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astonishment, John Burns, with a fine scripts, letters, first editions. And sense of dramatic values, had disap- then, dropping the arrogance of the colpeared. I looked at his name and ad- lector who had made his point, he took dress written in his own hand in my lit- up a little copy of Utopia, which he had

a tle engagement-book. “Well,' said I to bought as a boy for sixpence, and said, myself,‘that looks like a perfectly good 'This book has made me what I am; invitation; John Burns will be expect for me it is the greatest book in the ing me about half-past four, and I am world; it is the first book I ever bought, not going to disappoint him.'

it is the corner-stone of my library, the A few days later, at the hour ap- foundation on which I have built my pointed, we descended from a taxi and life. Now let us have tea! found our friend awaiting us at his During this pleasant function I plied front gate. Across the roadway stretch- my host with question after question; ed Clapham Common, itself not with- and he, knowing that he was not being out historic interest; but it was a cold, interviewed, was frankness itself in his raw day in late October, and the inside replies. His judgment of the of a city home is always more interest of England with whom he had worked ing than the outside. As I removed my for a lifetime was shrewd, penetrating, coat, I saw at a glance that I had not and dispassionate; and, above all, kind

, been deceived in the number of his ly; their conduct of the war, his reason books. There were books everywhere, for not going along with the nation (he about fifteen thousand of them. All

All and Lord Morley were the two conover the house were open shelves from spicuous men in England who, upon the floor to ceiling, with here and there a outbreak of the war, retired into private rare old cabinet packed with books, life) was forceful if, to me, unconvincwhich told the life-story of their owner. ing; and I quoted Blake's axiom, that a Books are for reading, for reference, man who was unwilling to fight for the and for display. John Burns had not truth might be forced to fight for a lie, stinted himself in any direction. Throw- without in the least disturbing his ing open the door of a good-sized room equanimity. My remark about Blake in which a fire (thank God!) was burn- served to send the conversation in aning brightly, Burns said briefly, ‘Lon- other direction, and we were soon disdon, ar and architecture in this room; cussing Blake's wife, whose maiden in the room beyond, political economy, name he knew, and his unknown grave housing and social problems. Rare in Bunhill Fields, as if the cause and books and first editions in the drawing effect of the great war were questions room. Now come upstairs: here is bio that could be dismissed. Seeing a large graphy and history.' Then, throwing signed photograph of Lord Morley on open the door of a small room, he said, the wall, and a copy of his Life of Glad“This is my workshop; here are thou- stone and his own Recollections on the sands and thousands of pamphlets, care- shelves, I voiced my opinion that his fully indexed.' On landing at the head friend was the author of five of the dullof the stair, he said, 'Newton, I've est volumes ever written, an opinion I taken a fancy to you, and I'm going to would be glad to debate with all comers. let you handle — carefully, mind you In reply to my question as to how

the greatest collection of Sir Thomas he had accomplished so much reading, More in the world; over six hundred leading as he has done for so many items, twice as many as there are in the years the life of a busy public man, he British Museum. Here they are, manu- answered, 'I read quickly, have a good

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memory,' (there is no false modesty soon to forget the joys of the experience. about John Burns) ‘and I never play Holidays at last come to an end. golf.'

If all the year were playing holidays, 'Well, I am like you in one respect.'

To sport would be as tedious as to work. What's that?' he asked; and then, with a laugh, ‘You don't play golf, I We came home and, greetings exchansuppose.

