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eleventh year of Marcus, of Christ 171, says: . Then flou• rished Apollinaris, bishop of Hierapolis:' which is the year next after that in which he had placed the flourishing of Melito. Cave places him at the year 170. As Apollinaris has spoken of the victory of Marcus, which happened in the year 174, and of the legion which he says was from thence called the Thundering Legion, and written against the Montanists, and, according to Theodoret, against those Encratites which were called Severians ; I choose to place him with Melito at the year 176 or 177, though possibly he was then in the decline of life.

Nothing remains of these writings of Apollinaris. It is easy to guess we suffer a great deal in the loss of the numerous works of so eminent a person.

There are however two fragments ascribed to Apollinaris in the preface to the Paschal, or, as it is often called, The Alexandrian Chronicle : which the author alleges to show, • thato at the time when our Lord suffered, he did not eat • the typical passover.'

* And Apollinaris,' says he, “the most holy bishop of Hierapolis in Asia, who was near the times of the apostles, in p his discourse Of Easter, teaches the same things, saying : “ There are some, who through ignorance raise • contentions about these things, which is a pardonable

thing; for ignorance is not to be blamed, but rather needs • instruction: they say, that upon the fourteenth day the • Lord eat the lamb with the disciples ; and that on the great day of the feast of unleavened bread he bimself

suffered, and that Matthew says as much, as they under• stand him. Whence it is evident, that their interpretation • is contrary to the law : and, according to them, the gospels disagree.'

Again 9 the same person writes in the same book : “ The • fourteenth is the day of the true passover, the Lord, [who • is the great sacrifice, instead of the Lamb the Son of • God, who was bound, who bound the strong man, who,

though judged, iso judge of the quick and the dead; and • who wast delivered into the hands of sinners, that he ' might be crucified : who was exalted upon the horns of • the unicorn, and whose sacred side was pierced ; who

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• P. 6, 7. Paris. 1668.

P Εν τω περι τ8 Πασχα λογω. κ. λ. Ιb. " Και παλιν ο αυτος εν τω αυτω λογω γεγραφεν ούτως" Η ιδ' τα αληθινά τ8 Κυριε πασχα, η θυσια η μεγαλη, κ. λ. Ιb.

r See Matt. xii. 29. Mark iii. 27. Luke xi. 21, 22. s Acts x. 42, and other places.

i Matt. xxvi. 45. Mark xiv. 41, and other places.

u John xix. 34.

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• also poured out of his side two cleansers, water and

blood, the word and the Spirit; and who was buried on • the day of the passover, a stone' being laid upon the * sepulchre."

I think it may be questioned, whether these passages be taken out of a book of Apollinaris, or of some other person.

It is indeed possible that he might write a book about Easter, though it is not expressly mentioned by Eusebius : for he says, there were extant many writings of Apollinaris, beside those he was acquainted with. But the single testimony of a writer of the seventh century can bardly afford full satisfaction in this point. Tillemont" dares not rely upon their being taken out of any work of this father; he rather thinks they belong to Pierius, presbyter of Alexandria in the third century: which may be reckoned a probable conjecture, since Photius has inentioned a book of Pierius entitled, Ay Discourse on Easter.

Whoever is the author of this book, it appears, from these short passages, that he owned and respected St. Matthew's and the other gospels.

XII. I insist here chiefly on catholic authors. Nevertheless I am unwilling to omit Bardesanes the Syrian, who flourished, according to Cave, about the year of Christ 172, the twelfth of Marcus Antoninus. There can be no inconvenience in placing him a little lower, about 180, in which year Marcus died. I suppose we may hereafter see reason for so doing.

Eusebius speaks favourably of Bardesanes, though most later writers call him an heresiarch. Moreover, that historian, . in the reign of the same emperor, [Marcus • Antoninus,] when there were many heresies in Meso* potamia, Bardesanes, a most eloquent writer in the Syriac

language, and an excellent disputant, wrote several dia• logues in his own language against Marcion, and other • authors of different opinions ; beside a great number of • other pieces, which his disciples (forb he had many • followers, because he strenuously defended the faith)

Matt. xxvii. 66, and all the other gospels. w Un auteur inconnu et assez nouveau cite deux passages tirés, dit il, d'un discours qu'il avoit fait sur la Paque. Mem. E. T. ii. P. 3. p. 91. ed Bruxelles. St. Apollinaire.

