner, to affect or impair the title of a purchaser for a valuable consideration, unless it shall appear, that such purchaser had previous notice of the fraudulent intent of his immediate grantor, or of the fraud rendering void the title of such grantor. Id., § 5. 17 N. Y. 28; 89 id. 446; 88 id. 418; 3 Duer, 166; 44 Barb. 257; 39 id. 98; 2 Rob. 488; 26 Hun.

554; 31 id. 605; 5 Rob. 26; 27 Hun, 362; 1 Johns. Ch. 261; 129 id. 1; 132 id. 85; 136 id. 101; 138 id. 435; 147 id. 589; 57 Hun, 239; 66 id, 8; 68 id. 284; 87 id. 236, 547; 29 Abb. N. C. 314; 32 N. Y. St. R. 661; 36 id. 783; 38 id. 125, 218, 473; 39 id. 205; 41 id. 204; 43 id. 571; 48 id. 256; 49 id. 85, 192; 52 id. 198; 59 id. 332; 70 id. 351, 352; 69 id. 461; 10 N. Y. Supp. 922; 15 id. 99. 5 id. 795.

* This subject.

14 Definitions. The term “lands," as used in this chapter,* shall be construed as co-extensive in meaning, with “lands, tenements and hereditaments; ” and the terms “ estata and interest in lands,” shall be construed to embrace every estate and interest, freehold and chattel, legal and equitable, present and future, vested and contingent, in lands, as above defined. 2 R. S. 137, § 6. 26 Wend. 559; 129 N. Y. 1; 138 id. 435; 41 N. Y. St. R. 204; 52 id. 488.

15 “ Conveyance " defined. The term “ conveyance," as used in this chapter,* shall be construed to embrace every instrument in writing, (except a last will and testament) whatever may be its form, and by whatever name it may be known in law, by which any estate or interest in lands is created, aliened, assigned, or surrendered. Id., $ 7. 129 N. Y. 1; 138 id. 435; 41 N. Y. St. R. 204.

16 Application of statute to former conveyances. The provisions of this chapter* shall not extend to any conveyance, charge, contract, assignment, instrument or proceeding, had, made, executed or commenced, before this chapter* shall be in force as a law. 2 R. S. 138, § 8 7 Lans. 268; 129 N. Y. 1; 138 id. 435; 41 N. Y. St. R. 204.

See also Corporations, $ 108; Deeds; Fraud; Fraudulent Assignments; Real Property Law, 88 226–230; Trusts, etc., 88 7-9.

For earlier laws on this subject_see Birdseye's Chronological Table of Statutos, under L. 1787, c. 44; L. 1801, Revised Acts (1 K. & R. 75); 1 R. L. 1813, p. 75.

FREE.
CHURCHES; see Religious Corporations Law, SS 113–116.
LIBRARIES; see Libraries, ss i, 2.
Pass; see Constitution, $ 146.
SCHOOLS; see Benevolent, etc., Societies, & 14; Consolidated School Law; University

Law, 8 72.
SHARES; see Banking Law, SS 174, 176, 177

FREE AND ACCEPTED MASONS.
See Benevolent Orders Law.

FREEDOM.
OF CONSCIENCE; see Conscience; Constitution, $ 3; Rights, Bill of, $ 9.
OF ELECTIONS; see Election Law; Rights, Bill of, 18.
OF SPEECH; see Constitution, SS 8, 36; Rights, Bill of, SS 20, 21.
OF WORSHIP; see Prisons, SS 254–256.
FROM ENCUMBRANCES, COVENANT AS to; see Real Property Law, S 218.

FREEDOM, Town OF.
For boundaries see Birdseye's Chronological Table of Statutes, under L. 1788, c. 64, p. 67.