ged, our first impressions were those of What I thought was my time to score annoyance. As a nation, we have no came when he began to speak French, manners; one might have supposed that which I never understand unless it is we, rather than the English, had had our spoken with a strong English accent. nervous systems exposed to the shock This gave me a chance to ask him wheth- of battle; that we, rather than they, had er he had not, like Chaucer's nun, stud- been subject to air-raids and to the ied at Stratford Atte Bowe, as evident- deprivations of war; that we had bely 'the French of Paris was to him come a debtor rather than a creditor "unknowe.” He laughed heartily, and nation. We found rudeness and surliinstantly continued the quotation. ness everywhere. The man in the street But anyone who attempts to heckle had a 'grouch,' despite the fact that he John Burns has his work cut out for was getting more pay for less work than him; a man who has harangued mobs any other man in the world; and that in the East End of London and else- the President had told him that he had where, and held his own against all an inalienable right to strike. For the comers in the House of Commons, and first time in my life I felt that 'labor who has received honorary degrees for would have to liquidate' — to use a solid accomplishment from half a dozen phrase to which, in the past, I have universities, is not likely to feel the pin- greatly objected. No question was civpricks of an admirer. And when the illy answered. The porter who carried time came for us (for my wife was with our bags took a substantial tip with a me) to part, as it did all too soon, it was sneer, and passed on. It may be that with the understanding that we were to America is 'the land of the free and the meet again, to do some walking and home of the brave'; but we found the book-hunting together; and anyone streets of our cities dangerous, noisy, who has John Burns for a guide in hideous, and filthy. It is not pleasant London, as I have had, is not likely to say these things, but they are true.

BACK-YARD ARCHÆOLOGY

BY WARREN K. MOOREHEAD

DURING the past fifty years citizens "beginnings of the human race' conand institutions of New England and densed into a few pages, in order that New York have contributed large sums the tired business man, or weary profor archæological expeditions in remote fessional person, or the general public, sections of the New and Old Worlds. I may absorb the leading facts of pre-hissuppose it is not inaccurate to state tory, as well as history itself, quickly that certain individuals of New Eng- and conveniently. land were pioneers in financing Mexi- People not only buy, but they actucan, Central American, and South ally read, books treating in more enterAmerican expeditions for the Peabody taining fashion of archæological discovMuseum. Dr. Winslow's labors aroused eries and primitive peoples. I recall much interest in the study of early that, thirty years ago, a scientist imEuropean and Egyptian cultures, and mediately lost caste, did he write for other researches which were begun by the public. Following the prevalent the English, French, or Italians. To- custom of that time, his works were dull day, the explorer seeking funds for a and pedantic. Few persons outside the survey of ruins in Yucatan finds readyre- cult to which he belonged knew him or sponse to his appeal for contributions. his books; for it was considered bad In short, our American public — par- form for him to do that which would inticularly here, east of the Hudson - is terest mankind at large. To-day, most more or less educated in archæologi- of us believe that our work is a part of cal matters. The subject has become of the generally accepted educational syspopular interest. We read with avidity tem; that it should be presented in an articles in the National Geographical attractive form, in order that it may Magazine concerning peoples of remote reach the largest number of readers. corners of the globe — although these While much nonsense has undoubtedly same descriptions, printed thirty years been published in the press and magaago, would have bored us. Everybody zines, and a great deal of sensational knows about the cave-man, and what and unscientific information dissemihe did;our Sunday newspapers regularly nated by the movies, yet, on the whole, announce the discovery of another ‘new people are better informed to-day conburied city. Even the movies portray cerning the early history of our race, expeditions of all kinds, some slightly and of primitive man in general, than 'scientific,'and others made in the foot- they were two decades ago. hills out from Los Angeles, or in the Permit me to hasten, at this juncmountains and woods a mile from the

ture, to assure the anxious scholar that business section of Saranac Lake. I do not claim there are more masters of

Last, but not least, Mr. Wells has archæology to-day than formerly; what delved or his assistants have — into I wish to convey is the impression that archæologic lore, and we find the whole our public has a more intelligent inter

