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The greatest crime that a state can of these forces is in the hands of the commit is to kindle a war, either by its representatives of a majority of the own aggressions or by creating the be people, who have no interest in resortlief that it will play an unworthy part. ing to factious methods and no desire War is not the supreme evil. The su- to support needless armaments. preme evil is the habit of regarding war The path to international peace lies, as the supreme evil. No nation has not in neutrality, or in World Confedmore serious difficulties to encounter eration, or in arbitration, or in any than one whose courage and firmness particular form of government, but in are doubted. What a bandit nation be the unfailing application of the Law of lieves to be true is, so far as its action is Mutual Aid. International peace is a concerned, the same as the truth. problem of education. World wars will

A primary power with a fearless and be averted and excessive armaments efficient government rarely gets into will vanish only when that law is so well war. Such a government does not at understood and so sure in its applicatack its neighbors, and does not provoke tion that ambitious nations wil war by its reputation for inefficiency nounce the hope of conquering neighand want of spirit. The administra- bors as little disposed to endure as to tions of James Monroe, Andrew Jack- offer an injury. son, Grover Cleveland, and Theodore Although the United States will not Roosevelt were eras of peace.

enter into formal guaranties, the events

of the World War and the declarations It is the duty of every nation to main- of her political departments give assurtain such armed forces as are necessary ance that she will join the world against to preserve domestic peace. Where any power that threatens disaster to free government prevails, the control free nations.

AN EX-ENEMY IN BERLIN TO-DAY

BY MAXWELL H. H. MACARTNEY

I

It is unfortunate that the opinion of places of entertainment; and then, havthe world at large on the conditions ob- ing naturally enjoyed, at comparatively taining to-day in Berlin should so often low cost (for the mark stands at only be derived from persons falling into one about one twelfth of its pre-war value), of two classes.

much obsequious and by no means disThe one class consists of those per- interested attention, rush away with the sons who put up at the most expensive impression that the Germans are gay, hotels; eat at the most expensive res- charming, forgiving creatures, who are taurants; look in at the most expensive perhaps drinking too much (German) champagne for a supposedly bankrupt any rate at the outset, no true parallel nation, but are simply delighted to on the side of the Entente. welcome all their ex-enemies back in In spite, however, of the result and their midst.

length of the war, exhibitions of private The second class is made up of those ill-will are not very much more marked over-earnest travelers who, coming out than they were before 1914. Very posto the country with their minds already sibly, indeed, the result and length of made up, fall a facile prey to the prop- the struggle have had their effect. A aganda of those Germans whose mis- defeated Germany does not feel very sion it is to convince the world of the safe in giving way to a too-unbridled exutter ruin, material and intellectual, hibition of her true sentiments. of the Fatherland.

It may be, too, that the very length From neither of these classes is it of the war has had its effect, quite apart possible to get that true picture of an from the result. Even if a short war, ex-enemy's life in Berlin to-day which such as that upon which Germany had can be given only after a long stay here, reckoned, would have been over before and after one has mingled with all the ingrained hatred marking the midclasses of society. Even so, it is ex- dle stages of the struggle had taken root tremely hard for any one individual to in all our minds, the long-drawn-out paint a satisfactory picture, because hardships of four and one-half years of the attitude of the German is not the unintermittent fighting reacted upon same toward the American that it is the feelings of all but the most ferocious toward the Englishman or the French- fire-eaters. Anyway, whatever the reaman; and this attitude again is apt to sons may be, it is only the bare truth to vary according as you are being dealt say that, so long as the private indiwith in a private, a business, or an offi- vidual of an ex-enemy nation behaves cial capacity.

himself with ordinary restraint, he is Of course, if one is asked simply, as I very unlikely to have cause to complain sometimes am on my rare visits back in of his treatment in the everyday affairs England, whether things are made de- of existence, and may even be agreeliberately unpleasant for the ex-enemy ably surprised. private individual now resident in Ger- I will give two personal experiences many, or whether it is safe to speak in support of this statement. The French or English in a restaurant, the Armistice was not very many weeks old reply is astonishingly simple. I say when I happened to be traveling in Geradvisedly ‘astonishingly simple,' be- many on a very crowded train, the bulk cause, as one who had spent some time of the passengers being soldiers from in Germany before the war, I was fully the notorious Ehrhardt brigade. Every prepared to meet with a considerable seat in the train had long before been amount of passive ill-will, if not of ac- occupied, and I was compelled to clamtive hostility, even in everyday life. ber, with my valises and wraps, on to Many of my German friends of those the couplings between two carriages, days had adopted toward me much the and to travel in this manner in the same attitude that the Walrus and the midst of a bunch of similarly adhesive Carpenter adopted toward the oysters; soldiers. After we had gone a short and, upon the actual outbreak of war, distance, one of the soldiers who had this latent hostility, as we all know, been eyeing me curiously, inquired if was developed into a rabid yet calcu- I was a foreigner. I answered with a lated animosity, to which there was, at simple affirmative. He then inquired VOL. 128-NO. 4

