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requirements of financial need. However, none of the districts has yet reported the level of need necessary to qualify.

In Florida the amount of the request to the Legislature for the local 2-year colleges is determined by a formula designed to provide 148 gross square feet for each full-time equivalent student for separate junior colleges or 104 gross square feet per full-time equivalent in junior colleges sharing high school facilities.

The Michigan law authorizes an amount from State funds not to exceed $300,000 or 50 percent of the capital outlay projects for any one institution under local control.

Subject to limitations and regulations, the New York law provides 50 percent of the capital costs for community colleges. The law regarding the State technical institutes stipulates that all physical facilities should be supplied by the State.

In North Carolina the local 2-year colleges receive equal matching State and local funds for administrative and general educational facilities.

In Washington assistance to the local junior colleges is graduated downward from 90 percent of eligible cost of projects to zero, depending on relationship of assessed valuation of district to number of certificated employees therein.

A number of States have stipulations in their laws regarding the amount of local support or the conditions required under which such support is permissible. Several examples are listed below with the specific provisions required in each:

School boards of public school districts and committees of junior college districts are allowed to maintain a building reserve fund from stipulated sources of revenue and of specified magnitude for planned future building programs in Colorado.

In Idaho the board of trustees of junior college districts must issue bonds to provide by purchase, rental, etc., such buildings, ground, equipment, and appliances as are necessary for a junior college.

The Kentucky law states that the board of education of a county with a city of the fourth class may sell bonds, the sum of which may not exceed 1 percent of the taxable valuation of property or total sum available from the sale of holding company bonds by a holding company organized for that purpose.

In Minnesota the school board maintaining a junior college may use existing buildings or equipment or may provide any necessary buildings or equipment.

Counties and/or cities are permitted to bond and build facilities for extension centers in Wisconsin.

SHARES AS PROVIDED BY THE REGULATIONS

Three States have specific State agency regulations dealing with capital outlay. Massachusetts, in these regulations, specifies 100percent State support for colleges under the Board of Regional Community Colleges. Michigan has established through regulations a matching fund basis for allocating State aid and a requirement of proof of expenditure to qualify for a $40,000 flat grant. Further allowance is based on an equated full-time student membership in each institution. In North Dakota buildings for local junior colleges may be constructed with any surplus funds derived from the three sources of current support, which are the State in accordance with the junior college aid bill of 1959, student tuition, and a local mill levy.

Eight States-California, Colorado, Florida, New York, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, and Washington-reported no additional regulations other than for the implementation of the law.

CAPITAL OUTLAY IN ACTUAL PRACTICE

Recognition of State responsibility to share in financing physical plant and facilities of 2-year colleges has now been achieved in more than half of the States, 26 out of 50. (This total includes Mississippi which has no specific formula for the amount of State aid.) This is the broad generalization which emerges from the data shown in table 3. This table presents the proportions of capital funds made available from State and local sources in 1960-61 for each type of 2-year college that is publicly supported in each State. Most recent of the States to provide capital outlay at the State level are Virginia and Massachusetts. However, the data in table 3 show only seven States which provide State aid to build local public 2year colleges. The count is eight if Wisconsin county teachers schools are considered in this category. Although there are no State funds for the construction of facilities, the State does provide capital equipment related to instruction, classroom and laboratory equipment, libraries, and office furnishings.

Tabulation of the 50 States in table 3 reveals that the support patterns of 2-year colleges for capital expenditures is very different from that provided for current operations. Of the 42 States which have publicly supported 2-year colleges, 26 provide some capital support for at least one type of 2-year college. Of the 26 States that do contribute funds for capital outlay expenditures, 22 provide 100

Table 3.- -Percent of capital outlay funds derived from State and local funds, by State and type of institution: 1960–61

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No specific formula.

When the 2-year colleges in Rhode Island open, it is planned that capital outlay will be 100 percent from the State.

percent of the cost: Alabama, Arkansas, Idaho, Indiana, Louisiana, North Carolina, Utah, and Virginia for their 2-year branches;

Connecticut, New Hampshire, New York, Oregon, and Vermont for their technical institutes; Florida for its local junior colleges; and Colorado, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Utah, and West Virginia for their State 2-year colleges. Washington contributes 76 percent to its local junior colleges; local junior colleges in Arizona, New York, and North Carolina receive 50 percent from the State; and Michigan provides 14 percent for facilities for local junior colleges. Mississippi contributes funds for capital outlay to the local junior colleges but has no specific formula for this aid.

A more nearly complete breakdown of the extent (in terms of proportion of capital costs provided) to which the State shares in the support for capital outlay is shown in table 4. Slightly more than one-third (34 percent) of the publicly supported 2-year colleges receive some State support, that is, are located in one of the 26 States which provide State capital aid. Included in this number of institutions are all of the technical institutes and State junior colleges, approximately one-third of the local junior colleges, and about one-fourth of the branches and extension centers. Eightyone, or more than one-half of the total 155 institutions receiving State support are shown as receiving 100 percent of their capital outlay costs from the State. Only 1 State provides this level of assistance for its local junior colleges, whereas all of the other types of 2-year colleges which receive State support receive 100 percent, 9 States doing so for State colleges, 8 for branches, and 5 for technical institutes.

Another way to summarize the data in table 4 is to say that of the 27 States which have local public 2-year colleges, seven provide State aid for buildings on their campuses and this affects one-third of all such institutions in the Nation. It follows, therefore, that 20 States have yet to establish aid at the State level to assist two-thirds of the local public 2-year colleges. The record implies that a greater effort in the States to achieve this goal is required of the local public 2-year colleges than of the others.

The pattern of local support for capital outlay in the 42 States that have publicly supported 2-year colleges, in general, is the reverse of the pattern for State support. In 27 States-Alabama for a private 2-year college; Alaska, California, Colorado, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Jersey, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, Wisconsin, and Wyoming for their local 2-year colleges; and New Mexico, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin for their branches-the local district bears the entire expense of providing capital facilities for

Table 4.-Number of institutions and number of State support patterns for capital outlay, by percent of State and local suport and by type of institution:

1960-61 [-- = zero]

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1 As there are 16 States with two types of publicly supported 2-year colleges, the total number of patterns amounts to 58.

As three States (New York, North Carolina, and Utah) have two patterns for providing State support, there are 26 different States in which the State provides some capital support for at least one type of institution.

3 As two States (Pennsylvania and Wisconsin) have two patterns for providing local support, there are 33 different States in which the locality provides some capital support for at least one type of institution.

at least one type of 2-year college. Mississippi has no specific formula for its local colleges; in Arizona, New York, and North Carolina the district's share is 50 percent for the local institutions; and in Washington 24 percent is contributed by the local district to the community colleges.

Table 4 also shows the specific breakdown of States and types of institutions within States which receive some local support for capital outlay. 82 percent of all publicly supported 2-year colleges, all types considered together, receive some local support. The total group receiving such aid includes approximately 92.4 percent of

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