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eleventh year of Marcus, of Christ 171, says: ‘ Then flou‘ rished Apollinaris, bishop of Hierapolis:’ which is the year next after that in which he had placed the flourishing of Melito. Cave places him at the year 170. As Apollinaris has spoken of the victory of Marcus, which happened in the year 174, and of the legion which he says was from thence called the Thundering Legion, and written against the Montanists, and, according to Theodoret, against those Encratites which were called Severians; I choose to place him with Melito at the year 176 or 177, though possibly he was then in the decline of life.
Nothing remains of these writings of Apollinaris. It is easy to guess we suffer a great deal in the loss of the numerous works of so eminent a person.
There are however two fragments ascribed to Apollinaris in the preface to the Paschal, or, as it is often called, The Alexandrian Chronicle: which the author alleges to show, ‘ that° at the time when our Lord suffered, he did not eat ‘ the ty ical passover.’
‘ An Apollinaris,’ says he, ‘the most holy bishop of ‘ Hierapolis in Asia, who was near the times of the apos‘ tles, in? his discourse Of Easter, teaches the same things, ‘ saying: “ There are some, who throu h ignorance raise ‘ contentions about these things, whic is a pardonable ‘ thing; for ignorance is not to be blamed, but rather needs ‘instruction: they say, that upon the fourteenth day the ‘ Lord eat the lamb with the disciples; and that on the ‘great day of the feast of unleavened bread he himself ‘ suffered ; and that Matthew says as much, as they under‘ stand him. Whence it is evident, that their interpretation ‘ is contrary to the law: and, according to them, the ‘ gospels disagree.’
‘ Again '1 the same person writes in the same book: “ The ‘ fourteenth is the day of the true passover, the Lord, [who ‘ is] the great sacrifice, instead of the Lamb the Son of ‘ God, who was bound, who' bound the strong man, who, ‘ though judged, is' judge of the quick and the dead ; and ‘ who was‘ delivered into the hands of sinners, that he ‘ might be crucified: who was exalted upon the horns of ‘the unicorn, and whose sacred " side was pierced; who
' See Matt. xii. 29. Mark iii. 27. Luke xi. 21, 22.
‘ Acts x. 42, and other places. ‘ Matt. xxvi. 45. Mark xiv. 41, and other places. " John xix. 34.
‘ also poured-out of his side two cleansers, water and ‘ blood, the word and the Spirit; and who was buried on ‘ the day of the passover, a stonev being laid upon the ‘ sepulchre.” ’
I think it may be questioned, whether these passages be taken out of a book of Apollinaris, or of some other person.
It is indeed possible that he might write a book about Easter, though it is not expressly mentioned by Eusebius: for he says, there were extant many writings of Apollinaris, beside those he was acquainted with. But the single testimony of a writer of the seventh century can hardly afford full satisfaction in this point. Tillemontw dares not rely upon their being taken out of any work of this father; be rather thinks they belong to Pierius, presbyter of Alexandria. in thex third century: which may be reckoned a probable conjecture, since Photius has mentioned a book of Pierius entitled, A? Discourse on Easter.
Whoever is the author of this book, it appears, from these short passages, that he owned and respected St. ‘Matthew’s and the other gospels.
X“. I insist here chiefly on catholic authors. Nevertheless I am unwillin to omit Bardesanes the Syrian, who flourished, according1 to Cave, about the year of Christ 172, the twelfth of Marcus Antoninus. There can be no inconvenience in placing him a little lower, about 180, in which year Marcus died. I suppose we may hereafter see reason for so doing.
Eusebius speaks favourably of Bardesanes, though most later writers call him an heresiarch. ‘ Moreover,’ says“ that historian, ‘ in the reign of the same emperor, [Marcus ‘ Antoninus,] when there were many heresies in Meso‘ otamia, Bardesanes, a most eloquent writer in the Syriac ‘ anguage, and an excellent disputant, wrote several dia‘ logues in his own language against Marcion, and other ‘ authors of different opinions; beside a great number of ‘other pieces, which his disciples (for" he bad man ‘ followers, because6 he strenuously defended the faith) ‘ translated out of Syriac into Greek ; among which is his ‘ excellent dialogue Of Fate, inscribed to Antoninus. It is ‘ said that he wrote several other books upon occasion of ‘ the persecution of that time. He was at first a follower ‘ of Valentinus; but afterwards disliking his doctrine, and ‘ having discovered several parts of it to be fabulous and ‘ without foundation, he seemed to himself to have attained ‘ to the right faith: but he did not get entirely clear of ‘ his former errors.’ In another work Eusebius says, that d Bardesanes was a Syrian, but a complete master of the Chaldaic learning.
