图书图片
PDF

taken by some of adding or leaving out some things by the way of correction and emendation, as they apprehend.’

Here seem to be hinted three several causes of various readings, or differences, in the copies of the gospels. .The first is the negligence of transcribers, which is very! like] to happen, or rather is impossible to be entirely preventedl The second is the wicked rashness of some men, whode-e signedly altered the gospels, to make them agreeable to their own particular sentiments. This, we may suppose, was the fault of a few only: for in the foregoing passage Origen assured us, that he did not know of any who had so altered the gospels, except some of the heretics. In the third place, some differences in the copies of the scriptures might be owing to the critics, who took a liberty of leaving out some things, or adding others, and thus to correct or amend some readings in their copies, which they thought to be wrong. And I think that Origen himself here acts the art of a critic, though perhaps he did not easily take the liberty to alter his copies.

We cannot deny the truth of what Origen says here so positively, that there were then many various readings in the copies of the New Testament. But perhaps he aggra-i vates a little to carry a point, and support a bold conjecture. However, we may hence infer, that these books were much esteemed, and had been often transcribed before Origen’s time; otherwise there had not been so many differences in the copies of them; and as it is a thing in itself highly probable, that differences should happen in the copies of books frequently transcribed, so it is no small satisfaction to find that such differences were taken notice'of. “This would increase the care and concern for the exactness .of the copiesof books so much valued and reverenced'as those of the NeW'Testament. . - v . Hi"

3. We may place here, as a general observation of Origen relating to this matter, what '- he says of the names of places: that“ there were frequent errors of that sort 'in’the' copies of the gospels, which were owing to the ignorance of the Gentiles in the geography of the land of Judea. He gives two instances. John i". 28,“ These things were done in Bethabara, beyond Jordan.” In,t m0st copies in his time

‘ To pew-0:7: imam-1109a: w roig 'Ehhnvucoig avnypmpatg n! 13:94, rwv ovoharuw wokhaxa, Kat arro rerwv av Ttg we“!th w for: myyshwlg- \‘Com. in Job. p. 131. B. Huet. ‘ “On peroxidans'v 1mm roig avrrypa¢0tg KELTGI. raura El! BfleaI/lql EYEIIETO, BIC (FYI/08,1811. Kai. QOlKI'dUTO “at m 1rp0'rtpov ysyovwat' mu 1rapa ‘Hpalchww yaw Bneamav awrwpw

[ocr errors]

here was Bethany. He observes likewise that this was an ancient reading; nevertheless he prefers Bethabara, for divers reasons which be there mentions. .

4. He says likewise, that of the swine“ which ran vio-i lently down a steep place, and were choked iu the sea, it was written in some copies, that this was done in the country of the Gerasenes: in a few copies, in the country of the Gadarenes; but' Origen is persuaded that the right name is Gergesenes. He adds, that there were like errors in the Greek copies of the Old Testament. But notwithstanding what Origen says, there does not appear suflicient reason for rejecting Gadarenes, whatever becomes of Gerasenes, as has been shown by " divers critics. Therefore the readings in our present copies may be all right; Gergesenes in Matthew, and Gadarenes in Mark and Luke.

5. Matt. vi. 33, “ But seek e first the kin dom of God, and his righteousness, and al these things s all be added unto you.” Origen in his Treatise of Prayer, discoursing of the proper matter of our petitions, says: ‘ Thesex are things we ought to ray for: “ Ask great things, and small things shall be ad ed unto you.” And, “ Ask heaveul things, and earthly things shall be added unto you.” An , “ Pray for them which des itefully use you,” Matt. v. 44. And, “ Pray ye the Lord 0 the harvest, that he will send forth labourers into his harvest,” ’ Matt. ix. 38. The same direction concerning great and small things, heavenly and earthly things, is, alluded to again in the Y Treatise of Prayer, 'and called an evangelical word; as also in thez books against Celsus. It is expressly put again in the fragments of ’ Origeu’s Commentaries upon the Psalms: ‘ It is a small

[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors]

matter to ask of God earthly things. Such a petition our Saviour forbids to be offered to the Father, saying: “ Ask great things, and small things shall be added unto you: ask heavenly things, and earthly things shall be added unto on.”

y These words are found cited in part by Clement of Alexandria, as wasb observed formerly: ‘ Ask,’ says he, ‘ great things, and small things shall be added unto you.’

Grabeasupposed this citation might be made out of the gospel according to the Hebrews. Mill‘l thinks these words were in Origen’s copies, added to Matt. vi. 33, and taken possibly from the gospel according to the Hebrews, or some other apocryphal gospel. Fabricius is unwillinge to allow, that Origen made this citation out of the gospel according to the Hebrews: he is rather inclined to think that these words were in Origen’s copies, having been inserted there by interpolation. Dr. Wall says, that passagef seems to have been in some old copies, though it is in none now. Mr. Jonesg says, that Clement, in the passage under consideration, respected the sense of Christ’s words, without precisely transcribing them: that is, be rather chose to expoun the words, than literally cite them. Hence also Origen, says he, who was one of Clement’s scholars, does more than once in his works paraphrase these words of Christ in the same manner. Such are the sentiments of these learned writers. It is not fit to be positive in a thing of this nature: but I do not see but Mr. Jones’s opinion may be reckoned as probable, and as near the truth, as any. Then this passage is no various reading: however I thought fit to take notice of it in this place, and give such an account of the use Origen has made of it, that every one may judge for himself. ‘

6. Matt. x. 29, “ And one of them shall not fall to the ground.” Origen read, ‘ Fallh into the snare.’ So likewisei Chrysostom: and, as Dr.k Mill says, the Clementine Homilies; but I cannot find the place. That learned man

awoyopevm/ 6 2011-119 1rpou¢epew rq) Harp: pncw‘ AITELTE ra peyalta, icai ra purpa {JIM/V wposserlverat' at'rura 1a zwspavul, Icat Tt-‘l sm‘yua npoqlemnrm 1‘,prSelect. in Psalmos, p. 560. E. Tom. ii. Bened.

