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indeed a peculiar admission on the centers for the insane, gave me a part of the German eugenists.) vivid firsthand account.5 The Char
In Germany the exterminations itable Transport Company for the included the mentally defective, psy Sick brought the brains in batches chotics (particularly schizophrenics), of 150 to 250 at a time. Hallervorepileptics and patients suffering den stated : from infirmities of old age and from various organic neurologic disorders There was wonderful material such as infantile paralysis, Parkin among those brains, beautiful sonism, multiple sclerosis and brain mental defectives, malformations tumors. The technical arrangements, and early infantile diseases. I methods and training of the killer accepted those brains of course. personnel were under the direction Where they came from and how of a committee of physicians and they came to me was really none other experts headed by Dr. Karl of my business. Brandt. The mass killings were first carried out with carbon monoxide In addition to the material he gas, but later cyanide gas (“cyclon wanted, all kinds of other cases were B”) was found to be more effective. mixed in, such as patients suffering The idea of camouflaging the gas from various types of Parkinsonism, chambers as shower baths was de- simple depressions, involutional developed by Brack, who testified be pressions and brain tumors, and all fore Judge Sebring that the patients kinds of other illnesses, including walked in calmly, deposited their psychopathy that had been difficult towels and stood with their little to handle: pieces of soap under the shower outlets, waiting for the water to start These were selected from the running. This statement was ample various wards of the institutions rebuttal of his claim that only the according to an excessively simple most severely regressed patients and quick method. Most instituamong the mentally sick and only tions did not have enough physithe moribund ones among the physi cians, and what physicians there cally sick were exterminated. In were were either too busy or did truth, all those unable to work and not care, and they delegated the considered nonrehabilitable
selection to the nurses and attendkilled.
ants. Whoever looked sick or was All but their squeal was utilized. otherwise a problem was put on a However, the program grew so big list and was transported to the that even scientists who hoped to killing center. The worst thing benefit from the treasure of material about this business was that it supplied by this totalitarian method
produced a certain brutalization were disannointed. A neuropatholo of the nursing nersonnel. They gist. Dr. Hallervorden, who had ob got to simply picking out those tained 500 brains from the killing whom they did not like, and the
doctors had so many patients that perts” were dispatched to survey the they did not even know them, and inmates of camps with the specific put their names on the list. order to pick out members of racial
minorities and political offenders Of the patients thus killed, only the from occupied territories and to disbrains were sent to Dr. Hallervor patch them to killing centers with den; they were killed in such large specially made diagnoses such as numbers that autopsies of the bodies that of “inveterate German hater" were not feasible. That, in Dr. Hal applied to a number of prisoners who lervorden's opinion, greatly reduced had been active in the Czech underthe scientific value of the material. ground. The brains, however, were always Certain classes of patients with well fixed and suspended in formalin, mental diseases who were capable of exactly according to his instructions. performing labor, particularly memHe thinks that the cause of psychi bers of the armed forces suffering atry was permanently injured by
from psychopathy or neurosis, were these activities, and that psychia sent to concentration camps to be trists have lost the respect of the worked to death, or to be reassigned German .people forever. Dr. Haller
to punishment battalions and to be vorden concluded : “Still, there were exterminated in the process of reinteresting cases in this material.” moval of mine fields.6 In general only previously hos
A large number of those marked pitalized patients were exterminated
for death for political or racial reafor reasons of illness. An exception
sons were made available for "mediis a program carried out in a north
cal” experiments involving the use western district of Poland, the
of involuntary human subjects. From “Warthegau,” where a health sur
1942 on, such experiments carried vey of the entire population was
out in concentration camps were made by an “S.S. X-Ray Battalion"
openly presented at medical meetheaded by Professor Hohlfelder,
ings. This program included “termiradiologist of the University of
nal human experiments,” a term inFrankfurt-am-Main. Persons found
troduced by Dr. Rascher to denote to be infected with tuberculosis
an experiment so designed that its were carted off to special extermina
successful conclusion depended upon tion centers.
the test person's being put to death. It is rather significant that the German people were considered by
The science of annihilation their Nazi leaders more ready to accept the exterminations of the sick A large part of this research was than those for political reasons. It devoted to the science of destroying was for that reason that the first and preventing life, for which I have exterminations of the latter group proposed the term “ktenology,” the were carried out under the guise of science of killing.7-9 In the course sickness. So-called “psychiatric ex of this ktenologic research, methods
of mass killing and mass steriliza were removed for histologic examition were investigated and developed nation two weeks later. I myself for use against non-German peoples examined four castrated survivors or Germans who were considered of this ghastly experiment. Three useless.
