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arations, and the clearly inspired tele- him here in good stead. Except on grams of the Washington correspond- special occasions, the British officers ent of the Times, indicating that Mr. are almost always in mufti. When one Harding would welcome an agreement recollects the outburst against Great between the English-speaking peoples, Britain with which the war opened, and have been gall and wormwood to a the immense popularity of Herr LisGermany determined to play off the sauer’s ‘Hymn of Hate,' it is really asmembers of the Entente against one tonishing to find so little overt trace of another. The press has not ventured to anti-British feeling. There are, of give a free rein to its indignation; but course, the recognized Anglophobes, the feeling is there, and is embittered headed by Herr G. Bernhardt of the by a dawning perception that Mr. Vossische Zeitung; but it is certainly Lloyd George's outburst on Upper curious how little the average German Silesia is not likely to end in anything reflects that it was, after all, to the substantial. The methodical German, British that the German navy had ulthen, while pushing back his nascent timately to surrender in such dramatic exuberance for the United States, is fashion; that it was the British Empire concentrating simply upon the material which took over the bulk of Germany's and practical aspects of future rela- colonial possessions; and that it is to tions. Realizing that, for the moment, the British Empire that Germany must the situation is not ripe, Germany is look again for many of her indispendevoting her attention more immedi- sable raw materials and for customers ately to Russia and nearer markets; for her finished products. As a matter but she never lets the United States out of fact, Great Britain stands more than of her sight; and speeches made at ever before in the sunshine of the Germeetings of the Hamburg-Amerika man Michael. But the average German line and similar large concerns show, does not apparently look so deeply as not only that the restoration of pre- this, and merely notices that Great war relations with the United States Britain is showing a readiness to reremains the cardinal object of German sume trade-relations with him, and to policy, but that, judged by the statis- this end is prepared — within the limits tics of shipping, it is beginning to of the Treaty of Versailles — to give be realized. With this success Germany him an opportunity to avoid national is momentarily content, and that is bankruptcy. why American business men, journal- This is not, of course, to say that the ists, and others find doors open to them British or even the Americans which are closed to men of French or are positively popular or fêted here. British nationality.

Whatever may be the faults of the Not, I think, that the individual Germans, they have, at least, a spirit Englishman is personally disliked. It is of national pride, which is sometimes generally admitted that the British oc- lamentably lacking among the Auscupation of the Cologne area has been trians and Hungarians. During the marked by tact and forbearance, and many months which I spent in Austria the British missions in Berlin have fre and Hungary during 1919 and 1920, I quently been praised to me for the heard many of the Allies declare that quiet, unobtrusive manner in which they found the friendliness and hosthey go about their business. The in- pitality of the inhabitants almost too nate reluctance of the Englishman to embarrassing. This criticism is not make himself conspicuous has stood without justification. But neither Austria nor Hungary ever seriously re- case of recognized Germanophiles of garded herself as at war with Great influence; but the ordinary ex-enemy Britain, France, or the United States. will have no opportunity, even if he has The troops of these nations practically the desire, to mingle in the intimate never came into conflict with one an- home life of any German family of other, and the pre-war personal rela- good extraction. This may be bad tions between the wealthier and better. Christianity, but it is understandable class families in Great Britain, for amour propre, and human nature. example, and Austria-Hungary had been in many cases very cordial and

IV intimate. It was, then, often very awkward for an Englishman, Frenchman, or But if, in the case of the other Allies, American to find himself being invited there has been a certain German exto luncheons and dinners and dances ternal correctness, there has been, and with unfeigned friendliness, during a is to-day, one great exception. If Great time when the Allied representatives Britain was the most hated enemy durin Paris were preparing — in the trea- ing the war, France is now loathed with ties of Saint-Germain and Trianon a deadly hatred of which no secret is settlements infinitely more disastrous made. Before the war Germany certo Austria and to Hungary than was tainly did not hate France so much as the Treaty of Versailles to Germany. France hated Germany; and even durSometimes, in fact, the situation be ing the war the German press often came intolerable, and some virulent expressed its admiration for the bravoutburst against our newest European ery of the French poilus. All such adallies compelled one to remind one's miration has long vanished. Not long very hosts that, after all, they had ago an American to whom I was speakbegun the war by their ultimatum to ing of this bitter hatred had a simple Serbia.