" Matt. xxvii. 66, and all the other gospels. ‘" Un auteur inconnu et assez nouveau cite deux passages tirés, dit il, d‘un discours qu‘il avoit fait sur la Paque. Mem. E. T. ii. P. 3. p. 91. ed Brux
elles. St. Apollinaire. " He is placed by Cave at the year 283. H. L. P. i. p. lOl- 1’ EXEI. 65 mt w 'qu fig 10 mlan Km for! 'Qorle X070), r. h. Cod. CXiX. p. 299.
” Hist. Lit. P. i. p. 47. a H. E. 1. iv. e. 30.
b HAM?“ 5: quav avrq) duvarwg ftp Royal araptsapw . Ibid. ° Some may choose to understand the original words, as expressive of the eloquence of Bardesanes.
Jerom in hise Catalogue says: ‘ Bardesanes was famous ‘ in Mesopotamia, who, being first a follower of Valentinus, ‘then a confuter of him, founded a new heresy. He ‘ wrote a vast number of volumes against almost all the ‘ heresies that sprung up in his time; among all which his ‘ book about Fate, which he inscribed to Marcus Antoninus, ‘is the most celebrated, and most excellent. He wrote ‘many other books upon occasion of the persecution; thieh his disciples translated out of Syriac into Greek. ‘ But if there be such force and beauty in a translation, ‘ how much may we suppose there must be in the ori
Jerom says, the dialogue about Fate was inscribed to Marcus Antoninus, meaning the emperor, in which he is followed by many learned moderns. Butf Valesius, andg divers others, think this to be said without good round: because Eusebius, in his Ecclesiastical History, does not call Antoninus, to whom the book of Fate was inscribed, ‘ emperor.’ And when he quotes that book, in another place, he calls ith ‘ a Dialogue with his friends ;’ or, as
alesius understands it, inscribed to his friends. Nor is it very likely, they say, that this book, written in the Syriac language, should be dedicated to the Roman emperor. But these arguments are not conclusive.
The abilities of Bardesanes, and his writings against heretics, are commended by Jerom in somei of his other works: and he saysk that he was admired by heathen philoso hers.
6 EE audpog Evpe [151/ 'ro yevog, an" axpov 5: mg XaXBa'inng "new;qu shqkaxorog. Pmp. Evang. 1. vi. p. 273. B. e Cap. 33
' Annot. in Euseb. H. E. 1. iv. e. 30. 8 Tillemont, Mem. Ec. T. ii. Bardesane. Ernest. Sal. Cyprian. ad Hieron. De V. I. c. 33.
h '09 :11 mag argog rovg e'raipovg dmkoyotg. Praep. Evan. l. vi. cap. 9. p. 273. A. ' Quid de Apollinario Hierapolitanaa ecclesize sacerdote, Dionysioque Corinthiorum episcopo, et Tatiano, et Bardesane, et Irenaao Photini martyris succesore: qui origines haareseon singularum, et ex quibus philosophorum fontibus emanarint, mnltis voluminibus explicaan Ad Magnum, ep. 83.
E ip auius' says, that Bardesanes was a native of Edessa in esopotamia; and that he was very intimate with Abgarus, prince of Edessa, whom he commends as a zealous christian. Bardesanes is supposed to have been the adviser of a law published by that prince, and mentioned by him-' self in the fragment of the book Of Fate in‘“ Eusebius. Epirilhanius, as well as Jerom, counts him the author of, a new eresy, which he calls that of the Bardesianists. As E iphanius cannot be relied on, I shall not take all he says 0 this writer. It may be justly argued that he is mistaken, when he affirms that Bardesanes was skilful in Greek, as well as Syriac; this not having been mentioned by Eusebius, or any other authors; and they having considered his works in the Greek language as translations. He says too, that Bardesanes was‘1 originally a catholic; whereas Eusebius and Jerom suppose him to have been first a Valentinian. He mentions his book Of Fate; and allows that there are other° works of his agreeable to the right faith. He tells likewise a story very honourable to Bardesanes: ‘ VVhenl‘ Apollonius, a friend of the emperor Antoninus, ‘ persuaded him to deny that he was a christian, he almost ‘ deserved to be reckoned a confessor for the pious and ‘ resolute answer which he made, saying: That he was not ‘ afraid of death, which he could not escape, though he ‘ should not disobey the emperor.’ But yet, he says, this great genius afterwards went into several great errors. However, ‘ he‘l continued to use the Law and the Prophets, ‘ both the Old and the New Testament, joining with them ‘likewise some apocryphal books.’ For this last Bardesanes is not to be commended : But I wish that Epiphanius had informed us what were these a ocryphal books; whether ancient or modern, Jewish or cliristian.
