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“our religion forbids men to offer themselves to sufferings, ‘and since it is contrary to your own laws, they cannot offer “ themselves; but they may be found if inquired after. * Paternus the proconsul said; They shall be found by me. “And he added; The emperors have also ordered, that no ‘assemblies should be held in the coemeteries, and that “none enter into those places. If therefore any one does ‘ not observe this wholesome command, he shall be put to ‘death. Cyprian the bishop answered; Do as you are ‘commanded. Then Paternus the proconsul ordered, that “Cyprian the bishop should be carried into exile.” His deacon Pontius accompanied him to the place of his exile, where he arrived on the thirteenth or fourteenth of September, in the same year, 257. About the same time many others suffered in Africa, upon account of their profession of christianity. For we have a letter of Cyprian," written during the time of his being at Curubis, which is inscribed to nine bishops by “name, and beside them to others, presbyters, deacons, and “ the rest of the brethren in the mines, martyrs of God the “Father Almighty, and Jesus Christ our Lord.” Whilst Cyprian continued at Curubis, Galerius Maximus" succeeded Paternus as proconsul of Africa. He recalled Cyprian from his banishment; who then went to his gardens or country-house near Carthage, by orders, as it seems, of the proconsul. Moreover, as there were many uncertain reports in Africa, Cyprian" had sent to Rome, and received thence some in

* Ep. 76, al. 77. " Cumque diu ibidem moraretur, successit Aspasio Paterno proconsuli Galerius Maximus proconsul. Act. Pass. p. 12.

* Sciatis autem eos venisse, quos ad Urben propter hoc miseram, ut quomodocumque de nobis rescriptum fuisset, exploratam Sibi veritatem ad nos referant. Multa enim varia et incerta opinionibus ventilantur. Quae autem sunt in vero, ita se habent. Rescripsisse Valerianum ad senatum, ut episcopi, et presbyteri, et diaconi in continenti animadvertantur; Senatores vero, et viri egregii, equites Romani, dignitate amissà, etiam bonis spolientur, et, si ademtis facultatibus christiani esse perseveraverint, capite quoque multentur; Matronae ademtis bonis in exilium relegentur; Caesariani, quicumque vel prius confessi fuerant, vel nunc confessi fuerint, confiscentur, et vincti in Caesarianas possessiones descripti mittantur. Subjecit etiam Valerianus imperator orationi suae exemplum literarum, quas ad praesides provinciarum de nobis fecit; quas literas quotidie speramus venire, stantes secundum fidei firmitatem ad passionis tolerantiam, et expectantes de ope et indulgentiá Domini vitae aeternae coronam. Xistum autem in coemeterio animadversum sciatis, octavo iduum Augustarum die et cum eodem Quartum. Set et huic persecutioni quotidie ins stunt praefecti in Urbe; ut, si qui sibi oblati fuerint, animadvertantur, et bona eorum fisco vindicentur. Haec peto per vos ut collegis nostris innotescant, ut ubique hortatu eorum possit fraternitas corroborari, et ad agonem spiritalem praeparari, &c. Cyp. ep. 79, al. 80.

telligence which might be relied upon, and was to this effect; ‘ that the emperor Valerian had ordered, by a re‘script sent to the senate, that bishops, presbyters, and “deacons, should be put to death without delay; that senators, and persons of quality, and Roman knights, should be deprived of their dignity and their goods; if after that they persist in being christians, they should be beheaded; that ladies of quality should be deprived of their goods, and sent into exile ; that the emperor's freedmen, who ‘ have confessed, or shall hereafter confess, shall lose their goods, which are to be seized by the treasury; and that they be sent chained to the emperor's estate, and that they be put in the list of slaves to work there. To his own rescript the emperor Valerian has subjoined copies of letters to be sent to the presidents of the provinces; which lefters we daily expect, standing prepared for the trial, and hoping to obtain, through the divine aid and goodness, the crown of eternal life. We are also assured, that Xistus [the bishop of Rome] was put to death in the coemetery on the sixth day of August, and with him Quartus. We also learn, that the praefects in the city are intent to execute the emperor's orders; and if any are brought before them, they are punished, and their goods confiscated. These things, says Cyprian in his letter to Successus, I am desirous should be made known by you to my brethren, that all may be prepared for the combat that now lies before us.” When those orders for the governors of the provinces arrived at Carthage is not certain; but very probably before the end of August. Galerius" Maximus the proconsul, who had succeeded

