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tional war has become a part of the actual hostilities until there can be an habitual thought of the world; but sen- investigation as to the merits of a consible men must be on their guard against troversy, it may be said at once that this cup of enchantments. Nations do there are never any merits in the 'connot go to war over things that can troversy.' The quarrels of nations that be arbitrated, and arbitration treaties are not bent upon conquest begin and serve only as caustic irritants of the end in words, and no elaborate machinrelations between states. The fallacy ery for making investigations is necesin arbitration lies in the fact that the sary in such cases. The aggressions of causes of war, being political in their the international bandit aiming at the nature, can be settled only by political conquest of weaker nations can be agencies, never by courts of justice. stayed only by the known readiness of The pretexts upon which nations de nations to aid each other in case of atclare war are a mere covering brought tack. Nations that seek protection in forward to conceal the real political treaties of investigation and arbitration cause, which is invariably the desire for

are foolish. conquest. To arbitrate the pretext is

IV like treating the symptoms in medical practice. International arbitration, as We shall now consider the positive a means of applying the principles of measures that may be taken to avert justice to the causes which lead to war, international war. is a farce.

The nations have been able to preIn no known instance could arbitra- serve their independence against bantion treaties have averted war. In dit states only by long and bloody wars. every case the aggressor began hostili- How may they preserve their liberty ties for the purpose of making conquest. without the necessity of waging these He had made up his mind to break wars? Surely in no other way than by treaties, and an arbitration treaty is as making it unmistakably evident that easily broken as any other. Moreover, inevitable defeat awaits the ambitious nations are unwilling to impawn their aggressor. Positive measures for the future being and action by binding maintenance of international peace themselves to abide by the irrevocable must be based upon the Law of Mutual decisions of judges who base their Aid, and must recognize the fact that opinions upon what they decide is the the control of the sword cannot be taken law; nor are they willing to confer legis- from the hands of the great legislative lative power upon judges by authoriz- assemblies which now control, and ing them to say what shall be the law. which seem destined to control for all

Nations cannot afford to enter into time, the nations' purse-strings. an agreement that will permit other na- Two methods, both of which are tried tions to hale them into court, to answer and approved deterrents of war, meet for political acts which may or may not these requirements. lead to war. To do so is to resign their 1. The first method is by defensive governments into the hands of the alliance treaties, of which the treaty court. Those who advocate such action long subsisting between England and take no heed of the fixed unwillingness Portugal is a good example. The obof men to settle political matters, either jection to such treaties is that one or domestic or international, by judicial more of the parties may begin a war of

aggression and claim assistance, as when In regard to proposals to postpone the aggressive French Republic claimed

means.

the assistance of the United States dur- than any treaty, and has been a most ing Washington's administration, and potent deterrent of war and conquest. Germany and Austria claimed the as- However unfriendly an American resistance of Italy in their war of aggres- public might be, our aid would come to sion in 1914. It should be observed that it as promptly as to any other. The the state whose assistance is claimed un- Monroe Doctrine is not based upon der such a treaty is judge of the occa- sentimentality, but upon the more sion a right which the United States stable and respectable basis of selfand Italy asserted and made good. A interest, which demands that we avoid general defensive alliance treaty, in

the close neighborhood of strong agwhich, to copy the language of our Con- gressive powers. It is maintained by stitution, the United States shall pro- the United States for purely defensive tect each of them against invasion,' has purposes; but it has been of infinite admuch to recommend it. After the

After the vantage to the Latin-American states. treaty of alliance with France lapsed The great merit of the Monroe Docand was declared at an end, the United trine is that it has caused the nation to States did not renew it, and she has think along correct lines and see its carefully avoided such treaties. She duty clearly; it has given guiding prinhas refused upon more than one occa- ciples that have removed all doubt and sion to embody the principles of the hesitation in troublous times; and it Monroe Doctrine into a defensive al- has served as a warning to possible liance treaty with the nations of the trespassers. The maintenance of peace American continent. It is therefore is a problem of education. The Monroe idle for us to discuss this phase of the Doctrine has preserved peace by edusubject.

cating our people, our statesmen, and 2. The second method is by legis our potential adversaries. lative declarations of policy, such as What oceans of blood would have that contained in the preamble of the been saved if the nations and their rulAnnual Mutiny Act prior to 1867, ers had been educated in their duties in which stated that one of the purposes the strenuous days that preceded the of the British army was 'the preserva- German attack on Liége in 1914! Want tion of the balance of power in Europe'; of education, want of a correct policy, or by executive declarations of policy have cost the United States $26,000,similar to that enunciated by Mr. 000,000, and the nations a world war. Monroe, in which the nation, through Our defect, so far as want of declaraits executive, announces that the in- tion of policy is concerned, has been vasion of one state by another will be remedied by Mr. Harding in his Inregarded as an unfriendly act by the augural Address, by the following words, state making the declaration. The which, let us hope, will be quoted in Monroe Doctrine is, in effect, a spon- after times, as are the words of Mr. taneous offer of assistance, on the part Monroe: of a nation which refuses to enter into defensive alliances, to all the states of

