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law would be to license abortion agencies (the so-called pregnancy advisory services), thus outlawing taxi-touts. How much good does Mr. Grylls in his wisdom think that would do-especially since licensing private clinics has done nothing to curb their brutal trade. In fact, it would be more truthful for him to legalize the taxi-touts and to outlaw the pregnancy advisory services, because at least the British public and panic stricken girls would know what they were getting. In fact, the abortion treadmill was one of the most frightening aspects of my entire investigation. Girls are literally cornered into abortion. From the moment they are declared pregnant by the testing centre or the clinic, there is no escape for them. They are pushed from one person to another in a state of bewilderment, more or less told that there is no alternative, and come out the other end of the sausage machine without their babies, without anything-except confusion.

“Countless women I spoke to had gone to clinics for advice on their pregnancies. The result? They had been told by the clinics that because they were unmarried they would be social outcasts and the only honourable solution was to have an abortion.

“Abortions were fixed and performed within three hours. The girls were never allowed to go away to think about it. They were whisked from one doctor to another, and then escorted to their bank to draw out enough cash for the operation, and back to the clinic and into the operating theatre.

"One clinic even boasted that they had a "Roman Catholic priest” who tells Roman Catholic girls that abortion is within the concept of their faith.

"Seven pregnancy testing centres and clinics even found ME pregnant. My urine was sent by an independent doctor to the clinics and the results were positive.

“That shows just how well the Abortion Act is working. And that shows, too, just how badly the Lane Committee did their work."

In conjunction with the rally the Society for the Protection of Unborn Children sent a letter the same day to the Prime Minister which said, in part:

“The Abortion Act means that this country is in clear contravention of the UN Declaration of the Rights of the Child, passed at a time when the effects on society of the dimunition of respect for life could be more clearly remembered. The Declaration states: "The child, by reason of his physical and mental immaturity, needs special safeguards and care, including appropriate legal protection, before birth, as well as after birth."

"Because of the Abortion Act, the plight of deprived women has intensified. Now, the onus is on a woman to fight often unbeatable social manipulation in order that she might keep her unborn baby. There is considerable evidence that the Abortion Act is being used as a palliative for bad housing conditionsand certainly the illegitimate, the unmarried mother and the physically and mentally handicapped have suffered as a result of its cruel innuendos.

“For these reasons, we pledge that we will not be fobbed off with spurious legislation based on the “findings" of the Lane Committee. We pointed out from the first that the committee (from which anyone who had spoken against abortion was automatically excluded) was ill-constituted. Objectivity cannot be achieved when a committee whose work, in part at least, must investigate the activities and attitudes of a particular government department, is established by that same department..."

While it may be too early to tell, it is possible that the fat is in the fire for the Abortion Act in Britain.

FEMINISTS FOR LIFE, INC.,

Columbus, Ohio, August 30, 1974. Hon. BIRCH BAYH, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C.

DEAR SENATOR BAYH. In turn, I would like to thank you for giving me the opportunity to come before you to testify. I wish all the other members of the committee were as conscientious about the matter as you are. Please thank Senator Fong for being there, even though he left before my testimony, and thank the unknown person on your right.

I omitted two items from my testimony which I meant to include. The first concerns itself with what was to be entered into the record as part of my complete testimony. From our newsletter, on the first page of which was a

letter in support of the Equal Rights Amendment, we meant to include only the untitled article by George Steven Swan, JD, with its footnotes, which gives a concise feminist view point on the question of euthanasia. Please pardon me for the omission.

The second omission was a comment I intended to make relative to the comment by Dr. Mildred Jefferson that she has never been pregnant. I intended to mention that I have been pregnant twice, and have participated in childbirth twice, and it is my considered opinion, having also interviewed numerous women about their experiences, that except in the case of some abnormality in pregnancy (about 5% of the total cases) any discomfort which occurs because of pregnancy or childbirth is 90% caused by our culture! Those women who managed to shake the brainwashing about reproduction that our culture teaches us from very early on, experience no appreciable discomfort, either during the nine months, or during the birth. I have never experienced morning sickness, and the only pain I experienced during childbirth stemmed from interference by attending personnel. I was fully awake and participating throughout.? During my pregnancies I led a normal active life, which, during my second pregnancy, included attending school half time (I was out for 3 days for childbirth), graduating a year and a half later, confounding Feminists for Life, playing judo and swimming up to within 5 days of childbirth and taking up less than three weeks after, which included a distance swim two weeks prior to childbirth of 234 miles. Please note that as a child I was considered frail. It is my considered opinion that one of the primary causes of the current pressure for abortion stems from the negative aura surrounding pregnancy and childbirth, and that it is our duty as feminists to work to educate the public about the true nature of woman's reproduction as an integral and natural part of her sexuality, and to see to it that no discrimination is practiced against women who are reproducing. Cordially,

Pat Goltz. Senator BAYH. We have just been informed that President Ford is going to address a session of the Senate here in about an hour or SO.

