in the condition he was in on earth, present and still living among men, delivered with his own mouth those discourses • which are contained in the gospels. As, also, he fled to the

writings of the apostles whom he esteemed as the presbytery • of the whole christian church, under Christ the universal

bishop, which (presbytery] taught all christian societies • what they ought to believe. Whence it is sufficiently • manifest, how much the sacred books of the N. T. esteemed at that time. He adds : “ Let us also love the prophets." Which words intend the Old Testament as • written: for the prophets could not be otherwise known * to Ignatius. Nor ought it to be passed by without ob• servation, that he in the first place mentions the writings • of the N. T. by which we are christians, as his " refuge:” • and in the second place the books of the 0. T. because • the New may be confirmed out of them.'

LI. Again: Philadelph. sect. ix. · Bute the gospel has somewhat in it more excellent, the appearance of our Lord Jesus Christ, bis passion and resurrection. For the beloved prophets referred to him, but the gospel is the perfection of incorruption.'

Smyrn. sect. vii. · Yef ought to hearken to the prophets, but especially to the gospel, in which the passion has been manifested to us, and the resurrection perfected.'

In these two places Mill supposes to be meant the book of the gospels. “And in the following passage by gospel he

supposes to be meant the canon of the New Testament in general.

Lill. Smyrn. sect. v. · Whoms neither the prophecies, nor the law of Moses, have persuaded; nor yet the gospel even to this day, nor the sufferings of every one of us.

LIV. Philadelph. sect. viii. • Becauseh I have heard of some who say, unless I find it in the ancients, [some are for archives], I do not believe in the gospel : and I said unto them, It is written : they answered me, It is not mentioned. But to me instead of all ancients is Jesus Christ. And the


Εξαιρετoν δε τι εχει το ευαγγελιoν, την παρασιαν τ8 Κυριου ημών Ιησε Χρις8, το παθος αυτ8, και την αναςασιν" οι γαρ αγαπητοι προφηται κατηγγειλαν εις αυτον το δε ευαγγελιoν απαρτισμα εσιν αφθαρσιας. . Προσεχειν δε τοις προφηταις, εξαιρετως δε τω ευαγγελια εν ου το παθος ημιν δεδηλωται, και η αναςασις τετελειωται.

8 Ους επεισαν αι προφητειαι, εδ' ο νομος Μωσεως, αλλ' εδε μεχρι νυν το ευαγγελιoν, έδε τα ημετερα των κατ' ανδρα παθηματα.

Eπει ηκεσα τινων λεγοντων ότι εαν μη εν τοις αρχαιοις ευρω, εν τω ευαγγελια 8 πιςευω και λεγοντος με αυτοις, ότι γεγραπται, απεκριθησαν μοι ότι προκειται. [al. 8 προκειται. Vid. Voss. in loc.] εμοι δε αρχεια εσιν Ιησες Χρισος. τα αθικτα αρχεια ο σαυρος αυτό, και ο θανατος και ή αναςασις αυτ8, και η πισις ή δι' αυτο.


uncorrupted ancient [doctrines] are his cross, and his death, and his resurrection, and the faith which is by him.'

This difficult text I have rendered as near as I could, according to the sense in which it is understood by Le Clerc, which I think to be the most likely meaning. He supposes it to be an answer to the Jews, who refused to believe the gospel, for want of some clearer prophecies in the Old Testament. I have thought proper to take this notice of this passage, to prevent any wrong conclusions from it, as it stands in the Archbishop's translation.

LV. We are to observe one place more. Smyrn. sect. iii. · And when he [Christ] came to those who were with Peter, he k said unto them: Take, handle me, and see that I am not an incorporeal dæmon :' or, in other words, I am not a spirit.

Eusebius has quoted this passage of Ignatius, and says, he did not know whence Ignatius took these words of our Saviour. But Jerom m says it was taken out of the gospel according to the Hebrews. If these ancient writers, and some learned moderns, had not suspected these words to be taken out of some particular writing, I think one might have supposed, that Ignatius only quoted Luke's gospel in a loose manner, where is exactly the same sense. Chap. xxiv. 39, “ Behold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself: handle me and see, for a spirit has not flesh and bones, as ye see me have.” And if it had not been a disputed point, I should have inserted this passage above, as a quotation of the gospel of St. Luke, or a reference to it. I find Mr. Le Clerc so much of the same mind, that I shall place his words " in the margin. And I would also add, that it was the opinion of • Isaac Casaubon, and bishop


i Vid. Hist. E. 116. 26. et ad loc. Ignat. ap. Patr. A. ed. 1724.