had extensive necrosis of the skin Sterilization methods were widely near the genitalia, and the other an investigated, but proved impractical extensive necrosis of the urethra. in experiments conducted in concen Other experiments in sterilization tration camps. A rapid method de used an extract of the plant Caladiveloped for sterilization of females, um seguinum, which had been shown which could be accomplished in the in animal studies by Madaus and course of a regular health examina his co-workers10 11 to cause selective tion, was the intrauterine injection necrosis of the germinal cells of the of various chemicals. Numerous testicles as well as the ovary. mixtures were tried, some with The development of methods for iodopine and others containing bari rapid and inconspicuous individual um; another was most likely silver execution was the objective of annitrate with iodized oil, because the other large part of the ktenologic result could be ascertained by X-ray research. These methods were to be examination. The injections were applied to members of the ruling extremely painful, and a number of group, including the SS itself, who women died in the course of the were suspected of disloyalty. This, experiments. Professor Karl Clau of course, is an essential requireberg reported that he had developed ment in a dictatorship, in which a method at the Auschwitz concen "cutthroat competition” becomes a tration camp by which he could grim reality, and any hint of faintsterilize 1000 women in one day. heartedness or lack of enthusiasm
Another method of sterilization, for the methods of totalitarian rule or rather castration, was proposed is considered a threat to the entire by Viktor Brack especially for con group. quered populations. His idea was Poisons were the subject of many that X-ray machinery could be built of these experiments. A research into desks at which the people would team at the Buchenwald concentrahave to sit, ostensibly to fill out a tion camp, consisting of Drs. Joaquestionnaire requiring five min chim Mrugowsky, Erwin Ding-Schuutes; they would be sterilized with ler and Waldemar Hoven, developed out being aware of it. This method the most widely used means of infailed because experiments carried dividual execution under the guise out on 100 male prisoners brought of medical treatment—namely, the out the fact that severe X-ray burns intravenous injection of phenol or were produced on all subjects. In gasoline. Several alkaloids were also the course of this research, which investigated, among them aconitine, was carried out by Dr. Horst Schu which was used by Dr. Hoven to kill man, the testicles of the victims several imprisoned former fellow SS
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men who were potential witnesses site of injection was usually the inagainst the camp commander, Koch, side of the thigh, close to the adducthen under investigation by the tor canal. When an abscess formed SS. At the Dachau concentration it was tapped, and 3 cc. of the camp Dr. Rascher developed the
creamy pus removed was injected standard cyanide capsules, which intravenously into the patient's opcould be easily bitten through, either posite arm. If the patient then died deliberately or accidentally, if mixed from septicemia, the autopsy proved with certain foods, and which, ironi that death was caused by the same cally enough, later became the means organism that had caused the abwith which Himmler and Goering scess. These experiments were carkilled themselves. In connection with ried out in many concentration these poison experiments there is an camps. At the Dachau camp the interesting incident of characteristic subjects were almost exclusively sociologic significance. When Dr. Polish Catholic priests. However, Hoven was under trial by the SS since this method did not always the investigating SS judge, Dr. Mor
death, sometimes resulting, gen, proved Hoven's guilt by feeding merely in a local abscess, it was conthe poison found in Dr. Hoven's sidered inefficient, and research was possession to a number of Russian continued with other means but prisoners of war; these men died along the same lines. with the same symptoms as the SS The final triumph on the part of men murdered by Dr. Hoven. This ktenologic research aimed at finding worthy judge was rather proud of a method of inconspicuous execution this efficient method of proving Dr. that would produce autopsy findings Hoven's guilt and appeared entirely indicative of death from natural unaware of the fact that in the causes was the development of reprocess he had committed murder peated intravenous injections of himself.
suspensions of live tubercle bacilli, Poisons, however, proved too ob- which brought on acute miliary tuvious or detectable to be used for the berculosis within a few weeks. This elimination of high-ranking Nazi method was produced by Professor party personnel who had come into Dr. Heissmeyer, who was one of Dr. disfavor, or of prominent prisoners Gebhardt's associates at the SS hoswhose deaths should appear to stem pital of Hohenlychen. As a means from natural causes. Phenol or gaso of further camouflage, so that the line, for instance, left a telltale odor SS at large would not suspect the with the corpse. For this reason a purpose of these experiments, the number of more subtle methods were preliminary tests for the efficacy of devised. One of these was artificial this method were performed excluproduction of septicemia. An intra sively on children imprisoned in the muscular injection of 1 cc. of pus, Neuengamme concentration camp. containing numerous chains of For use in “medical” executions streptococci, was the first step. The of prisoners and of members of the
SS and other branches of the Ger cooperation of physicians and of man armed forces the use of simple German medical science. The result lethal injections, particularly phenol was a significant advance in the injections, remained the instrument science of killing, or ktenology. of choice. Whatever methods he used, the physician gradually became
Medicomilitary research the unofficial executioner, for the Another chapter in Nazi scientific sake of convenience, informality and research was that aimed to aid the relative secrecy. Even on German military forces. Many of these ideas submarines it was the physician's originated with Himmler, who fanduty to execute the troublemakers cied himself a scientist. among the crew by lethal injections. When Himmler learned that the
Medical science has for some time cause of death of most SS men on been an instrument of military pow the battlefield was hemorrhage, he er in that it preserved the health instructed Dr. Sigmund Rascher to and fighting efficiency of troops. search for a blood coagulant that This essentially defensive purpose is might be given before the men went not inconsistent with the ethical into action. Rascher tested this principles of medicine. In World coagulant when it was developed War I the German empire had en by clocking the number of drops listed medical science as an instru emanating from freshly cut amputament of aggressive military power tion stumps of living and conscious by putting it to use in the develop- prisoners at the crematorium of ment of gas warfare. It was left to Dachau concentration camp and by the Nazi dictatorship to make medi shooting Russian prisoners of war cal science into an instrument of through the spleen. political power—a formidable, essen Live dissections were a feature of tial tool in the complete and effective another experimental study designed manipulation of totalitarian control. to show the effects of explosive deThis should be a warning to all civil compression.12–14 A mobile decomized nations, and particularly to in- pression chamber was used. It was dividuals who are blinded by the found that when subjects were made "efficiency” of a totalitarian rule, to descend from altitudes of 40,000 under whatever name.
to 60,000 feet without oxygen, seThis entire body of research as vere symptoms of cerebral dysfuncreported so far served the master tion occurred-at first convulsions, crime to which the Nazi dictatorship then unconsciousness in which the was committed—namely, the geno- body was hanging limp and later, cide of non-German peoples and the after wakening, temporary blindelimination by killing, in groups or ness, paralysis or severe confusingly, of Germans who were con sional twilight states. Rascher, who sidered useless or disloyal. In effect wanted to find out whether these ing the two parts of this program, symptoms
due to anoxic Himmler demanded and received the changes or to other causes, did what