« 上一頁繼續 »
Scotland, and Magnus of Man having died at the Castle of Ross,
1. LEOD, OR LOYD, PROGENITOR OF THE MACLEODS.
LEOD, who was the fifth of the Royal line of the Norwegian Kings of Man, in direct descent, was under age. He was brought up and fostered in the house of Paul, son of Boke, Sheriff of Skye, otherwise designated as “Paul Balkason, Lord of Skye,” a man “of the greatest power and authority of any in those parts, who had been a constant friend of his father's in all his dangers and distresses," and by whose assistance his father, as already stated, recovered his kingdom. Leod "flourished in the reign of King Alexander III., and got from said Paul the lands of the Herries, &c.; and from his grandfather, the Earl of Ross, a part of the Barony of Glenelg, and he and his posterity have ever since been promiscuously designed by the title of Herries [Harris), Glenelg, Dunvegan, and of that Ilk."* Leod married a daughter of MacRaild Armuinn, a Danish knight, who had his seat where Dunvegan now stands, and with her he received the lands of Dunvegan, Minginish, Bracadale, Duirinish, Lyndale, and part of Troternish, in the Isle of Skye. There are some families of the name of MacRaild still living on the Macleod estates, and we know one or two others elsewhere who came originally from that district.
Mairi Nighean Alastair Ruaidh, the famous Macleod poetess, refers to the traditional Norwegian and Royal origin of the race in her famous “ Cronan," where she says, on the recovery of young Macleod from a serious illness
Douglas's Baronage, p. 375. Among the documents found in the King's Treasury, at Edinburgh, in 1282, there was one entitled, “Charter of Glenhelk," which belonged to the Isle of Man. In 1292 the lands of Glenelg appear to have been included in the Sheriffdom of Skye, erected by King John Balliol.”—Origines Parochiales Scotia.
“ Sliochd Ollaghair nan lann,
Thogadh sroilltean ri crann,
Rioghal gun chall còrach."* In the Lord of the Isles, Sir Walter Scott refers to the same origin, where some of the characteristics of “Stout Dunvegan's knight” and his Norse descent are thus referred to :
“ Torquil's rude thought and stubborn will
Smack of the wild Norwegian still." By MacRaild's daughter, the heiress of Dunvegan, Leod had issue
1. Tormod, ancestor of the Macleods of Harris and Glenelg, now represented by the Macleods of Dunvegan, and known among the Highlanders to this day as “ Siol Thormoid.”
2. Torquil, progenitor of the Macleods of Lewis, Waternish, in Skye, Assynt, and Gairloch, on the Mainland, and of Raasay. The Macleods of Lewis are still spoken of in Gaelic as “Siol Thorcuil," and the cadet family of Raasay as “ Clann Mhic Gille Challuim," to indicate their descent from Malcolm Garve, son of Malcolm, eighth Baron of the Lewis.
Each of the sons, Tormod and Torquil, was a Mac Leod, or son of Leod, whence the name of the family.
Before proceeding with the History in connection with either of the two leading families of this great House, it may be well to dispose, so far as we can, of their respective claims to be head of the Clan, for the seniority and the Chiefship have been at various times disputed and claimed by the descendants of the two brothers, TORMOD and TORQULL respectively, and it may be considered doubtful, and difficult to prove, which of them was the eldest son of LEOD; though it is now almost universally admitted that Tormod was the elder of the two, and that, therefore, his male representative, the present Macleod of Dunvegan, is rightfully designated Macleod of Macleod, and Chief of the Clan.
It has always been claimed by the Macleods of Harris, Glenelg, and Dunvegan-(1), that Tormod got the greater portion of his father's estates; (2), that, in several Royal Charters, and other
* Mackenzie's Beauties of Gaelic Poetry.
authentic documents, where the heads of the families are mentioned, the representatives of Tormod, usually styled Macleods of Harris, are always named and inserted before the representatives of the Macleods of Lewis; and (3), that, though the representatives of Tormod have changed their armorial bearings, there is sufficient proof that they formerly carried the paternal arms of the family.