" Cumque diu ibidem moraretur, successit Aspasio Paterno proconsuli Galerius Maximus proconsul, qui sanctum Cyprianum episcopum ab exilio revocatum sibi jussit praesentari. Cumque Cyprianus sanctus—de civitate Cucurbitanā, in quâ exilio praecepto Aspasii Paterni tunc proconsulis datus fuerat, regressus esset, ex sacro praescripto in hortis suis manebat.—Et cum illic demoraretur, repente Idibus Septembris, Tusco et Basso consulibus, venerunt ad eum principes duo,-quiet in curriculum eum levaverunt, in medioque posuerunt, et in Sexti perduxerunt, ubiidem Galerius Maximus proconsul, bonæ valetudinis recuperandae gratiá, secesserat.—Cumque oblatus fuisset, Galerius Maximus proconsul dixit; Tu Papam te sacrilegao mentis hominibus praebuisti 2 Cyprianus episcopus respondit: Ego. Galerius Maximus dixit : Jusserunt te Sacratissimi imperatores caeremoniari. Cyprianus episcopus dixit : Non facio. Galerius Maximus ait: Consule tibi. Cyprianus episcopus respondit: Fac quod tibi praeceptum est. In re tam justá nulla est consultatio. Galerius Maximus, collocutus cum consilio, sententiam vix aegre dixit verbis hujusmodi: Diu sacrilegå mente vixisti, et plurimos nefariae tibi conspirationis homines aggregàsti.-Et his dictis, decretum ex tabellá recitavit; Thasicum Cyprianum gladio animadverti placet. Cyprianus episcopus dixit; Deo gratias. Apost. p. 12, 13.

VOL. VII, 2 B

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Paternus, was at Sexti, a place about six miles from Carthage, for the sake of his health. ‘ On the 18th day ‘ of September, [A. C.258, an officer with soldiers was sent ‘ by the proconsul to Cyprian's gardens, where he had ‘ been some while, to bring him before him. Cyprian's ‘ cause was deferred for that day. The next morning, the * 14th of September, he was led to the proconsul’s palace, ‘ surrounded by a mixed multitude of people, and a strong “guard of soldiers. After some time the proconsul came ‘ out into the hall, and Cyprian being set before him, he “ said; Are you Thascius Cyprian Cyprian the bishop ‘ answered; I am. Galerius Maximus the proconsul said; * The most sacred emperors have commanded you to sacri‘ fice. Cyprian the bishop answered; I do not sacrifice. ‘ Galerius Maximus said; Be well advised. Cyprian the ‘ bishop answered ; Do as thou art commanded. In so ‘just a cause there needs no consultation. The proconsul ‘having advised with his council, spoke to Cyprian in ‘ angry terms, as being an enemy to the gods, and a se‘ducer of the people. And then read his sentence out of a * tablet; It is decreed, that Thascius Cyprian be beheaded. “Cyprian the bishop said; God be praised.’ That is the account in the Acts of his passion, which I have translated literally; and Pontius’ writes to the like purpose. Cyprian was then led away to the field of Sexti, a large level spot of ground, encompassed with trees, the boughs of which were then loaded with spectators. And in the presence of a great multitude of people Cyprian was there beheaded, according to the sentence pronounced upon him, on Sept. 14, in the year of Christy 258. VII. I have set before my readers some authentic memoirs of Valerian's persecution from Dionysius of Alexandria, and Cyprian of Carthage. There is another remarkable story in Eusebius, which must not be omitted. * In” the mean time,’ says Eusebius in his Ecclesiastical History, “when peace had been restored to all the churches “every where, Marinus, a military man, and eminent upon “account of his birth and riches, suffered martyrdom for ‘Christ at Caesarea in Palestine. A centurion's place was ‘ vacant; he put up for that office, to which he had a claim ‘ by the order of his promotions. When he was about to ‘receive that honour, another appeared before the tribunal, ‘asserting, that according to the ancient laws of the * S. Cyprian. Wit. p. 9, 10. y If any are desirous to see

the history of this bishop of Carthage more at large, they may consult vol. iii. p. 1–15. - * L. vii. Cap. 15.

