I need not transcribe at length Jerom's * account of Agrippa. He calls bim a very learned man;' and places the rise of the heresy of Basilides at Alexandria in the time of Adrian; which is agreeable to what Eusebius writes in bis Chronicle at the seventeenth year of Adrian, and 133d of our Lord, that y Basilides then dwelt at Alexandria. Agrippa must have written whilst Basilides was living. Theodoretz says that Agrippa wrote likewise against Isidorus, son of Basilides : whether he means the fore-mentioned work, is uncertain. When Agrippa says that • Basilides composed four and twenty books upon the gospel ;' it is doubtful whether he intends any of our gospels, or a gospel written by Basilides himself. We may have another opportunity to examine that point more particularly. There is nothing remaining of this learned man, except what was in the account given by Eusebius in the above-cited passage, of which I have transcribed a part.

IV. Aristo, of Pella in Palestine, is cited by a Eusebius, as saying, that, after the conquest of · Judea by Adrian, • the Jews were prohibited by the edicts of that emperor to • behold so much as afar off their native soil.' Aristo is generally supposed to be the author of a dialogue, entitled, “A Dispute of Papiscus and Jason,' expressly mentioned by Celsus the Epicurean, in his books against the christian religion, written about the middle of the second century, or some time after. Celsus says it was a book not so much worthy of laughter, as of pity and aver' sion.' Origen says, in answer to this, that whoever will • read that little book, without prejudice, will find it not worthy of either hatred or laughter; in which a christian is introduced arguing with a Jew from the Jewish scriptures; and showing that the prophecies concerning • the Messiah agree to Jesus, although the adversary strenuously maintained his point against him.'

This dialogue is twice quoted by Jerom, but without mentioning the name of the author. It was translated by one Celsus into Latin; but his translation, as well as the original, is lost. The Latin preface only of Celsus to his

* Agrippo, cognomento Castor, vir valde doctus, &c. De V. I. c. 21. y Basilides hæresiarches in Alexandriâ commoratur, a quo Gnostici. z Hæret. Fab. l. i. c. 4. sub fin.

Αριςων ο Πελλαιος ισορει. κ. λ. 1. iv. c. 6. p. 118. D. b This is taken chiefly upon the credit of Maximus, a writer of the seventh century. Vid. Cave, Hist. Lit. P. 1. p. 34.

• Οίαν δε και Παπισκου τινος και Ιασονος αντιλογιαν εγνων, κ. λ. Αp. Orig. c. Cels. I. iv. p. 199.

d Quæstion. Hebr. in Genesim. pr. et Comm. in Gal. iii. 13.


translation is remaining, and is published at the end of St. Cyprian's works. There was a Celsus, bishop of Iconium, in the third century, who is mentioned ine Eusebius; but there is no proof that he the author of this translation. All that we can be certain of, says f Cave, concerning him is, that he wrote in times of persecution, and before the Roman emperors embraced the christian religion; as appears from several passages of the preface. Tillemont too thinks it very probable that he lived wbile the church was under persecution, at least before the council of Nice. Some place it about the time of St. Cyprian. But whenever the translator lived, we have sufficient assurance, from Celsus the Epicurean, that the dialogue itself was written before, or about, the year 140; or, as Cave says, 136. I shall only add, that the translator informs us, in his preface, that 5 Jason was a Hebrew christian, Papiscus a Jew of Alexandria; that Papiscus was convinced by the arguments set before him, and desired of Jason to be baptized. They who desire to know more of this dispute may consult, beside, h Cave, i Tillemont, k Grabe, 'Fabricius, and the authors referred to by him.

V. Soter, successor of m Anicetus in the see of Rome, flourished, according to Cave, about the year 164. Eusebius" has taken no notice of any writing of his, beside a letter to the Corinthians; written by him, as it seems, in the name of the church of Rome, as St. Clement's had been long before. He speaks of it in his account of the several letters of Dionysius, bishop of Corinth ; one of which was to the church of Rome, addressed to Soter, their bishop at that time: in which he informs them, that their late epistle had been read in the public assembly of the church of Corinth on the Lord's day, and that it should be so read often. The passage has been transcribed • already. Dionysius not only commends the letter of the church of Rome, but the church itself, and Soter their bishop, for an excellent custom, which had long since obtained among thein, of sending relief to foreign churches in necessity, and to their brethren in the mines. This

passage too we shall have occasion to produce hereafter.

e H. E. 1. vi. c. 19. p. 222. B.