Our eyes never will be blind to a develthe New World against any non

oping menace, our ears never deaf to the

call of civilization. . . . In expressing asAmerican state that may attack any pirations, in seeking practical plans, in of them. It leaves the nation free to translating humanity's new concept of adopt such measures as it may see fit righteousness, justice, and its hatred of war to pursue, and makes it judge of the into recommended action, we are ready most time and the occasion. It is stronger heartily to unite; but every commitment must be made in the exercise of our na- study of war and politics. Organization tional sovereignty. . . . We have come to without spirit is an empty shell. When a new realization of our place in the world

the spirit is right, organization adjusts and a new appraisal of our nation by the

itself to the needs of the hour. world. The unselfishness of these United States is a thing proved, our devotion to. peace for ourselves and for the world is well

V established, our concern for preserved civilization has had its impassioned and heroic

There are certain axiomatic princiexpression. There was no American failure ples in 'world-politics' that are of funto resist the attempted reversion of civili- damental importance in the practical zation; there will be no failure to-day or application of the Law of Mutual Aid. to-morrow.

Several of these principles will now be Paraphrasing the language of Mr. considered. Lincoln, I should say: Let this duty of Competition in land armaments bethe nation be breathed by every Amer- tween adjacent continental nations is ican mother to the lisping babe that not a mutual affair, asit is assumed to be prattles in her lap; let it be taught in in all discussions on disarmament: it is schools, in seminaries, and in colleges; a one-sided phenomenon. A powerful let it be written in primers, in spelling- nation, like Germany, arms to conquer books, and in almanacs; let it be a weaker neighbor, which, in turn, arms preached from the pulpit, proclaimed for defense. There is a vast difference in legislative halls, and enforced in between arming for offense and arming courts of justice. And, in short, let it for defense, as every thoughtful reader become the political religion of the na- of the daily press must have realized in tion; and let the old and the young, the the month of August, 1914. The defenrich and the poor, the grave and the sive armaments of the weaker nation gay, of all sexes and tongues and colors are not a menace to the stronger naand conditions, sacrifice unceasingly tion, which needs no great preponderupon its altars.

ance to assure itself against the attack The writer believes that the Harding of its weaker neighbor. War comes, Doctrine will do for the world at large not from armies and navies, but from what the Monroe Doctrine has done the belligerent intentions of nations. for the American continents. It will The aggressors, the beginners of wars, not prevent civil wars or small inter- the leaders in the so-called armament national wars; but it is an announce- competitions, are the strong nations, ment to the world that we stand ready not the weak. Excessive armaments in to join in crushing any bandit nation time of peace are a phenomenon of quite that attempts world-conquest. If taken recent times, due to the ambition of by us at its full import, it will prevent Germany and one or two other states a repetition of the World War, and it that have followed her example. Conwill lead to a large measure of disarma- vince these states that the Law of Mument. It will be what we make of it. tual Aid will be applied against them,

The nations need no additional ma- that the fate of Germany awaits them chinery of government to preserve in- if they attack their neighbors, and land ternational peace. The world had suffi

armaments will automatically decline cient organization to have averted war to the scale required in each state to in 1914. What it needed then, and maintain domestic peace, beyond which what it needs now, is enlightened pol- it is not desirable that they be reduced. icy, based upon a careful and searching Competition in naval armaments is one of the effects of excessive land ar- peace of the civilized world, which can maments. There is never any naval be threatened only by countries having competition between countries that large armies, each is vitally interested maintain small armies, however great that the other shall not neglect its their naval forces may be. This is a naval forces. Their navies are the mainfact of supreme importance at the pres- stay of the peace forces of the world. ent time. Nations like Great Britain

A strong naval power, which mainand the United States, which maintain tains a comparatively small army, is strong navies, but comparatively weak not a menace to any strong military skeleton armies raised by voluntary en- power, unless the military power, by listment in time of peace, measure their its aggressions, unites the world in a naval strength, not by each other's coalition against itself; in other words, naval strength, but by that of countries England, which relied upon her navy which have powerful conscript armies as her first line of defense, would never backed by trained reserves ready for have begun a war of aggression against instant mobilization.

