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controlling institutional or State agencies. A total of 74 requests for verification were sent out to State agencies (usually a State board of higher education, State department of public instruction, a coordinating council for higher education, or a central administrative office of a university) and several specific institutions, and a 100-percent return was received. In the States where the supervisory agency had jurisdiction over 2-year colleges of various administrative and organizational patterns, it was requested that institutions be viewed within the groupings adopted in this study and an average for each type determined.

The purpose of the procedure used, therefore, was to secure from each State a generalized or "average" financing pattern for each type of 2-year college as defined in this study. In tabulating the results for each type of college, the average proportion of revenue from each source was computed; the variations discovered are discussed in the chapters which follow. It is recognized, of course, that there are other sources of financial support besides the State tax funds, local community or district tax funds, and student tuition -the three which are used as the basis for reporting and discussion in this bulletin. For example, the Federal Government, through the colleges, provides loans to students and, through the States, financial aid for the operation of programs of vocational education. Many independent local groups, such as the Kiwanis, Rotary, American Association of University Women, other civic organizations, and business and industrial firms also provide scholarships to students and other forms of help to the colleges. In this study, however, such sources of revenue for the support of 2-year colleges were classified as "State," "local," or "student" funds, depending on the way the money was actually channeled to the institution for its use. A main reason for choosing this procedure was that in many States the appropriations for 2-year colleges are made from a general State fund, making difficult a refined determination of proportions of support provided by the various sources of revenue which comprise the general fund. Another reason was that the procedure focused attention on the three main partners in the financing of public 2-year colleges-the State, the local area, and the student himself who have been, and are still, bearing the principal responsibility.

DEFINITIONS OF TERMS AND SCOPE OF THE STUDY

To present the variety of types of publicly supported 2-year colleges found in the United States, the prevalence of each pattern,

Table 1.-Number of institutions in each State, by type of institution: 1960-61

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1 The sum of the entries on this line is 58 rather than 42 because some States have more than one type of 2-year college.

and the definitions of each type, table 1 is presented. This table shows the distribution of the 452 publicly supported 2-year colleges operating in the school year 1960-61. Each of the five general headings used in table 1 is defined briefly below:

"Local 2-year college" is used as a broad heading to include all

public 2-year colleges (normally termed junior or community colleges) in which the local area (district, city, or county) contributes at least a portion of the support and has the major legal responsibility for and control of the institution. The proportions of both support and control will be found, however, to vary considerably. "State 2-year college" is used to identify public 2-year colleges (also called junior or community colleges) which are controlled by a board established by State authority, represent the State rather than the local area served, and receive minor local support, if any.

"State technical institute" is used to indicate public 2-year postsecondary institutions controlled and supported as State 2-year colleges, but in which the major emphasis is on technical education.

"Branch or extension center," for the purpose of this study, is defined as a 2-year unit controlled by the board of regents or trustees of a 4-year State college or university and operated at a location apart from the campus of the parent institution.

The "other" category is used for all 2-year publicly supported institutions which do not clearly fit into the above four categories. The institutions which were put in this category are described as follows:

In Alabama, one private 2-year college receives part of its support from public funds; a public military institute in Georgia receives funds from the local area; a 2-year college in Indiana is under both public and private control, but has a long history in the State as Vincennes University; there is a quasi-public college in Pennsylvania; and there are 22 puplic county teachers colleges in Wisconsin.

As will be seen from table 1, approximately two-thirds of the publicly supported 2-year colleges are listed as local junior colleges. The next highest group, branches or extension centers, includes approximately one-fifth of the total. The State junior colleges and State technical institutes together comprise approximately 7 percent of the total 452 institutions.

CHAPTER II

State, Local, and Student Shares in Supporting Current Operating Expenses

IN

IN THE EXAMINATION of the support patterns for the current operations of publicly supported 2-year colleges, three major approaches were used. The first was an examination of the support for current operations of 2-year colleges that is found in State laws relating to these institutions. This required an examination of enabling acts, special legislation pertaining to 2-year colleges, and laws amending or extending original actions of State legislatures. The second examined the specifics of current support as found in official regulations issued by agencies responsible for statewide supervision or control of public 2-year colleges, such as a State board of education or State board of higher education. These regulations extend and interpret legal requirements and have the effect of law in regulating the finances of 2-year colleges. Finally, a review was made of the proportions of revenue actually going to the 2-year colleges from various sources. This was especially needed to round out the picture in those States where legal or quasi-legal requirements were minimal or lacking.

Each of these analyses attempted to identify the relative amounts of support received from the State, the local community or area served, and the student. As defined earlier, the local area signifies the district, city, county, or combination of these political jurisdictions involved in the establishment and operation of a 2-year college.

SHARES AS REQUIRED BY LAW1

Forty-two States have publicly supported 2-year colleges. Of these States, 32 have general enabling legislation whereby local jurisdictions can establish 2-year colleges by following the legal procedures set forth. In the rest, the 2-year colleges operate under

1 Statutory provisions of 1961 State legislatures are not included in this discussion because at the time this publication went to press not all had completed sessions; references to known 1961 enactments, however, are included as footnotes to the State exhibits in the appendix.

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