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my nationality. I replied that I was an looking round for applause, he contin-
Englishman. For a moment there was ued in German: ‘Who gave you permis-
a profound silence all round, and I was sion to travel in a first-class compart-
beginning to think that I should be ment? You have broken the regulations
accidentally shoved off the moving and must pay twice the first-class fare
train, when a voice asked, 'Have you for the whole distance.'
got any English cigarettes?' As it hap- This rudeness and official punctilio,
pened I had a couple of packets of a however, brought forth a storm of pro-
brand that I very much disliked, and test from my fellow voyagers. They
I distributed the contents of one all all declared that they themselves were
round. This sop to Cerberus had the quite ignorant of the regulations in
happiest results. When at the next question; and how then should an
junction I had to change trains, two or Englishman, or any other foreigner, be
three of the soldiers climbed down with expected to know them. The place was
me and insisted upon carrying my vacant, the Englishman had volunteer-
very portable luggage for me to the ed to pay the difference, and that was
farther platform.

surely sufficient.
The second experience occurred not The official declined to listen to any
many months ago, when I was coming expostulations. The Englishman there
up on a journey from Vienna to Berlin. upon said that he would willingly leave
When we got into the German train at the compartment and asked for the re-
Tetschen, there was a young English- turn of his ticket, which, it turned out,
man standing in the corridor who look- was a through ticket to Hamburg. The
ed rather wistfully at my golf-clubs. inspector, however, declined to give it
The train was full, as usual, and he had up until the sum claimed had been paid;
failed to find a seat. After we had gone and the more his own compatriots
a short way, he opened the door of our abused him for his scurvy behavior, the
compartment and asked if there was a more violently and obstinately he stuck
vacant seat. On being told that there to the letter of the law. The matter was
was, he sat down, explaining to me not settled until we got actually to Ber-
that he had only a second-class ticket lin, and, forming a small deputation,
but would gladly pay the difference on laid the full facts before a yet higher
to Berlin.

functionary, who, thank goodness, Presently came along the ticket- had some notions of elementary justice collector, to whom the Englishman and reason. handed his ticket, saying in very broken Much capital was made last year, in German that he wanted to pay the ad- the Franco-British press, out of an asditional fare. The collector grunted, sault delivered by Prince Joachim of and went off and fetched an inspector, Prussia upon a party of French officers to whom, after the Englishman had who were dining with their wives in the vainly tried to explain the situation in Hotel Adlon, Berlin. The episode was German, he addressed himself in Eng- certainly disgraceful; but it must be lish. In the meantime I had explained admitted that Prince Joachim has long matters to him in German; but, paying been notorious as a blustering bully, no attention to me, the inspector turned and that

this occasion he had been to the Englishman and said, “We don't gazing upon the champagne when it speak English here. You're in Ger- bubbled. In the ordinary course, a many now, and if you have anything to conversation in French provokes little say, you must say it in German.” Then, or no comment; and, so far from the

upon

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speaking of English being objected to, German friend - and at another shop. people are, on the contrary, only too Nothing, again, could be more coureager to refurbish their acquaintance teous than the way in which my colwith that tongue, and to give you full league and myself have been, in appearparticulars of where they have worked ance, treated by the authorities, but in England or America, where they were we are fully aware that, as representainterned, and what they hope to do as tives of the bitterly hated 'Northcliffe soon as passports again become avail- Press,' whose alleged calumnies against able to German citizens.

Germany are almost a daily theme with The last two incidents are, however, the majority of newspapers, we are, instructive, for they illustrate the in- nevertheless, quite cordially disliked, transigeance of the old German Junker and that we are never likely to get any and official classes of all grades, and real favor shown to us. Quite the conthey show the difficulties to be con- trary. Coincidence is notoriously long tended against by such Germans as in the arm, but was it altogether a cohave taken the lessons of the war to incidence, I wonder, that when, not heart, and are struggling to make the long ago, we wanted to get a certain disappearance of militarism coincide report over to London before it had apalso with the spread of a more urbane peared in the German press, our teleand democratic spirit. The dice are, phone, which had previously worked however, weighted against them, so quite admirably, suddenly became gelong as the present generation of Junk- stört, and remained in that useless coners and officials survives.

dition for an unaccountably long period?