yet striking example of the truth of There is no fear of any of the Allies these words. He was inclined to be being similarly embarrassed in Ger- skeptical, so I rang the bell for the many. Not long ago some of the Berlin waiter and asked him what he thought correspondents gave prominence to a of the French. The man's eyes literally ‘house law' of the von der Golz fam- blazed, as he declared that he would ily, the members of which bound them- willingly march against the French selves to enter into no friendly relations again to-morrow because, he said, with their ex-enemies, but to confine 'they wish to make a nation of slaves their dealings with them to strictly of us. When he had gone out of the official matters. There was, as a matter room, I rang for the chambermaid, and of fact, nothing remarkable about this. she was equally outspoken in her de A German baron to whom I mentioned testation of the French. this ‘house law,' and with whom, as People in railway-carriages speak another old Cambridge man, I had quite openly about this hatred, and fancied myself on tolerably good terms, canvass the time it may be twentybluntly told me that there was nothing five years, it may be longer — when the extraordinary in this family pact, which final reckoning with France is to come. was being observed in many houses. "We want,' the Germans say, 'no al His avowal confirmed my own observa- lies. We ask only to be left alone with tions and experience. Exceptions may the French, and we are sure that the be made, for reasons of policy, in the next time France will not have Eng

land and America on her side.' Such are the professional journalists too remarks I have heard literally scores of often unbridled in their remarks, but times, and they undoubtedly represent men such as M. Poincaré are losing no the average German's views and wishes. opportunity of keeping French feeling Time will, of course, do something against Germany at white heat. toward softening down these feelings; The still dangerous question of Upper but it is an undeniable fact that many Silesia is exceptionally deplorable. The Germans of my personal acquaintance French representatives on the Interare systematically training up their Allied Mission have made virtually no children to hate France, and, above all, pretense of impartiality, and their attiare teaching them that they must tude is resented the more in that Silesia avenge the alleged wrongs done to is so closely bound up with the tradiGerman women by the French black tions of Frederick the Great; while the troops in the occupied area.

Poles are not only despised by the GerMeanwhile, such is the actual hatred mans for their lack of business capacity, for France that, no matter how dis- but are hated by them with the hatred tinctly the Allied press proclaims that that the oppressor always feels for his this or that decision was a joint decision victim. Not even the loss of Alsaceof the Allies, the whole blame is invari- Lorraine could move Germany to such ably put upon France. Every rebuff fierce hatred for France as the surrenadministered to Germany is due to der of Upper Silesia to the Poles, after French cruelty and revenge. The in- what would be eternally proclaimed as culcation of this spirit of hatred against tampering with the results of a gerryFrance is, of course, the more easy since mandered plebiscite. France is the country in whose name The next few years are going to be the Allied Missions here act, and thus critical for the future of Europe. the French have the perhaps not al- France above all is walking to-day ways congenial task of pulling the chestnuts out of the fire for their partners.

Suppositos cineri doloso, At the same time, the French appear and, no less than Germany, has temporahardly to have grown accustomed to rily forgotten the wise old dictum of their victory, and scarcely to realize Bismarck, that in politics there is no that after forty-four years of shivering room for either hatred or love. Manunder the German menace, they have kind, it is to be hoped, will eventually won for themselves a freedom which, achieve a higher level than these words if rightly used, will enable them to pur- connote. But to-day we are not even sue, as long as one can reasonably fore- on that humble plane, and the supersee, a policy of national dignity com- ficial observer, who eats his dinner in mensurate with the position to which Berlin to the strains of the latest EngFrance is entitled by the valor, charm, lish or American musical comedy, is industry, and intelligence of her popu- making a great mistake if he thinks lation.

that the German will-to-power has The temptation to repay all at been finally crushed, and that there is once the many indignities from which no longer a steady, relentless national they suffered after 1871 has been too purpose behind the cheap veneer of the strong for many Frenchmen. Not only neo-Teutonic republicanism.

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to split seconds you can take a fresh THE SIMPLE SPELLERS

start. It is a beautiful theory, but it An anæmic youth in horn goggles has does n't apply to me. I could never save called on me in the interests of the time by writing thru; I should spend inSimple Spellers. He shamelessly ap- finitely more time trying to remember propriated to himself and his cause two to write it, and in hating it after I had good hours of my time, seeking by pro- written it, than I could save were it cesses which, for want of a better name, briefer than the very soul of wit. must pass for argumentation, to enlist I suppose I am an exception in that I me in his army. I suppose someone am still old-fashioned enough to do my pays him for his time. I wish some- own writing; I am not yet incorporated one would pay me for mine; it was the and speeded up by means of multiple best I had, and it is gone where I dictaphones and typists. If I were, I cannot recover it. And the gist of his suppose I should get five cents a word shameless argument was that simplified no matter how they were spelled, and spelling saves time!