Theodoret says, that Bardesanes was a Syrian, born at Edessa, and that he ‘ flourished under Marcus Verus;’ that is, ‘ Marcus Antoninus the philosopher.’ He adds,
" Talis Bardesanes, cujus etiarn philosophi admirantur ingenium. Comment. in Osee, cap. 10. ' Haer. 56.
m Piazp. Evan. 1. vi. cap. 10. p. 279. D. " Ex yap rm; dying rov 620v erXno'tag (Zappa-m. Hair. 56. p. 476. D.
° Kat aMa dc detl 1111/ was 1, mew e E erat avrov 011 am. Epiph. ibid. p. 477. A. B P Of Apollonius, seey'i‘illgr'xiont, Mem. Ecc. as above; and Basnage, Annal. P. E. 173. sect. 8 ; and Is. Casaub. ad Ju]. Capitoliu. Antoninum Pium, cap. 10.
q Xprrrat 5: 110qu Kdl 1rpo¢nratg 1ra7tatq 1's Ktlt ramp dtaflflxy, mu aroxpv¢01g flaw dwav'rwg. Ibid. sect. 2. p. 477. C.
‘ Bardesanes' wrote many books in the Syriac language, ‘ which were translated into Greek.’ He says likewise, that ‘ he himself had seen his book Of Fate, against the ‘ heresy of Marcion and not a few other.’
According to the anonymous author of the Edessen Chronicle, who is supposed5 to have written about the middle of the sixth century, Bardesanest was born in the year of Christ 154.
There is extant a noble fra ment of the Dialogue about Fate in“ the Evangelical Preparation of Eusebius; in which is a passage, which may be of good use to us upon another occasion where he expressly calls himself :1 christian.
E hrem the Syrian made" good use of that Dialogue of Bar esanes. The same Ephrem assures us, that “ our author composed a hundred and fifty psalms in elegant verse, in imitation of David’s Psalter.
Bardesanes" had ason named Harmonius, who was an ingenious and learned man: but differed little from his father, according to Sozomen, as to his peculiar sentiments.
There is a Bardesanes twice mentioned in the remaining works of Porphyry. It has been generallyy thought that there were two of this name; Bardesanes the Syrian, of whom we have spoken, who lived in the second century; and Bardesanes the Babylonian, author of a book concerning the Indian hilosophers, called by the Greeks Gymnosophists, who iived at the beginning of the third century, and is cited by Porphyry. But Tillemontz makes no scrnple of allowing Bardesanes the Babylonian to be the same with him who is usually called the Syrian. Upon this supposition Dodwella has formed an argument against
‘ Apud Asseman. ibid. p. 389. “ P. 279. D.
" Vid. Asseman. Bib. Or. T. i. p. 124, 125.
"' Varia Bardesanis scripta hoc loco commemorat S. Doctor, quae ex Sozomeno et Theodoreto supra indicavimus: et addit, ab eodem centum et quinquaginta psalsz eleganti' carmine fuisse elaborates, ad imitationem Psalterii Davidici. Assem. ibid. p. 132. n. 53. * Vid. Sozomen, H. E. 1. iii. 0. 16. p. 526. Theodoret. Haaret. Fab. l. i. cap. 22. at H. E. 1. iv. cap. 29. Y Vid. Voss. de Historicis Graecis; Morery's Dictionary, and the Supplement. 1 Bardesane étoit Syrien d'exttaction, originaire d'Edesse en la Mésopotamie. Et comme ce pays n' étoit pas loin de celui de Babylone, c'est lui sans doute, que l'on appelle quelque fois Bardesane le Babylonien. Mem. Ec. Bardesane, T. ii. P. iii. p. 93. ‘ Dissert. lren. iv. cap. 35.