That amusing Dickens creation, Mr. II

Joseph Bagstock, used, if I remember

right, to be fond of referring to himself When, however, it comes to business in the following terms: "Tough, sir, or official relations, one very soon real- tough is Joey B. Tough and de-vilish izes that the German is unable to resist sly' Well, Joey B. was as tender as the temptation to score off his late spring lamb and as angelically simple enemies as much as he can. One of the as Amelia Sedley, in comparison with commonest illustrations of this pro- many Germans whom I could name. pensity is the twenty-five-per-cent sur- One cannot, perhaps, blame them too tax which Germans try to impose upon severely. The under dog is never enforeigners. You can go into a shop, for amored of his situation, and when that example, and order a number of articles. under dog has been accustomed for half As soon as the assistant finds out from a century to be the top dog and to have your name or address (if you have not his enemy by the throat, he is doubly long before been betrayed by your ac- infuriated when the positions suddenly cent) that you are a foreigner, down become reversed. If, then, the Gergoes the twenty-five-per-cent Zuschlag nans can put spokes in some of our on the bill. But for the wise, the remedy wheels, they naturally do so, and it is is simple. You begin by pointing out ‘up to us' to see that we give them back that, under the terms of the peace as good as they give. treaty, Germans are forbidden to dif- Besides, it is not only we civilians ferentiate against foreigners; and, if who suffer from these more or less imthat produces no effect, you walk out potent struggles. Germany has never with the intimation that to-morrow you ceased to regard and proclaim the will get the goods ordered, through a Treaty of Versailles as an outrageous swindle, into which she was lured by Germans and friendly neutrals in the the hypocritical protestations and four- United States, that a German can teen points of President Wilson; by hardly work up a permanent hatred of reliance upon the published war-aims the American people as a whole. In the of the Allies; by anything, in short, second place, he realizes that the interrather than by military defeat in the ests of the United States and of Gerfield; and between the ratification of

many were never in serious conflict the Peace and the advent of the inse before the war; and thinks that, if his cure Wirth Cabinet, she has striven un- leaders had not bungled their diplomaceasingly to carry out as few of the con- cy and their moral conduct of the war ditions as she possibly can. She has so idiotically, there would have been a wriggled (and Bavaria is still wriggling) sporting chance that the United States over the disarmament question; she would never have taken up arms at all. has called to Heaven in evidence of her Thirdly, the comparatively late arrival inability to pay the compensations and of the American troops on the scene of reparations demanded of her; she has action naturally meant that there was reduced the trials of the 'war criminals' relatively little fighting between the to a farce. Her much-boasted revolu- two nations — though the gallant action of 1918 swept away, indeed, the tion of the Americans round ChâteauHohenzollerns, but left behind the Thierry in the summer of 1918 probbureaucrats, who were indispensable ably discouraged any German desire because they knew where to find the for a full-dress campaign on a large blotting-paper and sealing-wax, and scale. Fourthly, America alone among who have not yet learned that the old the greater belligerents has sought no verbose and truculent notes, which may territorial or monetary advantage at have suited the temper of a people Germany's expense. And, fifthly, the bristling with bayonets, do not come charitable endeavors of Mr. Hoover's well from a people which, after plung- mission and other relief organizations ing more than half the civilized world (duly advertised in the press) have prointo misery and shying at nothing, duced a sentiment of sincere gratitude, however barbarous, in its struggle for which has further reinforced the pleassupremacy, has now had its fangs drawn. ure felt at reported American impa

tience with what, apparently, is someIII

times regarded by you ‘over there'as

our meticulous determination to enSo much may be said to be more or force the Treaty of Versailles. This less the common experience of all Ger- attitude, of course, delighted the Germany's former enemies. But this super- mans, and encouraged them to hope ficial equality of treatment does not that, when once the Harding adminismean that Germany, in her heart of tration was firmly in the saddle, Gerhearts, makes no distinction between

many might look to the United States her foes. If President Wilson shares as to the first great nation which would with the late King Edward and M. break down the tabu by which she is Clemenceau the distinction of being now surrounded; which would lend her bitterly hated, the American people as money; and which would enable her to a whole is more popular here than any recover from her present prostration. of the others. This is only natural for Recent events have greatly dashed the following reasons.

these hopes. The unwavering loyalty There are, in the first place, so many of America to her associates over rep

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