& Illud præclarum atque memorabile gloriosumque Iasonis Hebræi christiani, et Papisci Alexandri Judæi disputationis occurrit, h Hist. Lit.

i Mem. Ecc. T. ii. P. 1. Saint Luc. Evangeliste, p. 248–251.

k Spicil. Patr. T. ii. p. 127. Bibl. Gr. T. v. p. 187.

m Eus. H. E. I. iv. c. 22. p. 142. C. n Ibid. c. 23. p. 145. B.

• Ch. ii. p. 33.

i Ubi supra.

-p. 3). B.



VI. I have already P mentioned the letter of Dionysius of Corinth to the church of Gnossus in Crete, and his admonition to Pinytus their bishop. Eusebius 9 likewise informs us, tható Pinytus wrote an answer to that letter, * wherein he greatly commends Dionysius : but at the same • time desires him to impart to them more solid food, and in

some future letter to write more perfect instruction for the • nourishment of the people under his care; lest, being ever * accustomed to milky discourses, they grow old in a childish discipline.'

Jerom has likewise an article for Pinytus in his catalogue of Illustrious Men; and gives much the same account of this answer to Dionysius, calling" it an elegant epistle.' He says, Pinytus flourished in the time of M. Antoninus and Commodus. As we have no account of any writing of bis, beside this epistle, I make no scruple of placing him at the same year with Dionysius, his contemporary. It may be considered whether here be any allusion to 1 Cor. iii. 2. or to Heb. v. 12, 13. Pinytus is mentioned by Eusebius, in another place, with Dionysius of Corinth, Philip, Apollinaris, Melito, Musanus, Modestus, and other eminent persons of that time.

VII. We formerly mentioned also a letter of the same Dionysius to the church of Gortyna in Crete, of which Philip was bishop. Of him Eusebius u soon after says, that • he composed a most elaborate work against Marcion.' St. Jerom has an article for this writer, and commends bis piece; and says he flourished in the times of Marcus Antoninus and Commodus.

VIII. One of the letters of Dionysius of Corinth was written to the church of Amastris, together with the other churches in Pontus. Eusebius w informs us, that in that letter Dionysius mentions by name Palmas, their bishop. In another place, writing of the controversy about the time of keeping Easter, at the year 196, he says: “ There *

P Ch. xii. p. 144-147.

4 Προς ην ο Πινυτος αντιγραφων, θαυμαζει μεν και αποδεχεται τον Διονυσιον αντιπαρακαλει δε σερροτερας ηδη ποτε μεταδιδοναι τροφης, τελειοτερους γραμμασιν εισαυθις τον παρ' αυτω λαον υποθρεψαντα, ώς μη δια τελες τοις γαλακτωδεσιν ενδιατριβοντες λογους τη νηπιωδει αγωγη λαθοιεν καταγηρασαντες. H. E. I. iv. c. 23. p. 144. D.

's Valde elegantem epistolam. De V. I. c. 28.

s L. iv. c. 21. + Ch. xii. p. 144.

Η Φιλιππος γε μην, ον εκ των Διονυσια φωνων της εν Γορτυνη παροικιας επισκοπον εγνωμεν, πανυ γε σπ8δαιοτατον πεποιηται και αυτος κατα Μαρκιωνος λογον. L. iv. c. 25. v De Vir. Ill. c. 30.

* H. E. 1. iv, c. 23. p. 144. B. x Τωντε κατα Ποντον επισκοπων, ών Παλμας ως αρχαιοτατος προυτετακτο. L. v. c. 23. p. 191. A.

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• is also a letter of the bishops in Pontus, over whom Pal* mas presided, as being the most ancient.' It may be supposed that this letter was composed by him.

IX. Eusebius having, in the forecited passage concerning Philip, said that he composed a most elaborate work • against Marcion,' adds: “As y did also Irenæus and Mo. destus ; which last did most excellently, and beyond the

others, detect his frauds, setting them in the fullest light • before all the world.' St. Jerom? says, Modestus, who • lived in the time of M. Antoninus and Commodus, wrote • a book against Marcion, which is still extant. There are • likewise other works under bis name, but they are rejected by the learned as supposititious.' We know nothing more of them : there are no such now.