Εφη αυτοις, Λαβετε, ψηλαφησετε με, και ιδετε, ότι ειμι δαιμονιον ασωματόν. | H. E. 1. 3. c. 36. p. 108. A.

ni De Vir. Ill. n. 16. in Ignatio. Vid. et Grabe Spicil. T. i. p. 25.

n Quæ crediderim quidem Hieronymo fuisse in evangelio Hebræorum ; sed videntur esse paraphrasis verborum, quæ sunt Lucæ, cap. xxiv. 39. quâ uti potuit Ignatius, pro more antiquissimorum patrum, qui persæpe scripturæ sensum potius quam verba laudant. Certe Ignatius ea verba Matthæo non tribuit : et Nazaræi etiam historiam, quæ apud Lucam exstabat, potuerunt suo exemplari Matthæi nonnihil immutatam inserere; ita ut utrique ex eodem fonte hauserint, non Ignatius ex Nazaræis Dissertat. ii. quæ est de iv, Evangeliis: ad calcem Harmoniæ Evangelicæ.

• Quin est fortasse verius, non ex evangelio Hebraïco Ignatium illa verba descripsisse, verum traditionem allegâsse, non scriptam quæ postea in literas fuerit relata, et Hebræorum evangelio, quod Matthæo tribuebant, inserta. Casaub. Exerc. ad Baron. xvi. Num. 126. Pearson having cited this passage approves it: Et hoc quidem multo mihi verisimilius videtur. Vindic. Ign. P. 2. Cap. 9.

Pearson, that Ignatius did not quote these words out of the gospel of the Hebrews, but that they were afterwards inserted in it.

Having shown the opinion of these learned men, I beg leave to detain the reader a little longer, while I set before him this passage with the context more at large. In opp0sition to some heretics, Ignatius says: Christ truly suffered, as he also truly raised up himself: not as some unbelievers say, that he only seemed to suffer, they themselves only seening to be. And P as they think, so sball it happen to them, to be incorporeal and phantastical [in the original, literally, “ incorporeal and dæmoniac.”] But I know, that after the resurrection he was in the flesh, and I believe him to be so stil]. And when he came to those who were with Peter, he said to them: Take, handle me, and see that I am not an incorporeal phantom.' From whence I think it appears, Ignatius was wont to use the words dæmon and dæmoniac, as equivalent to phantom or spirit, and phantastical. This being his style, if he had not St. Luke before him, (as it is very likely, in his circumstances, he had not, it was very natural for him to represent the sense of that text of St. Luke's gospel just as we see in this passage.

I shall now make two observations :

1. That this is the first place of the apostolical fathers in which we have a passage, I do not say quoted from, but found in, an apocryphal book of the New Testament. And this is the first in Grabe's collection of the fragments of the gospel according to the Hebrews. It will not be improper for me to confirm this observation by the judgment of Mr. Le Clerc, who has been so conversant with these writers. He says then expressly, ó that he has not observed in any • of the apostolical fathers, (he means those already here quoted, and St. Polycarp, who will next follow,) any quotations of apocryphal books, concerning the doctrine or • history of Christ, except only this one passage of Ignatius; • in which he may seem to quote the gospel of the Naza

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And again afterwards : Quidni pariter et S. Ignatius, [inquit Pearsonus,] qui cum apostolis et eorum discipulis versatus est, præsertim eo tempore, quo scriptis evangeliis uti forte ei non licebat, eandem historiam quam narrat S. Lucas aliis verbis explicaret ? Ibid.

P Και καθως φρονουσιν, και συμβησεται αυτοις, ουσιν ασωματους και δαιμονικους.