should be glad of simple spelling as a He seemed to be obsessed with the saving in 'overhead.' I should gloat naïve theory that we save time if we over the thought that my stenographer, don't spend it; whereas everyone who by using simple spelling (if she sucuses time knows that to spend it before ceeded in learning it), would increase my it spends itself is the only way to save profit by a hundred dollars a day. She it. Accordingly I could get no real in- might save time; a few of her would. formation from him as to whose time But if I know anything about her, she the simplification of spelling would would add it to her recreation periods, save, or how. The idea seems to be that and devote it to gazing out of the winevery time you write thru instead of dow. So she will do, anyway. She will through you save a second; and if you have her simple pleasures, nor need I write it often enough, you might in the purchase them for her at the cost of course of some years accumulate time seeing my perfectly good English transenough for a vacation in Italy or an ap- lated into the syncopations of Josh pendicitis operation. It appears to be Billings or Ring Lardner. based on the fatuous notion that time is But how about the children? Must money, and can be kept in the savings their little minds be burdened with bank at compound interest till you need superfluous letters? or shall they be it. Suppose you write ten thousand freed by an Emancipation Proclamasimply spelled words a day, saving a tion of the Simple Spellers? 'If it were second on each, or two hours and forty- done when 't is done, then 't were well two minutes on the day's work. Then it were done quickly.' But I do not reyou write for two hours and forty-two call any burden of superfluous letters minutes and save three quarters of an that weighed heavily on my infant hour more -and so on to infinity. It is mind. My observation tells me that subject to diminishing returns, but it there are two kinds of people, those who goes on forever, and when you get down learn to spell, and those who do not;

a

mean

and neither kind worries about 'mean- The Simple Speller has his answer ingless combinations of letters' – no ready. The gain would be in logicality, one does that but the Simple Spellers and to become more logical in any deIndeed, I question whether learning partment of life is, he is assured, worth to spell is a question of memorizing any sacrifice. I have no such assurance. sequences of letters, any more than To make spelling logical would be only drawing is a matter of memorizing se- the first step toward making language quences of lines, curves, and angles. I logical. Now logic is a good tool where do not believe that through is seven let- it fits, but it does not fit every continters; it is a fact, like a maple leaf that I gency of life. It is a good thing in lanknow when I see it, and with slight guage up to a certain point - which training I can draw it with my pencil. nobody has discovered. If it had been With pen or typewriter I make the the ruling principle of language from symbol for the word by a series of reflex the start, and if our splay-footed ancesmotions; I do not count the letters. If tors who first began to grunt with you ask me how I know through from ing could have looked down through though, I should probably mention the the centuries and seen what they were difference of the r, but the fact is I letting us in for, language might have know them as I know Uncle Jim from been logical, and we too. In that case Uncle Peter without consciousness of we should probably have but one lanthe distinguishing features. I know that guage in the world to-day, one of downis Uncle Jim because he looks like Uncle right Prussian efficiency, fitted acJim; you need n't simplify him on my curately to every service of life except account; I never burdened my mind that of imagination. Is that our ideal? with details in learning him.

If so we must change ourselves first; for Spelling is not a craft by itself: it is a if by a gesture of magic we could make part of writing and reading, training of our language overnight as logical as eye and hand. When a boy writes mathematics, how long would it stay starboard martyr for Stabat Mater, or so with our minds working as they do? forehead for forward, he writes what he The language of a people is like the skin hears; the fault is not with his ear, but of a man; as a rule, it fits snugly, and it with his visual image of the words. It is not often that we can better its fit by means that he is not a reader, and is not taking thought, except as by taking accustomed to the appearance of the thought we better ourselves. words. To try to teach him the distinc- Indeed, the Simple Spellers are illtions by lists of letters alone would be advised to seek more logic till they learn about as useless as to try to teach him to use better what they have. The only to distinguish people he never saw by arguments they have offered me are means of verbal descriptions. I doubt drawn from antecedent probability, if the one system is really easier to learn which, if I remember my logic, is the than the other. I am still to be con- weakest argument known, since it is vinced that the burden of our present built of inference before experience and system would be sufficiently lightened buttressed with parabolic evidence. by the change to compensate anyone

What we want to know about simplified for the burden it would certainly be on spelling is whether it will simplify life a generation or two of children to have for us and our children; what effect it to learn both systems; and I see no would have on us as a nation; whether security that the change could be made it is anything that would compensate with less effort.

us for the agony of the change. Why

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