X. Soon after, a Eusebius says, that there was extant in his time a very eloquent piece of Musanus, written to

some brethren who were gone over to the heresy of the • Encratites.' Jeromb speaks to the same purpose of this work, and says it was written in the time of M. Antoninus. Theodoret calls Musanus a defender of the truth,' and says he wrote against the Severeans, which were a branch of the Encratites. Both these writers are placed by Cave at the year

176. XI. Claudius Apollinaris was bishop of Hierapolis in Phrygia, of whom Eusebius in his Ecclesiastical History writes to this purpose : * Atd the same time flourished also • Melito bishop of Sardis, and Apollinaris bishop of Hierapolis, men of great reputation : each of which severally presented apologetical discourses for the christian religion to the fore-mentioned emperor, [M. Antoninus,] who reigned at that time. In the next chapter Eusebius speaks thus of his works : • Although there are many books of Apollinaris still extant, and in the bands of

many, I am acquainted with these following only: An • Oration to the fore-mentioned emperor (this is his Apology]; Five books against the Gentiles; Two books of

Truth ; Two against the Jews; and the books which he • afterwards wrote against the Phrygian heresy, wbich not long after gave great disturbance, but was then making as it were its first appearance, Montanus being as yet employed in laying the foundation of that error with his • false prophetesses. Serapion, not long after bishop of

2 De V. I. c. 32. a Ibid. c. 28.

b Ibid. c. 31. c Hær. Fab. 1. i. c. 21.

d L. iv. c. 26. in.






y L. iv. c. 25.

• Antioch,e styles him the blessed Claudius Apollinaris, · who was bishop of Hierapolis in Asia.' And it may be argued, from his expressions, that what Apollinaris had written against the Montanists was in the epistolary way. Eusebius informs us, that Apollinaris had mentioned the extraordinary deliverance and victory which M. Antoninus obtained in the year 174. He does not say in which of his books this affair was mentioned, though his Apology may be reckoned as likely a place for it as any.

Jerom in his & Catalogue says, Apollinaris flourished in the time of M. Antoninus, ' to whom he presented an ex• cellent book for the christian faith.' He reckons his works as Eusebius does, except that he omits the two works. against the Jews,' which are wanting likewise in some manuscripts of Eusebius. Apollinaris is mentioned again by Jerom, in another k place, together with Irenæus, and other the most eminent christian writers : 'who,” he says, ' had shown in their works the origin of the several

heresies, and from what sects of the philosophers they • had sprang.'

Theodoret has mentioned the writings of Apollinaris against the Montanists, and says, 'hel was a man worthy of

praise, and that he had added to the knowledge of reli• gion the study of polite literature. In another place he speaks of Apollinaris having written against those Encratites which were called Severians, from Severus, who, after Tatian, made some additions to the peculiar 'notions of that sect.

Photius speaks of three books of Apollinaris, which he had read; Against the Gentiles, Of Piety, and Of Truth; and commends his style. The second, Of Piety, is mentioned no where else that I know of. Photius says, likewise, that there were other writings of his which deserved to be taken notice of, but he had not seen them.

We have seen enough to satisfy us, that this author flourished in the reign of Marcus Antoninus, about the same time with Melito. And Eusebius in his Chronicle, at the


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Πεπομφα υμιν και Κλαυδια Απολλιναρια το μακαριώτατο γενομενε εν 'Ispanole ons Aolas ETLOKOT8 ypapuata. Ap. Eus. H. E. 1. v. c. 19. p. 187. A.

f L. v. c. 5. p. 169. C. D. & De V. I. c. 26.

b* Cui et insigne volumen pro fide christianorum dedit.

· Vid. Vales. Annot. in loc Euseb. k Ad Magnum, ep. 83. al. 84.

Ανης αξιεπαινος, , και προς τη γνωσει των θειων και την εξωθεν παιδειαν προσειληφως. Ηer. Fab. I. iii. cap. 2.

'm Ibid. 1. i. cap. 2. η Προς Ελληνας, και περι Ευσεβειας, και περι Αληθειας. Phot. C. 14.

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