4 Non animadverti ulla uspiam evangelia, aut scripta apocrypha ad historiam aut doctrinam Christi pertinentia, ab iis laudari ; excepto uno illo Ignatii, in quo videri possit laudare evangelium Nazaræorum; sed quem ex Lucâ expressum potius existimaverim, ut jam dixi. Le Clerc, Harmon. Evangel. p. 542. b.

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* renes: but I rather think, says he, the place taken from · St. Luke.'

2. I would observe concerning the gospel according to the Hebrews, that this passage of it affords an argument, that it was composed after our genuine gospels; because it appears to be taken out of St. Luke's gospel, only with a little alteration ; in conformity, perhaps, to this very place of Ignatius. I think I could argue the same thing from some other passages of that gospel of the Hebrews. But we may have a better opportunity of showing more at large that the ground-work of that gospel is St. Matthew's gospel; to which have been made additions of thing's taken out of St. Luke's, (and perhaps other gospels,) and other matters that had been delivered by oral tradition.

LVI. Thus I have given an account of the testimony which Ignatius affords to the books of the New Testament, without any respect to the larger epistles, except in Numb. XLIV. where I have particularly mentioned them. The larger epistles would have supplied me with many more, and

express quotations of the gospels and epistles, if we could allow them to be genuine. But beside the many other arguments against their genuineness, this may be one, that there are more quotations out of the Old and New Testament than could be well expected. The larger epistles were plainly composed by a man at leisure. Ignatius at his writing was very much straitened for time, being at once a traveller, and a prisoner under a strong guard ; and, at the places where he rested, much engaged by the kind and respectful visits of the Christians there, and from the neighbouring cities, and in giving them exhortations by word of mouth. I have endeavoured to take nothing but what is genuine. The Greek edition, even of the smaller epistle to the Romans, as now published by Ruinart, would have afforded me two references or quotations more than I have taken: one of Matthew xvi. 26, the other of 2 Cor. iv. 8, the words of which texts are there at length. But Graber has honestly and ingenuously owned, he suspects them to be additions, they being wanted in the ancient Latin version of that epistle.

LVII. We may now sum up the testimony of Ignatius. And in the first place, he has expressly ascribed the epistle to the Ephesians to St. Paul. In the next place, here are plain allusions to the gospels of St. Matthew and St. John.

Neque tamen dissimulare possum, et istud non omnino sincerum, sed loca scripturæ, 2 Cor. iv. et Matth. xvi. aliaque, addita videri, quæ a vetere versione absunt. Grabe, Spicil. Patr. T. 2. p. 8.

Whether he has alluded to the gospel of St. Luke, is doubtful, unless we allow him to refer to it in the passage at Numb. LV. The other allusions here taken from Ignatius relate to the Acts of the Apostles, the epistle to the Romans, first and second to the Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, first to the Thessalonians, second té Timothy, to Titus, Philemon, Hebrews, first epistle of Peter, first and third epistles of John. And most of these allusions, I apprehend, will be allowed manifest. The least considerable seem to be those to the Colossians, Titus, and the Hebrews. And if any think, likewise, the agreement between Ignatius and some of the other books not material, I shall not contend about it. Every one is now able to judge for himself. But I think, there are some references to the greatest part of these books, which will not be disputed.

And besides, here are terms used by him, importing a collection of the gospels, and of the epistles of the apostles, and of the books of the New Testament in general.



THE character and age of Polycarp, and the genuineness of his remaining epistle to the Philippians, will appear from some passages of Irenæus, bishop of Lyons in Gaul. These passages

will also serve to show at the same time the age, and consequently the authority, of Irenæus himself, and the value of his testimony, when we shall come to make use of it.

Irenæus says in his excellent work against all heresies : * And Polycarp teaches the same things, who was not only • taught by the apostles, and had conversed with many who • had seen Christ, but was also by the apostles appointed bishop of the church of Smyrna in Asia. Whom also I saw in my early age; (for he lived long, and at a great age • had a glorious and splendid martyrdom :) I say, Polycarp

always taught these things, which he had learned from • the apostles, which he delivered to the church, and which • alone are true. To this bear witness all the churches in Asia, and they who to this time have succeeded Polycarp;

* L. 3. c. 3. sect. 4. Edit. Mass. et apud Euseb. H. E. I. iv. cap. 14.

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