* He is placed by Cave at the year 283. H. L. P. i. p. 101.

Υ Εχει δε και εν τω εις το πασχα kal tov 'Qone loyw, k. 1. Cod. cxix. p. 299. 2 Hist. Lit. P. i. p. 47.

a H. E. 1. iv. c. 30. • Πλεισοι δε ησαν αυτω δυνατως τη λογω παρισαμενη. Ιbid.

• Some may choose to understand the original words, as expressive of the eloquence of Bardesanes.

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• translated out of Syriac into Greek; among which is his • excellent dialogue Of Fate, inscribed to Antoninus. It is • said that he wrote several other books upon occasion of • the persecution of that time. He was at first a follower • of Valentinus; but afterwards disliking his doctrine, and having discovered several parts of it to be fabulous and without foundation, he seemed to himself to have attained • to the right faith : but he did not get entirely clear of • his former errors.' In another work Eusebius

says,

that d Bardesanes was a Syrian, but a complete master of the Chaldaic learning.

Jerom in his e Catalogue says: Bardesanes was famous • in Mesopotamia, who, being first a follower of Valentinus, I then a confuter of him, founded a new heresy. -Не • wrote a vast number of volumes against almost all the · heresies that sprung up in his time; among all which his • book about Fate, which he inscribed to Marcus Antoninus, is the most celebrated, and most excellent. He wrote * many other books upon occasion of the persecution; : which bis disciples translated out of Syriac into Greek. • But if there be such force and beauty in a translation, · how much may we suppose there must be in the original ?

Jerom says, the dialogue about Fate was inscribed to Marcus Antoninus, meaning the emperor, in which he is followed by many learned moderns. Butf Valesius, and 5 divers others, think this to be said without good ground : because Eusebius, in his Ecclesiastical History, does not call Antoninus, to whom the book of Fate was inscribed,

emperor. And when he quotes that book, in another place, he calls ith a Dialogue with his friends; or, as Valesius understands it, inscribed to his friends. Nor is it very likely, they say, that this book, written in the Syriac language, should be dedicated to the Roman emperor. But these arguments are not conclusive.

The abilities of Bardesanes, and his writings against heretics, are commended by Jerom in some i of his other

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α Εξ ανδρος Συρε μεν το γενος, επ' ακρον δε της Χαλδαϊκης επισημης Enakoros. Præp. Evang. I. vi. p. 273. B.

Cap. 33. f Annot. in Euseb. H. E. 1. iv. c. 30.

& Tillemont, Mem. Ec. T. ii. Bardesane. Ernest. Sal. Cyprian. ad Hieron. De V. I. c. 33.

b'OŞ EV Tois apos tous èraipovs dialoyous. Præp. Evan. I. vi. cap. 9. p. 273. A.

Quid de Apollinario Hierapolitanæ ecclesiæ sacerdote, Dionysioque Corinthiorum episcopo, et Tatiano, et Bardesane, et Irenæo Photini martyris successore : qui origines hæreseon singularum, et ex quibus philosophorum fontibus emanârint, multis voluminibus explicârunt. Ad Magnum, ep. 83.

works: and he saysk that he was admired by heathen philosophers.

Epiphanius' says, that Bardesanes was a native of Edessa in Mesopotamia; and that he was very intimate with Abgarus, prince of Edessa, whom he commends as a zealous christian. Bardesanes is supposed to have been the adviser of a law published by that prince, and mentioned by himself in the fragment of the book Of Fate in m Eusebius.

Epiphanius, as well as Jerom, counts bim the author of a new heresy, which he calls that of the Bardesianists. As Epiphanius cannot be relied on, I shall not take all he says of this writer. It may be justly argued that he is mistaken, when he affirms that Bardesanes was skilful in Greek, as well as Syriac; this not having been mentioned by Eusebius, or any other authors; and they having considered his works in the Greek language as translations. He says too, that Bardesanes was originally a catbolic; whereas Eusebius and Jerom suppose him to have been first a Valentiuian. He mentions his book Of Fate; and allows that there are other works of his agreeable to the right faith. He tells likewise a story very honourable to Bardesanes : • When Apollonius, a friend of the emperor Antoninus, • persuaded him to deny that he was a christian, he almost • deserved to be reckoned a confessor for the pious and • resolute answer which he made, saying: That he was not • afraid of death, which he could not escape, though he • should not disobey the emperor.' But yet, he says, this great genius afterwards went into several great errors. However, he 9 continued to use the Law and the Prophets, • both the Old and the New Testament, joining with them • likewise some apocryphal books.' For this last Bardesanes is not to be commended : But I wish that Epiphanius had informed us what were these apocryphal books; whether ancient or modern, Jewish or christian,

Theodoret says, that Bardesanes was a Syrian, born at Edessa, and that he flourished under Marcus Verus;' that is, · Marcus Antoninus the philosopher.' He adds,

k Talis Bardesanes, cujus etiam philosophi admirantur ingenium. Comment. in Osee, cap. 10.