Germany; and the United States, with Recent propaganda does not disprove its small army, will never begin a war the foregoing statement. For more than of aggression against Japan, which four centuries England has gauged her keeps up a large and efficient army. building programme by that of the most No nation ever attempts to gain a powerful navy of those European pow- preponderance of armaments upon both ers which maintained large armies. land and sea unless it is actuated by agShe will, beyond all doubt, continue the gressive purposes. The nation which, same policy for a period of time that like Germany, attempts to gain such can be measured only in centuries. If preponderance, brands itself as an inwe are wise, we shall follow a somewhat ternational bandit. similar policy, taking into account The liberties of the nations will be at Asiatic as well as European neighbors, an end whenever any country which which maintain powerful conscript has the best army in the world gains armies.

command of the sea;or, vice versa, whenEngland has never considered the

ever any country which has the best strength of the American navy in de navy in the world builds up the most termining her two-power standard, not formidable army. The hegemony of because blood is thicker than water, as the ancient world soon passed to Rome, some would have us believe, but be when that Republic, already possessed cause she has known full well that she , of an invincible army, wrested the comhas nothing to fear from the aggression mand of the sea from Carthage. The of a country whose army does not great- defeat of the British fleet at Jutland ly exceed the needs of domestic peace. would have placed the modern world in And we have been indifferent about her a similar position in regard to Germany, navy for the same reason. Nations that unless, indeed, the American fleet could depend upon naval power for defense have restored the command of the sea never enter upon a war that can in any to the Allies. way be avoided. The English, like the The modern world is distinguished Romans, have generally had wars from the ancient chiefly by the fact thrust upon them, and, like the Romans, that it has not been brought under the have generally begun their wars with domination of a single nation. It has disasters. As England and America been saved from this fate by the forhave each a tremendous interest in the tunate fact that the strongest military state has never been the strongest naval cratic governments. The Allies have power, thanks to the insular situation fought against domination by a single of England, to her ability to command state, not against any particular form the sea, and to her inability to become of government. There is no instance in the strongest military power. Herein history of the defeat of a republican lies the secret of the existence of the state by an autocratic state, both states free commonwealths of the modern being otherwise fairly matched; but world. One of the ugliest aspects of our history is replete with the defeat and civilization was presented by the cam- overthrow of monarchies by republics paign in the press, prior to the World in fair and open fight. War, against the policy of England to Absolute suppression of all trade with maintain a two-power standard against the bandit nation should be enforced in the German navy.

future wars, if, unfortunately, the hisThe key to the international situa- tory of the world continues to repeat tion lies in the European-Asiatic con

itself. In the last war the Allies did not tinent, because Europe and Asia, if declare a blockade, in order, apparently, united under one strong, efficient, co- to avoid irritating neutrals, whose batercing state, would have ample land tles they were fighting. They preferred and naval forces to compel the rest of to follow an illegal practice, as measthe world to accept the policy of the ured by international-law standards, coercing state; and free government which attained the same ends and perwould be at an end. No such danger mitted the compensation of owners of can come from any of the other con- ships and cargoes. The Second Peace tinents, on account of their smaller size. Conference of 1907 stipulated that comThe establishment of republican gov

mercial and industrial relations beernment does not solve the problem of tween belligerents and neutrals should international peace. Hereditary auto- be especially protected and encouraged. cracy has more often imperiled the This is the freedom of the seas which world's liberties; but the dangers com- Germany desired-freedom from blocking from republics and democracies ade, which was necessary to bring her have been more serious. Rome con- to her knees and stop her aggressions. quered as a republic, and, as an empire, The international law of Grotius justicombatted only for a choice of masters. fies the measures which the Allies enAt the beginning of the last century, forced, or should have enforced, against republics seemed dangerous to Europe Germany; indeed, if they had probecause Republican France threatened claimed the principles of the Father of its liberties, which were defended by International Law at the beginning of several hereditary autocrats. In 1914, the war, they would have had a moral autocratic Germany threatened world- and intelligible code to follow. Truth stability, and the danger was ascribed is so delicate that, if we deviate ever to the form of government. Such so slightly from it, we fall into error. theories are wrong. It is not the form of Grotius was a citizen of one of a numgovernment but the act of aggression ber of small nations which were threatthat is dangerous. Many good souls ened by the German empire of the day, were troubled because autocratic Rus- and he wrote as the citizen of an allied' sia and Samurai-ridden Japan and country. Looking out upon a world feudal Serbia and Montenegro gave much like our own, his thoughts are as support to the Allied cause. But all fully applicable to our larger world as if great coalitions have contained auto- they were written yesterday.

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