" Chap. xxii. p. 257. ° Spicileg. T. i. p. 44.

4 Mill, in loc. Matth. et Prolegom. n. 695.

° Cod. Apocr. N. T. Tom. i. p. 329. De Dictis Christi, sect. 8.

‘ Wall’s Critical Notes upon the N. T. p. 8.

5 Jones, vol. i. p. 553. h Kat yap duo qpueuuv— éu erg 1ra7u$a a 1n1r1-u. avw Tu W apavotg Harpoc. Con. Cels. 1. viii. p. 794. F. Tom. i. Bened. i In Matt. 2:. Born. xxxv.

" Mill, Pro]. num. 670.

however thinks, that ‘ the ground,’ or ‘ the earth,’ is the true reading, and ‘ snare’ an interpretation. I take this_to be a kind of. proverbial ex ression. It might he sometimes said ‘ to the-ground,’ at ct er-times ‘ into the snare.’ Possibly the true reading is as Mill supposes: nevertheless it was Averyna‘tural for some, in citing this text, to express it after the other form, ‘ into the snare.’ There are frequent comparisons in scripture to this ordinary event, of catching a 'bird in a snare: as Psal. cxxiv. '7; Prov. vii. 23; Eccl. ix. 12. I put down the place, where both the snare and the earth are mentioned. Amos iii. 5, “ Can a bird fall in a snare on the earth, where no gin is for him.”

7. Matt. xix. 24, “ It is easier for a camel to go throu h the e e of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into t e kingdom of heaven.” See also Mark x. 25; Luke xviii. 26. Some have thought, that instead of‘ camel’ we should read ‘ cable.’ Origenl plainly read ‘ camel,’ speaking of the animal so called, and describing it. ‘

8. Matt. xxv. 23, “ Thou hast been faithful over a few things, I will make thee ruler over many things: enter thou into the joy of thy Lord.” Compare Luke xix. l7. Origen, in his books against- flel'sus,m has these words: ‘ To whom it may be said, “ Thou hast been faithful in a small city: enter thou into a great one.” I apprehend here is no proof that11 this was in any gospel; it may be only an expression representing the sense of several places in t e gospel.

9. Mark vi. 3, “ Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary— ‘9” Celsus° had reflected upon our Saviour, calling him a ‘ carpenter b trade.’ Origen says, ‘ ThatP nevertheless Jesus himsel is never called a carpenter in any of the gas els used in the churches.’ It is not easy to determine w atq was the reason of Origen’s saying this; whe

> ther his memory failed him, or whether in his copies of St. Mark’s gospel this place was, “ Is not this the carpenter’s i son 13” as in Matt. xiii. 55; which possibly might be only

[ocr errors]

an alteration made in St. Mark’s gospel by some person out of respect to Christ.

10. The most considerable variation from our copies of the New Testament which I have observed in Origen, is in the Lord’s Prayer, as recorded in St. Luke’s gospel. In his Treatise of Prayer he has given us distinctly this prayer from Matthew and Luke. The prayer in Matthew is very little different from our present copies; therefore [need not put it down. That in Luke being very different, I shall transcribe it here at length. Says Origen, ‘ The‘" Words in Luke are thus: “ Father, hallowed be thy name: thy kingdom come: give us day by day our daily‘br'ead; and forgive us our sins, for we ourselves also forgive every one that is indebted unto us; and lead us not into temptation.”’ ,

Here Origen omits ‘ our,’ and ‘ who art in heaven ;’ and from his particular explication of that part of the‘prayer afterwards, it a pearss again that ‘ Father’ only was~in Luke; neverthe esst Mill supposed that those words, ‘our,’ and ‘ who art in heaven,’ were in Origen’s copies of St. Luke’s gospel. This mistake has been already observed by “ the learned author of the Notes upon Origen’ngi'eatise of ,Prayer,'published by Mr. Reading, which ought to be consulted. . - ‘

Origen afterwards says expressly that St. Luke" emits these words, ‘ thy will be done, as in heaven ~so on-earth.’ He observes the differencew betWeen the two‘e'vangegsts in that which is generally called the fourth petition; an says likewise,x that ‘ deliver us from evil ’ is emitted 'by St. Luke. So that we have from Origen a most distinct acpount how this prayer was read in his time, 'in both evan- e ists. .

g The text of St. Luke in the Latin vulgate, agrees with ~Origen throughout: andy St. Augustine has informed us,

[ocr errors]

' I‘m/119mm 1'0 990"“: 0‘8, dig w spavoigsat £1" 11);. ‘0 Ana; [lira f0, EXOErm 1') Bamkna 08, 11111111 rapamwmgaag, 5111!: few aprov. n. A. p. 240. C. Bened. " P. 243. C. ". To 62, (zan from; fipat‘ (117° 7'8 "WWI-1, rapa 'qu Aeicq U£le1f1lfah p. 256. C. Vid. et p. 265. A.

Y Evangelista vero Lucas in Oratione Dominica petitione's non septem,

[graphic]
« 上一页继续 »