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ST. CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA.
:1. His history, time, works, and character. 11. Three passages of Clementfrom Eusebius’s Ecclesiastical History, concerning the four Gospels, particularly St. Mark’s Gospel. III. Difliculties in these passages considered. IV. Remarks upon the same passages. V. More passages concerning the jbur Gospels, from the remaining works of Clement. VI. Of the flcts qf the Apostles. VII. St. Paul’s Epistles. VIII. The Cutholic Epistles. IX. The Revelation. X. .4 summary account of the books of the N. T. received by him. XI. General titles and divisions q)" the Scriptures, and respect for them. XII. Whether he quotes other writings, as of authority. And first of ecclesiastical writings. I. St. Barnabas. 2. Clement of Rome. 3. Hermas. 4. A general remark. XIII. Apocryphal writings
uoted by him. I. The Gas els according to the He
hrews, and the Egyptians. . The preaching of Peter. 3. The Revelation of Peter. 4. Acts of Peter. 5. Traditions of Matthias. 6. Sayings 13f Christ. XIV. Of the Sibglline poems.
I. TITUS“ FLAVIUS CLEMENS, usually called St. Clement of Alexandria, flourished, according tob Cave, from the year 192 and onwards. He is said by somec to be a native of Athens: by others, of Alexandria, where he certainly resided a good while. Eusebiusd intimates, that he was original] a heathen. We do not certainly know the time of his hirth, or death. He flourished plain] in the latter part of the second, and beginning of the tliird century, in the reigns of Severus, and his son Antoninus Caracalla; that is, between 192 and 217. Du Pine supposes he lived to the time of Heliogabalus, and that he did not die before the year 220; but most are of opinion his death happened sooner.
I For a more particular account of this author than I have room to give, may be seen Fabric. Bib. Gr. Tom. v. p. 102, &c. Du Pin, Bibl. des Aut. Ecc. et Tillemont, Memoires Eccl. Tom. iii. Le Clerc, Bibl. Univ. Tom. x. p. 175.
b Hist. Lit. ° Epiphan. Haer. 32. c. 6. p. 213. B.
d Przep. Ev. 1. ii. c. 2. p. 61. ' Biblioth. in Clement 11‘ Alex. at the beginning.
He has the title of resbyter given him by several of the ancients: he was likewise president of the catechetical school of Alexandria. He seems to have succeeded Pantsenus, in that ofiice, upon his going into Ethiopia, about the year 190: and it is very ‘ probable that, upon the publication of the edicts of Severus against the christians, in the tenth year of his reign, A. D. 202, Clement was obliged to lay down that office, and likewise to retire from Alexandria. We do not certainly know what eminent men proceeded from Clement’s school: butg Eusebius has expressly assured us, that Origen, when young, was his bearer; and it is probable that Alexander, bishop of Jerusalem, had been taught by him.
Clement wrote a great number of books: there are catalogues of his works inh Eusebius andi Jerom, which yet seem not to contain a complete enumeration of them.
The works of Clement now remaining are, an Exhortation to the Gentiles; The Paedagogue, or Instructor, in three books; and the Stromata, or Various Discourses, in eight books: and a small treatise entitled, Who is the Rich Man that may be saved. The Stromata were written after the death of Commodus, in the reign of Severus, as Eusebius I‘ has observed from a passage of the work itself. Dodwelll was of opinion, that all the works of Clement which are remaining, were written between the beginning of the year 193 and the end of the year 195.
Beside these there is frequent mention in m Eusebius of another book of Clement, called Hypotu oses, or Institutions, which is lost. But we have in reek two small pieces, one called an Epitome of the Writings of Theodotus, and the Oriental doctrine; the other, Extracts from the Prophets; both which are generally supposed to be collected out of the lost book of Institutions, or to be fragments of it. There is likewise in Latin a small treatise or fragment, called Adumbrations on some of the Catholic Epistles: which also, if it be Clement’s, was probably translated from the same work called Institutions; which, as we know from“ Eusebius and others, contained short explications of many books both of the Old and New Testament.
‘_See Tillemont, Mem. E. St. Clement d' A. Art. ii. and Euseb. H. E. 1. v1. p. 201, 208. I H. E. 1. vi. cap. 6. h H. E. 1. vi. cap. 13. 1 Vir. 111. cap. 38.
H. E. 1. vi. cap. 6. ' Dissert. Iren. iii. sect. 27.
There are great commendations of Clement in many of the ancients. I shall put down some of them. But first of all I would take a passage from himself, in part also cited by° Eusebius: because it will be of use to inform us of his character, and his authority in the things we shall allege from him.
Hep says, in the first book of his Stromata: ‘ This work I have composed not for ostentation, but as an artless image and picture of the powerful and lively discourses of those blessed and trul worthy men, which I have had the happiness to hear.’ be following part of the passage is somewhat obscure. But he speaks of one, by whom he had been taught in Greece: another in Italy: and two more, as it seems, in the East: and another in Egypt, supposed by Eusebius to be Pantaenus, of whom he speaks in this manner: ‘ But the last whom I met with was the first in merit. After along search I found him lying hid in Egypt, and in him I acquiesced. He was indeed a Sicilian bee, who gathered the flowers of the prophetic and apostolic meadow, and filled the minds of his hearers with sincere knowledge. These‘l men [he intends his masters, of whom he had before spoken] having preserved the true tradition of the blessed doctrine in a direct succession from the holy apostles, Peter, James, John, and Paul, as from father to son, (though few are like their fathers,) have lived by the blessing of God to our time, to lodge in our minds the seeds of the ancient and a ostolical doctrine.’