I will tell you, if I have questions that I cannot resolve, I will ask you to submit answers in writing if I may.

Ms. Goitz. That is fine. You also may have the resources of our organization for additional information if you want it.

Senator BAYI. Thank you very much. I appreciate that.

Mr. Warren A. Schaller, president and executive director of the American Citizens Concerned For Life.

STATEMENT OF WARREN A. SCHALLER, JR., EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR,

AMERICAN CITIZENS CONCERNED FOR LIFE, INC.

Mr. SCHALLER. Senator Bayh and members of the subcommittee on constitutional amendments, my name is Warren Schaller. I am an Episcopalian minister. I have been active in local, State, and National pro-life groups for several years. Today I am addressing you as the president and executive director of American Citizens Concerned for Life, Inc. My testimony is a statement on issues which are relevant to the pro-life community of America.

ACCL is committed to work toward an America in which abortion is not practiced because of respect for the life of the unborn child, and abortion is not needed to solve the social, emotional, medical, or personal problems of American women. The only exception to this position is an abortion to save the life of the mother when no other

1 I had no anesthetic prior to birth. Both births lasted four hours each ; they were not induced.

method of medical treatment offers a reasonable promise of protecting the lives of both the mother and the child.

A unique human individual comes into being at conception. In order to protect this new life, ACCL supports the enactment of the strongest possible amendment to the Federal Constitution. We understand such an amendment must contradict the Supreme Court decisions of January 22, 1973, at several basic points: (1) The amendment should prohibit the actions of private individuals which would destroy the life of the unborn child; (2) the amendment should define the legal personhood of the child in the womb from the beginning of its biological development; (3) the amendment must allow the exceptional case of abortion to prevent the death of the mother.

ACCL also commits itself to work toward a society where abortion is not needed. We accept National, State, and local political leaders as our partners in this effort. We believe they recognize, as we do, that it should not be necessary to sacrifice the rights of the unborn in order to alleviate poverty or to impose conditions in urban ghettos. We do not accept as final a view of America which says that children must grow up homeless or unwanted or abused if they are not aborted. We do not believe that young women must lose their opportunities for education or employment because they have become pregnant. Therefore, we ask the Nembers of Congress to both protect and enhance all human lives, and to join with us in developing the following alternatives for dealing with the social and personal problems of women who are pregnant and distressed.

In the area of family life and childbirth education, both men and women must understand the development of the newly conceived life in the womb of a mother, and understand the woman's own physiological, psychological, and interpersonal response to it, so they can accept the fact of the new life and assume responsibility for it. We encourage childbirth and family life education programs which stress, for both men and women, acceptance of their own bodies and their own sexuality. These educational programs should be based on the standards of the communities in which they are taught, and should involve the parents of students who are minors in the planning of the courses and selection of materials. The goals of such courses should be to develop positive standards of responsible sexuality and responsible parenthood. We look forward to the results of research which is designed to identify those factors which are essential in a healthy family environment and designed to develop methods for improving the quality of American family life.

In the area of family planning, women should be able to control their own reproductive functions and couples should be able to determine the size of their family, so long as the means they employ do not destroy a newly conceived life or deny that new life its proper environment. We encourage research in reproductive biology to further develop a variety of family planning methods which are appropriate to people of different backgrounds and different beliefs, so long as these newly developed techniques are not intended or proven to act as abortifacients. Public family planning programs should be seen as an integral part of comprehensive medical care,

and they should avoid indoctrination of the recipients into specific contraceptive techniques which are preferred by certain agencies or organizations. We object to any programs which involve penalties or incentives that oblige social workers or health care personnel to disseminate information which may not be desired by recipients of public benefits, or that oblige these recipients to practice contraception.