* Romans, Marinus could not be admitted into that office, ‘ forasmuch" as he was a christian, and did not sacrifice to ‘the emperors; and that the office did of right belong to ‘ him. Achaeus the judge, being much moved, asked * Marinus what were his sentiments. Perceiving that he * confidently affirmed he was a christian, he allowed him the * space of three hours to consider of the matter. When the ‘three hours were expired, he returned to the tribunal. “And when called upon again to deliver his sentiments, he * made a profession of the faith with greater cheerfulness ‘ than before. Whereupon he was immediately had out to ‘ be put to death, and so was perfected.’ Eusebius adds, “ Then" Asturius, who is still celebrated ‘ for religious zeal and courage, a Roman senator, and in ‘esteem with the emperors, who was present at the death “of the martyr, taking up the body, laid it upon his shoul‘ders, and covering it with a rich cloth carried it off, and ‘ interred him in a decent manner.” Mr. Mosheim's" observations upon this remarkable history are to this purpose. ‘Marinus was not condemned by ‘the edict of Valerian, which had been abrogated by Gallienus, but by the ancient law of Trajan; for an accuser was received. The man who confessed himself to be a christian was required to renounce the faith: when he would not, he was without delay led out to punishment. In" this instance therefore it is apparent, that the ancient laws of the emperors against the christians still retained their force, though milder had been enacted; And therefore under merciful emperors, who were lovers of peace, the presidents might punish christians, who were accused, and confessed themselves such. The body of Marinus was carried off by Asturius, a Roman senator, and buried ; nor did he suffer for it; the reason is, that by Trajan’s law the judge had no right to punish any but such as were accused; and there was nobody who was willing, or who ‘ dared, to accuse so considerable and honourable a man as * Asturius was.” * Xgustavy Ys ovrt, cat roug BagiNovot pin Svovri. Ib. p. 263. C. * Ibid. cap. 16. ° De Reb. &c. p. 557. * Ex hoc igitur exemplo liquet, antiquas imperatorum in christianos leges, aliis etiam et mitioribus latis, vim suam retinuisse, et praesides propterea etiam sub clementibus imperatoribus, pacisque temporibus, in christianos accusatos et fassos animadvertere potuisse. Cadaver Marini Asturius, Senator Romanus, vir maxima auctoritatis, humeris suis auferebat, et sepulturae tradebat; iddue faciebat impune ac sine periculo. Ratio in promptu est. Sine accusatore judicinon licebat punire ex Trajani lege. Tanti autem nominis et dignitatis virum, amicum praeterea imperatorum, nemo accusare vel volebat vel audebat. Moshem, ibid.

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CHAP. XXXIII.
AMELIUS,

I. His history and time. II. His testimony to St. John's gospel, with remarks.

I. THE next testimony will be the noted passage of Amelius, a Platonic philosopher, fellow-disciple" and intimate acquaintance of Porphyry, who wrote against the christians. Amelius,” as Suidas says, was of Apamea. Porphyry " in the Life of Plotinus calls him a Tuscan ; but then he expressly says, that" when Plotinus died, Amelius was at Apamea in Syria; which may give occasion to think, that he was originally of that place, though perhaps he was born in Tuscany. Moreover Porphyry mentions a book of his inscribed" to Hesychius of Apamea, whom he had adopted for his son. His proper name, as we also learn from Porphyry, was Gentilian; and he chose to have his surname written with an r, Amerius, as indeed it is in Eunapius, and not Amelius; the last in Greek denoting negligence, the former integrity. According to Porphyry’s account, he was the most studious and laborious of all the disciples of Plotinus, with whom he spent twentyfour years at Rome, from the third year of Philip to the first of Claudius, that is, from the year of Christ 246, to the beginning of the year 269. Amelius" was a diligent ob* Vid. Eunap. de Vita Porphyr. p. 19, 20. * Apotoc, Atrapusoc, pooooooc, patomrmc IIAwtive, Čičaoka)\og Hoppvpts, ovyxpovaag Appovup kat Qptyevg. Suid. ° Eaxe ôs akpoataç puty TAftec' &m)\wrac Čs kav ćua pi\ocoquay ovyovrag, ApačAtov rs atro Tng Tvokuaç, 8 to ovopa mv Tevri)\tavog ro kvptov’ avrog 3s dua ts P Apoptov avrov KaNet, atro Tng Apueptaç m ting Apostag trpstrew avrop kaAstg8at Aeywy. Porph. de Vitā Plotin. cap. vii. ap. Fabr. Bib. Gr. T. iv. p. 104. * TeXevrovri če avrp, eyo Hev 6 IIoppvptocervyxavov sv Aixv3alpolarpiBov, Apolog 6s 8v Atrapsig Tng Xuptaç. Ib. cap. 2. p. 95. * —& Issuw ‘Hoovyup to Atrapist, Öv viov 80sro, keyapusai. Ib. cap. 3. p 98. f pi}\otovug 66 vtrepòa)\\oplewog, rov kar’ avrov travrov. Ib. cap. 3. p. 98. * TIpomoffs 3s avrop 6 ApusXiog, Tourov grog ayovrt sv 'Popp kara to Tptrov Tng PtMlrtre (3aot\etag stog, cat axpt re Tpwre rmg KXavěta 3aolAstag trapapielvac, erm ÖXa ovyyeyovey sticoat kav reggapa. Ibid. " pixoÉvre &s Yeyovorog re Apexts, kat ra ispa kara vapiévuav, cat Tag $optag 8K7Téputovtog" kat Trors ačuevrog Tov IIX w.ruvov ovy avtop trapas}a}\ttv, som' <rew8c Čet trpog sps spxéoéal, sk ops trpog skeiveg. c. A. Ib. cap. x. 111, 112.

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