It appears from this passage, t at our Clement had travelled, and was inquisitive; and that what he valued above all things was the pure, ancient, and apostolical doctrine.
I shall next put down some testimonies of the ancient writers concerning this father; and the first must be that of Alexander, bishop of Jerusalem, contemporary with Clement, and perhaps one of his scholars. Alexander, in a letter to the Antiochians, written before he was bishop of Jerusalem, in the heat of the ersecution under Severus, speaks to them of Clement in this manner: ‘ This letter I ‘ haver sent you by Clement, a blessed presbyter, a‘virtu‘ ous and approved man, whom also ye know, and will ‘ know better: who havin been brought hither by the ‘ divine dis osal and PI‘OVlti-EIICG, established and increased ‘ the church) of the Lord.’
° H. E. l. v. cap. 11. P P. 274. B. C.
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p. 274. D. 275. A. ' H. E. 1. vi. cap. xi.
The same Alexander, in a letter to Origen, written after the death of Clement, speaks thus: ‘ For we5 know those ‘ blessed fathers, who have gone before us, and with whom ‘ we shall shortly be; I mean Panteenus, truly blessed, and ‘ my master; and the sacred Clement, who was my master, ‘ and profitable to me.’ These two fragments are preserved in Eusebius.
Eusebius in hist Chronicle, at the year 194, says: ‘ Cle‘ ment, the author of the Stromata, presbyter of Alexandria, ‘ an excellent master of the christian philosophy, was emi‘ nent" for his writings.’ At this year therefore I place him.
In another work Eusebius calls him more than once the admirablev Clement.
St. Jerom in hisW book of Illustrious Men, assures us, he was presbyter of the church of Alexandria, a bearer of Panteenus, and his successor in the school of Alexandria; and says of his works, of which he there gives a catalogue, that they X are full of erudition and eloquence, ‘ borrowed ‘ from the treasures of the divine scripture and secular ‘ literature.’ He concludes his account of him, that he ‘ flourished in the times of Severus, and his son An‘ toninus.’
And in another place: ‘ Clement)’ presbyter of the ‘ church of Alexandria, in my opinion the most learned of ‘ all men, [or erhaps, of all the christian writers whom he ‘ there names, wrote eight books of Stromata, as many of ‘ Institutions, and another against the Gentiles: the Peeda‘ gogue also in three books. What is there in them un‘ earned ’2 what not taken out of the very depths of ‘ philosolphy ‘P’ This short passage shows what were Clement’s c lief works.
I omit many other testimonies, that may be seen prefixed to the Oxford edition of' St. Clement’s work’s: and shall content myself with adding, that there are divers passages
" Femntur ejus insignia volumina, plenaque eruditionis 8c eloquentiaz, tam de scripturis divinis quam de seecularis literatum instrumento. lbid.
" Clemens, Alexandrinaa ecclesize presbyter, meo judicio omnium eruditissimus.——Quid in illis indoctum, imo quid non de media philosophia est? Ad Magnum Oiat. Ep. 83. al. 84.
of St. Cyril Z of Alexandria, and another of Socrates ’ in his Ecclesiastical History, very much to his advantage.
Photiusb indeed has severely censured Clement’s Hy otuposes, or Institutions. We have not that work, to ena le us to judge of the justness of his censure: but it seems, that in that work Clement collected and delivered a variety of opinions of the ancients before him, of heretics as well as the catholics. This is robably the reason of the blasphemies and fables, whicii Photius says there were in that book. This is an observationc of R. Simon. The more ancient writers, however, seem not to have taken any otfence at it, who knew this work very well, and yet have bestowed their praises on the author without hesitation.
There are some moderns likewise, whod have thought St. Clement’s jud ment not equal to his reading, which was certainly pro igious. I shall not make a particular apology for him; nor do I assert the infallibility of the fathers. I have said enough to show the age, and authority of St. Clement in those things we shall alle e from him.
II. I now proceed to observe what t ere is to our present purpose in his remaining works, or in the quotations made out of them, or others, by ancient writers.
Eusebius has several passages of St. Clement relating to his quotations of the books of scripture, or his history of them.
I. The first passa e of Eusebius is in the fourteenth chapter of the secon book of his Ecclesiastical History; where, having in the foregoing chapters given the history of the success of St. Peter's preaching the gospel at Rome, and his defeat of Simon Magus in that city, he proceeds: ‘ Bute the lustre of religion had so enlightened the minds ‘ of Peter’s hearers, [at Rome,] that, not content with a ‘ single hearing, nor with an unwritten instruction in the ‘ divine doctrine, they with many prayers entreated Mark, ‘the follower of Peter, whose gospel we have, that he ‘ would leave them in writing a memorial of the doctrine ‘ which had been delivered to them by word of mouth; ‘nor did the desist, till they had prevailed with him. ‘ And thus t ey were the means of writing the gospel,
' Contra Jul. ]. 3. p. 87. E. 1. 6. p. 205. B. l. 7. p. 231. E. l. 10. p. 342. D. ed. Lips. 1696. “ L. 2. cap. 35. p. 130.
b Cod. cix. c En etfet, i] y a de Papparance que cet ouvrage n‘étoit autre chose, qu‘un recueil des auteurs ecclesiastiun qui l'avoient précédé, & dont une partie étoient hérétiques. Hist. Crit. cles Commentat. du N. T. ch. 2. p. 18. " Le Clerc, Bibl. Univ. T. x. p. 231. e Euseb. H. E. 1. ii. cap. 14.