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same time, or soon after it. And though he will not admit, that Jesus rose from the dead, he acknowledgeth the disciples to have related it, and that an angel descended, and removed the stone from the door of the sepulchre, and that he is said by them to have shown himself to one woman, and then to others, and to his disciples. He also observes, that the disciples have recorded, that Jesus foreknew and foretold the things that happened to himself, and which were to happen to them also after he had left them. So that we have in Celsus, in a manner, the whole history of Jesus, as recorded in the gospels: for we have traced in him the history of our Lord’s birth, life, preaching, miracles, death, and resurrection; all as taken by him from the writings of Christ's own disciples. In this section, therefore, we have seen many testimonies to the antiquity and genuineness of our scriptures, additional to those alleged in the preceding Section. In the fifth section we have observed the notice which Celsus takes of some christian principles, in particular, the general resurrection of the dead; as for the moral doctrine he was not able to find any fault with it; but he says, the like things had been before taught by the philosophers, and better expressed. He takes notice of the veneration which the christians had for Jesus, as their master, and the Messiah promised of old. But he says, the Jews were mistaken in expecting such a person at all : and the christians were mistaken in thinking that he was actually come; though, as he allows, they argued from the ancient Jewish prophets. In the sixth section we have seen some passages bearing testimony to the great progress of the christian religion in the world, notwithstanding many difficulties and discouragements. Indeed, this whole work of Celsus is an evidence of the prevailing power of the christian religion; he has sufficiently acknowledged the great number of Jews and Gentiles, who had been gained over to this belief: and if it had not been still spreading and prevailing, this learned and ingenious man would have saved himself the pains of this laborious argument to confute it; but how so many at that time should embrace this doctrine, under many worldly discouragements, without good reason, is a thing not easy to be accounted for. Under this section, I suppose, may be observed some passages containing references to the book of the Acts of the Apostles. Under the seventh section we saw, how Celsus was disposed to charge the christians with magical arts and practices; upon which I need not enlarge here; it is sufficient to remind the reader of what is there alleged. In the eighth section are some passages relating to christian worship. It appears from what Celsus says, that they worshipped the one God, Creator of all things, and had a high veneration for Jesus Christ; nor would they worship demons, or join in the public sacrifices and festivals of heathen people. He likewise speaks of christian presbyters; though they had not then any altars, nor temples, nor other sumptuous buildings to meet in. He also reproacheth them with holding their religious assemblies privately, and contrary to law; nor was it without reason that they aimed at privacy; for, as he owns, they were then sought for to be put to death. From the passages alleged under the ninth section we learn, that Celsus was not unacquainted with the absurd opinions of some who went under the christian name; these he brings in, the more to reproach those who were the most rational in their belief. All the attacks of Celsus are against the more sober part of the believers; those others were sought for in order to disparage and expose them, if possible. Finally, it is well known, that in early times, soon after the rise of christianity, the followers of Jesus were loaded with many calumnies. They were said to kill infants, and eat them, and when the lights were put out, to practise promiscuous lewdness in their assemblies. I do not perceive Celsus to insist upon these : I" rather think he did not. These calumnies were not yet extinct, nor obsolete; the martyrs at Lyons and Vienne, in the reign of Marcus Antoninus,” about the year 177, were reproached with them; and they were in vogue after that time. But to me it seems probable, that Celsus thought those charges to be absurd and incredible; and to mention them with any marks of countenance and approbation, he supposed would be a prejudice to his argument. But though he has omitted them, he has brought in divers injurious reflections upon them, and thereby shown his good will to expose them to general and public resentment; as may be seen in the passages alleged from him under this section. If therefore we now have any advantage from the work of Celsus, as we certainly have, and very considerable, it is
* Vid. L. vi. Sect. 40. p. 302. • Vid. Euseb. H. E. L. v. cap. 4. p. 156, D, and the present volume of th’s work, ch. xv. sect. ii. num, iii.
altogether beside the intention of the author: so that we may here apply the words of Samson's riddle, or aenigma: “Out of the eater,” or devourer, “came meat, and out of the strong,” or the fierce, “came sweetness,” Judges xiv. 14.
Three summaries of the fragments of the work of Celsus preserved in Origen, made by three several learned men.
I. A SUMMARY of the Work of Celsus, by the late Rev. Dr. Philip Doddridge. . My late excellent friend, Dr. Doddridge, observed to me, that few learned men knew the importance of the remains of Celsus. He said, ‘An abridgment of the history of ‘Christ may be found in Celsus;’ and he entreated, that when I should come to this writer, ‘ I would labour the “ point.’ I think I have shown a regard to his advice, as I have also followed my own judgment and inclination. Since his decease, I have understood that he had abridged the argument of the eight books of Origen against Celsus, and sent it to an honourable friend." A copy of it having been taken, I have procured it from the Rev. Mr. Ashworth, of Daventry in Northamptonshire. I shall now transcribe it with references to the pages of Spencer's edition of Origen at Cambridge, in 1677. “Of the proof of the genuineness of the New Testament, ‘that may be derived from the fragments of Celsus, as preserved by Origen.’ “The book of Celsus is unhappily lost; but there are large extracts made in Origen, and, as it seems, with such exactness, that it is difficult to find more considerable remains of any ancient book, not now extant. The following collection is confined to the illustration of this thought: “What we may learn from him concerning the real existence of the New Testament, in his age, and the regard in which it was held among christians.”” ‘Celsus is, no doubt, an evidence of great value, as he wrote so early. Origen observes, p. 3, that he had been dead long before his undertaking to answer his book against christianity, which he calls “The True Word.” And it appears, from another passage of Origen, that he lived
* Gilbert West, Esq. author of Observations on the History and Evidence of the Resurrection of Jesus Christ, published in the year 1747.