FREEHOLDERS.
APPOINTED TO DISPOSE OF REAL PROPERTY OF DECEDENT; see Executors, etc., SS 89, 128,

130, 133, 137. COMMISSIONERS, WHEN TO BE; see Condemnation Law, § 14; Drainage, $ 49; Highway

Law, S 84; Villages, $ 234.
INVESTIGATION OF FIRE REQUESTED BY; see Fires, 1.
SURETIES, WHEN TO BE; see Arrest, SS 29, 131; Sureties.
FREEHOLD; see Real Property Law, S$ 23, 24, 208, 218.
See also Highway Law.

FREEMASONS.
See Benevolent Orders Law; Insurance Law, SS 214, 239; Secret Societies.

FREÉTOWN, Town OF.
For boundaries see Birdseye's Chronological Table of Statutes, under L. 1788, c. 64, p. 54.

FREIGHT AND BAGGAGE. 1 Duty of carriers, etc., as to unclaimed baggage. The proprietor or proprietors of the several lines of stages and the proprietors of the several canal

* This subject.

[graphic]

boat lines, and the proprietors of the several steam boats, and the several incorporated rail road companies, and the keepers of the several inns and taverns within this state, who shall have any unclaimed trunks boxes or baggage within his, their, or either of their custody, shall immediately enter the time the same was left, with a proper description thereof, in a book to be by them provided and kept for that purpose. In case the name and residence of the owner shall be ascertained it shall be the duty of such person who shall have any such property as above specified, to immediately notify the owner thereof by mail. L. 1837, 6. 300, § 1. 11 N. Y. Supp. 686; 12 id. 213, 214.

2 Description to be made and published. In case there shall not be any information obtained as to the owner it shall be the duty of the person having the possession thereof to make out a correct written description of all such property as shall have been unclaimed for thirty days stating the time the same came into his possession and forward said description to the editor of the state paper whose duty it shall be on the first Mondays of July October January and April in each year to publish the same in the state paper once a week for three weeks successively. Id., $ 2.

3 After sixty days, to be opened, etc.; sale at auction; proceeds. In case the said property shall remain unclaimed for sixty days after the said publication, it shall be the duty of the person or company having possession thereof, to apply to a magistrate of the town or city in which said property is retained, in whose presence and under whose direction said property shall be opened and examined, and an inventory thereof taken by said magistrate, and if the name and residence of the owner is ascertained by such examination, it shall be the duty of the magistrate forthwith to direct a notice thereof to such owner by mail: — And if said property shall remain unclaimed for three months after such examination it shall be the further duty of the person or company having possession thereof to apply to a magistrate as aforesaid, and if said magistrate shall deem such property of sufficient value, he shall cause the same to be sold at public auction giving six days previous notice of the time and place of such sale, and from the proceeds of such sale he shall pay the charges and expenses legally incurred in respect to said property, or a ratable proportion thereof, to each claimant if insufficient for the payment of the whole amount, and the balance of the proceeds of such sale if any the said magistrate shall immediately pay to the overseers of the poor of said town or city for the use of the poor thereof; and the said overseers shall make an entry of such amount and the time of receiving the same, upon their official records and it shall be subject at any time within seven years thereafter to be reclaimed by and refunded to the owner of such property his heirs or assigns, on satisfactory proof of such ownership. Id., $ 3. 34 N. Y. St. R. 55.

4. Expenses, a lien on property. The person making the entry of unclaimed property as above specified, shall be entitled to twelve and a half cents for each trunk, box, bale, package, or bundle, so entered, and shall have a lien on the property so entered until payment shall be made and in case any additional expense shall be incurred for printing, the lien shall continue until payment shall be made for such additional expense. Id., $ 4.

5 Penalty for neglect. In case any person shall neglect or refuse to comply with the provisions of this act, he shall forfeit the sum of five dollars for each and every trunk, box or bundle of baggage,so neglected as above specified, to the benefit of any person who shall sue for the same, in his own name in an action of debt, in any court having cognizance thereof. Id., $ 5.

6 Sale of unclaimed articles by express companies. Every express company, or person or persons engaged in the express business, who shall have had any unclaimed article goods or things, not perishable, in its, his or their possession

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