In the area of birth defects, being different is no reason for not being, and we reject eugenic feticide, that is, killing of the unborn, or infanticide, that is killing of the newly born. We do approve and encourage research into the causes of birth defects, if the purpose of the research is to benefit both the individual involved and future generations. Genetic counseling is accepted if the purpose is to enable high-risk parents to responsibly choose not to have a family. We encourage the elimination of disease rather than the elimination of diseased individuals, and point to programs to eliminate potential birth defects through rubella vaccination and through veneral disease treatment and prevention as just two examples. Detection and monitoring of high-risk pregnancies is appropriate to enable prompt pre- and post-natal treatment and rehabilitation. We encourage Federal agencies to carefully screen potentially teratogenic, that means defect-causing, drugs. And we look forward to the development of insurance programs which would defray catastrophic medical expenses by paying benefits to the parents of children diagnosed as having medical problems of a major degree. Such benefits should be payable when the medical problems are diagnosed, whether during the prenatal period or at any time after the birth of the child. We support tax deductions for all adoptive parents, and incentives for the adoption of exceptional children. We also encourage the development of special educational programs for exceptional children, equal work and social opportunities for them, consideration for them in the designing of buildings and civic projects, and so on.

In the area of fetal experimentation, proper concern for the rights of the unborn child need not bring medical research to a halt. New therapeutic techniques can be used with the hope of proving them superior to traditional methods of treatment, after adequate theoretical work and animal experimentation has been carried out. Parents can give consent for experimental therapeutic treatment of the unborn if there is a valid reason to believe that such treatment is in the best interests of the child. In addition, organs may be transplanted from the dead fetus, and tissue cultures may be developed from fetuses which are clinically judged to be dead according to the same criteria which would be used for a born child or adult. We recommend careful retrospective clinical and statistical study of defective babies for identification of teratogenic drugs. However, this is not the same thing as purposefully introducing known or suspected harmful substances for research purposes into the live unborn child or into his mother, which substances could cross the placental barrier. Systematic benefit should not be derived from systematic induced abortion. We do not approve of experiments which would be judged cruel or senseless by the average sensitive layman. And parents cannot consent to nontherapeutic research on unborn children who are being purposely aborted.

In the area of euthanasia, by referring to personhood in the whole sense and the capability of meaningful life, we believe that the Supreme Court on January 22, 1973 opened the door to unfortunate future decisions in the area of euthanasia. Therefore, we would like to clarify, for the guidance of members of Congress, what we understand to be the important principles involved in the euthanasia debate.

No. 1: If properly understood, we take no exception to the idea of a dignified death. By this, we mean allowing a terminal patient to die a truly humane deathto free the dying from the loneliness and alienation which may accompany the application of extraordinary treatment where there is no hope of cure, no hope of restoration, or continuation of life. However, this euthanasia does not involve neglect of the dying patient, for he, like any other human being, is entitled to medical care which is reasonable and prudent under the circumstances involved.

No. 2: We oppose mercy killing, which is the intentional use of medical technology to cause or to hasten death. Mercy killing can include abandonment of a patient or withdrawal of ordinary-by that we mean prudent-medical care, as for instance when mongoloid children are denied ordinary treatment for pneumonia.

No. 3: We see a dangerous trend developing toward death selection. This death selection is killing as a medical management option. It might be called managerial euthanasia, and involves defining certain classes of human beings as incapable of meaningful life and not persons in the whole sense. Classes of individuals who may be subject to such definitions are the habitual criminal, the aged, the seriously mentally ill, the retarded, and so on.

Additional Programs: We favor mandatory maternity insurance benefits for all women regardless of marital status. Needy mothers should be eligible for AFDC payments for their unborn child as soon as pregnancy is diagnosed and continuing for the full duration of pregnancy. The classification of illegitimate should be removed from birth certificates. Low-cost housing should be made available to single-parent families. Day care facilities should be available when mothers must work to provide for themselves and their children. These facilities should be widely available and controlled by the community standards and administered by the citizens of the areas in which they are located. Equal educational opportunities should be available for pregnant women both during and following the pregnancy, which education should include, in addition to the regular curriculum, training in parenting skills, education and job training, and marriage counseling.

The preceding is meant to be a suggestive rather than an exhaustive list of programs we would like to encourage.

Senator Bayh, you know what an extraordinary undertaking it is to attempt to amend the Constitution on any subject, let alone on one as controversial as abortion. It will take an enormous organizational effort and educational campaign to accomplish this task. We are going to amend the Constitution, Senator Bayh, because we are willing to make the effort involved. In the process of bringing about such a revolution, we accept responsibility for helping to change the

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