On the other hand, the representatives of the family of Lewis have maintained-(1), that the descendants of Torquil, their progenitor, succeeded his father in the Island of Lewis, which, they say, was the paternal estate of the Clan ; (2), that the representatives of Torquil always carried in their armorial bearings the arms of the Kings of Man and the Isles, their paternal ancestors; and (3), that it has been the unvaried tradition of the Lewis Macleods, that Torquil was the eldest son, and that this is confirmed by Sir David Lindsay of the Mount, Lord Lyon, King at Arms, and by Buchanan's History of the Origin of the Clans, published
Referring to these counter claims for precedency, Skene says that "from the earliest period in which the Macleods are mentioned in history, they have been divided into the great families of Macleod of Glenelg, or Harris, and Macleod of Lewis, and these families have for a long time disputed as to which of them the rights of Chief belong. As occurs in the somewhat parallel case of the Macneils, this dispute appears to have arisen from the possessions of the Macleods having necessarily been so little connected together, and from both families being nearly of equal power and consequence; but, from the few data which have remained to guide us on this point, there seems every reason to think that Macleod of Glenelg, or Harris, was of old the proper Chief of the Clan. Macleod of Harris," he continues, "was originally invariably designated 'de Glenelg,' and Glenelg was certainly the first and chief possession of the Clan. În various charters of the fifteenth century, to which the head of both families happen to be witnesses, Macleod de Glenelg always appears before that of Lewis, and, finally, the possessions of the Lewis family formed no part of the original possessions of the Clan, for the Charter of the family of Lewis is one by King David
II. to Torquil Macleod, of the barony of Assynt. And it is certain,” Mr. Skene sums up, "that Torquil obtained this barony by marriage with Margaret Macnicol, the heiress of the lands, and in that Charter he is not designated 'de Lewis,' nor has he any designation whatever. These facts," he declares,
These facts," he declares, "seem conclusive, that the claim of Macleod of Harris to be Chief of the Clan is well founded, and that the marriage of a younger son to the heiress of Assynt and Lewis, gave rise to the family of Lewis, who were the oldest cadets of the Clan, and who soon came to rival the family of the Chief in power and extent of territory." The first charter of any lands to the family was granted by David II., to Malcolm, son of Tormod Macleod, son of Leod, about 1343, and the obligation contained in it is to the effect that Macleod is to keep a twenty-six-oared galley at all times for the use of the King. *
Referring to lands acquired by the family in the Isle of Skye, now the only estates in their possession, Skene also says that they acquired these lands by marriage with the daughter of MacRaild, one of the Norwegian nobles of the Isles, and he maintains that it is from this connection, and from the succession which was secured by it, that first probably arose the tradition of the Macleods being originally descended from the Norwegian Kings of the Isles; and he holds, as already stated, that they were originally of pure native descent, and belonging to the ancient inhabitants of the Celtic Earldom of Garmoran. The original possessions of the Macleods of Harris and Glenelg were always held of the Crown, while those of the family of Lewis were held as vassals of the Earl of Ross and Lords of the Isles. At first the Harris family held that island under the MacRuaries of Garmoran; and, later on, when the North Isles passed into the house of Islay, they held Harris, as their neighbours and namesakes did Lewis, from the Lords of the Isles; and they also held their lands in Skye, comprising at that time fully two-thirds of the Island, as vassals of the Lordship of the Isles. The armorial bearings of the two families were quite different from an early period—that of Harris being a Castle, and that of Lewis a burning Mountain.
(To be continued.)
*“ About the year 1343, King David II. granted to Malcolm, the son of Turmode Maclode, two-thirds of the tenement of Glenelg, namely, eight darachs and five pennylands, for the service of a ship of 26 oars when required.”—Origines Parochiales Scotiæ.
In sheets of whitening foam the waves rebound.-Scott. It is only a few weeks since two sad messages from St. Kilda were cast ashore upon the coasts of the Long Island. Both told a melancholy tale of disaster and distress, and both were launched upon the bosom of the mighty Atlantic in "little ships,” rudely fashioned out of a piece of wood, and rigged with a tiny mast and sail. Bravely did the little vessels bear the tale committed to their charge, withstanding the great Atlantic billows, and sailing merrily on to the land, where there were sympathetic and kindly hearts to listen to the simple St. Kilda folk's sad story. The first one which arrived was picked up on Thursday, 24th September last, by a rural letter-carrier on the beach at Aird Uig, a township on the West Coast of the Lewis, near Gallan Head. The message itself was contained in a bottle, which was inserted in a small piece of wood roughly shaped into the form of a boat. The wood was branded “St. Kilda," and the words “open this" were cut on a small board covering the bottle. was written on what appeared to have been the leaf of a school exercise-book, and another slip of paper enclosed bore the address-"Mr. Kenneth Campbell, teacher, Uig, Lewis, by Stornoway." The message ran as follows
“St Kilda Sep the 8th 1885. “My Dear Sir-I am now going to write you a letter and sending her in one of the little ships in which we were sailing on the shore as you know to let you know all the knews. the men were building a house just a little house for the cows a great storm came on and all the corn and barley were swept away by the storm and one of the boats was swept away by the sea the men of St Kilda is nearly dead with the hunger. They send two boats from St Kilda to go to Haries not the fishing boats but little piece of wood like the little one which I send. I sent my best loves unto you. I am yours truly
“ ALEXANDER FERGUSON,"