in the days of Adrian and his successor, p. 8. So that his book must have been written in the second century: which is farther confirmed by Lucian's dedicating to him one of his works, entitled, Pseudomantis. It may be also observed, that he speaks of Christ, as having taught and suffered very lately, p. 21, and p. 282.” “As for the references to the gospels, we do not find that he quotes any of them by the name of the authors: but he speaks of the gospel, meaning, no doubt, the history of Christ, as being changed three or four times, p. 77. He seems to speak of several of the evangelists, as agreeing to write of Christ's predictions, p. 89, and of things written by the disciples of Christ, p. 67. All which seem to make it evident, that he had more than the book of St. Matthew in his hand: and though the greatest part of his references may be found there, yet there are also many of them in the other gospels.” & * He quotes from the gospels such a variety of particulars, that the enumeration of them will almost prove an abridg
* ment of the evangelists’ history: particularly, That Jesus,
who, he says, was represented as the Word of God, p. 79, and who was the author of the christian name, p. 21, and also called himself the Son of God, ibid. was a man of Nazareth, p. 343. That he was the reputed son of a carpenter, p. 30. That his mother's pregnancy was at first suspected, ibid. but that it was pretended, that his body was formed in her womb by the Spirit of God: or, as he elsewhere expresses it, produced by a divine operation, p. 30. And that to remove the carpenter's prejudice, an angel appeared to him to inform him of this, p. 266. That, when he was born, a star appeared in the east to certain Magi, who came to adore him, p. 31, 45. The consequence of which was the slaughter of the infants by order of Herod, hoping thereby to destroy Jesus, and prevent his reign, p. 45. But that his parents were warned by an angel to fly into Egypt, to preserve his life, as if his Father could not have protected him at home, p. 51, and 266; and that he continued in Egypt for a while, where, he says, he had an opportunity of learning magic, p. 22.” ‘He farther represents it, as pretended in those books, that when Jesus was washed by John, the appearance of a dove descended upon him, and that a voice was heard from heaven, declaring him to be the Son of God, p. 31, and 105. That he was vexed by a temptation, and the assaults of an evil spirit, 803.” He calls Christ himself a carpenter, ‘p. 300, and insults his mean life, lurking from place to ‘place, p. 47, gathering up ten or twelve poor men, publicans, and men that used the sea, of scandalous characters, and represents Christ as a beggar, p. 47; " that he was sometimes hungry and thirsty, p. 55; speaks of his being rejected by many that heard him, and hints, though not very expressly, at an attempt to throw him down a precipice, p. 298.’ “He grants, that he wrought miracles, and particularly, that he cured some sick people, raised some that were dead, and multiplied some loaves; but speaks of others doing the like, p. 53. He also expressly mentions his curing the lame and the blind; and his raising the dead is mentioned a second time, p. 87. He lampoons the expression, “thy faith hath saved thee,” ” p. 8." “He hints at several things concerning the doctrine of Christ, and the manner of his preaching, taken especially from St. Matthew’s account of his sermon on the mount, particularly, that he promised, that his followers should inherit the earth; that if any strike them on one cheek, they should turn the other, p. 343, and 370; that he declared, no man can serve two masters, p. 380; and would have his disciples learn from the birds of the air, and the lilies of the field, not to be excessively careful about food and raiment, p. 343. He also refers to some other discourses of Christ, as his saying, that it was easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to be saved, 286 and 288.” “He observes, that Jesus, however, was not generally attended to, and that he denounced woes upon his hearers for their obstinate infidelity, p. 107.” ‘He also says, that his disciples in their writings pretend, that he foretold all things which he was to suffer, p. 67: and his resurrection, p. 93; and likewise, that deceivers would come, and work miracles, and speaks of the author of these wicked words by the name of Satan, p. 89.’ ‘He objects, that Jesus withdrew himself from those who sought to put him to death, p. 62, and yet afterwards did not avoid death, knowing it was to come, p. 70. He
* The words of Celsus, to which Dr. Doddridge refers, are these: ‘O re
688 traig apa jrrarat vTro Te 6taffox8' kat coxačopusyog vir’ avra, Ötödosket kat inac row viro tarp coxagsøy karaqpovetv. L. vi. p. 308. Cantab. num. 42. p. 663. Bened. * The passages of Celsus, to which Dr. Doddridge here refers, may be seen transcribed above at p. 228, 229. * That is not exact, owing, perhaps, not to the author, but to the transcriber. The original is: xpmobat Top Mm &ra's, a\\a tri-svgov. Kat Tristc ae goost as, And see here at p. 221.