1 Hær. 56. Præp. Evan. I. vi. cap. 10. p. 279. D. àylas tov OEOV ekkinoias úpuato. Hær. 56. p. 476. D.

Και αλλα δε κατα την ευσεβη πισιν εμφερεται αυτου συγγραμματα. . Epiph. ibid. p. 477. A.

P Of this Apollonius, see Tillemont, Mem. Ecc. as above; and Basnage, Annal. P. E. 173. sect. 8; and Is. Casaub, ad Jul. Capitolin. Antoninum Pium, cap. 10.

4 Χρηται δε νομη και προφηταις, παλαια τε και καινη διαθηκη, και αποκρυpour trouv soavtws. Ibid. sect. 2. p. 477. C.

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• Bardesanes' wrote many books in the Syriac language, • which were translated into Greek. He says likewise, that · he himself had seen his book Of Fate, against the • heresy of Marcion and not a few other.'

According to the anonymous author of the Edessen Chronicle, who is supposed to have written about the middle of the sixth century, Bardesanes t was born in the year of Christ 154.

There is extant a noble fragment of the Dialogue about Fate in the Evangelical Preparation of Eusebius; in which is a passage, which may be of good use to us upon another occasion where he expressly calls himself a christian.

Ephrem the Syrian made good use of that Dialogue of Bardesanes. The same Ephrem assures us, that w our author composed a hundred and fifty psalms in elegant verse, in imitation of David's Psalter.

Bardesanes * had a son named Harmonius, who was an ingenious and learned man : but differed little from his father, according to Sozomen, as to his peculiar sentiments.

There is a Bardesanes twice mentioned in the remaining works of Porphyry. It has been generally y thought that there were two of this name; Bardesanes the Syrian, of whom we have spoken, who lived in the second century; and Bardesanes the Babylonian, author of a book concerning the Indian philosophers, called by the Greeks Gymnosophists, who lived at the beginning of the third century, and is cited by Porphyry. But Tillemont? makes no scruple of allowing Bardesanes the Babylonian to be the same with him who is usually called the Syrian. Upon this supposition Dodwell a has formed an argument against

Πολλα δε και τη Συρων συνεγραψε γλωττη, και ταυτα τινες μετεφρασαν εις την Ελλαδα φωνην. Εντετυχηκα καγω λογους αυτ8, και κατα ειμαρμενης γραφεισι, και προς την Μαρκιωνος αίρεσιν, και αλλοις 8κ ολιγοις. Heret. Fab. 1. i. cap. 22.

s Vid. Asseman. Biblioth. Oriental. T. i. p. 387. i Apud Asseman. ibid. p. 389.

u P. 279. D. Vid. Asseman. Bib. Or. T. i. p. 124, 125. w Varia Bardesanis scripta hoc loco commemorat S. Doctor, quæ ex Sozomeno et Theodoreto supra indicavimus : et addit, ab eodem centum et quinquaginta psalmos eleganti carmine fuisse elaboratos, ad imitationem Psalterii Davidici. Assem. ibid. p. 132. n. 53.

* Vid. Sozomen, H. E. I. iii. c. 16. p. 526. Theodoret. Hæret. Fab. 1. i. cap. 22. et H. E. 1. iv. cap. 29.

y Vid. Voss. de Historicis Græcis; Morery's Dictionary, and the Supplement.

z Bardesane étoit Syrien d'extraction, originaire d'Edesse en la Mésopotamie. Et comme ce pays n' étoit pas loin de celui de Babylone, c'est lui sans doute, que l'on appelle quelque fois Bardesane le Babylonien. Mem. Ec. Bardesane, T. ii. P. iii.

· Dissert. Iren. iv. cap. 35.

p. 93.

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