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est in the subject. This is indicated in far-reaching result. Putnam preached the correspondence files of the average thorough science in exploration, and archæologist. Let him compare letters gathered about him many young stuof 1890 with those of to-day, and he will dents. These men are to-day heads of, observe that the correspondent to-day, or occupy positions of standing in, a when addressing the museum curator dozen of the larger museums in this and or a field-man, is somewhat familiar other countries. with the subject. We have fewer crank' Yet all the interest on the part of communications. It has been three the young scientists who went forth, years since one of these came to our and of the men who gave funds, and of Department; yet in one month during the public, seemed to centre in places 1895 I received two letters from persons away from and not in New England. who wished to know my 'formulæ' for With a few exceptions — notably Mr. making ‘mineral rods, by means of C. C. Willoughby's explorations in which buried treasures are found.' Maine — no one thought that there

Formerly, most persons supposed that was and is such a thing as the archæa museum was a place where ‘relics' ology of New England. Obviously, the were bought and then exhibited to reason they all neglected the home tergaping and curiosity-seeking visitors. ritory is not far afield. We have no This changed attitude toward the mu- mounds, no cliff-dwellings or ruined seum may be traced to our museum prop

cities. We even lack caverns and caveaganda; to the work of the Association man! Thus we possess nothing calof Museums, to the spread and influ- culated to appeal to the imagination. ence of children's museums, — popular Wealthy people would give money for among their elders, as well, — and to investigations of visible monuments. the many illustrated talks on natural They had seen pictures of remains in the history and related topics.

West, the South, and Asia. Putnam New England's part in lifting archæ- could secure little money for work ological research (and museum study) hereabouts. He was told that there out of the narrow rut of the specialist was neither romance

nor charm in and placing it upon the hill, that its New England exploration. As a natlight might not be hidden, but, on the ural sequence, archæologists, with one contrary, be seen of men, is consider- accord, went West, South, or abroad, able. Indeed, New England occupies with the result that, until systematic a place of distinction as the patron of explorations were undertaken in 1912, archæology and research. Was it not at we knew less about our

own land Salem, away back in 1803, that the (archæologically) than we did about trading- and whaling-vessel masters regions five thousand miles away. brought their 'curios' and ship-models In 1909 I visited my friend Director home and exhibited them? Most fitting Willoughby of the Peabody Museum, is it that the museum there, after a cen- and consulted with him concerning tury of honorable existence, should dis- work in our home field. It had been play these priceless objects of the long neglected; yet here we might find the ago. Here, Professor Morse, and at beginnings of Algonquin culture, EsCambridge, Professor Putnam, began kimo influence, tribes of pre-Pilgrim their work in the early eighteen-sixties. days, and so forth. There were farMorse's popular lectures, sparkling reaching possibilities. Our trustees kindwith humor, filled with worth-while in- ly voted the necessary funds, and I formation, stimulated interest and hada applied methods used in Ohio, Arizona,

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and New Mexico to the State of Maine. worked out, is the equal of any similar In short, we ran a Western survey in specimen I have observed from Europe the East.

or Asia. For nine years we have worked hard, These graves are of such antiquity carrying large crews to the most distant that no bones remain therein. There points in Maine and elsewhere; it is are eight distinct types of tools found, now time to render the public an ac- – all stone, – and great quantities of count of our stewardship. During this powdered red hematite occur in each period we have traveled over 5000 miles grave, seldom less than one or two in our large, twenty-foot canoes. We quarts, and frequently half a bushel. have found seventeen Indian cemeteries No large deposit of soft hematite occurs of the prehistoric period, and taken out in Maine, save at Katahdin Iron Works; the contents of 440 graves. Our men and analysis indicates that the Indians mapped over 200 village, camp, or brought it from that source, probably shell-heap sites in Maine alone. The in canoes, possibly overland, to their grand total of artifacts in stone, bone, villages farther south. None of the shell, and clay is rising 17,000; and all ochre masses has been found in shellthis in one state of New England where heaps along the coast, or in caches, or at there were supposed to be few 'Indian their village sites. We therefore conremains.' We found one shell-heap (include that it was used in mortuary the Bar Harbor region, near Lemoine) ceremonies. . over 700 feet long and five feet deep, in These types of stone artifacts perplaces, and averaging over two feet of sistently occur in the 'Red Paint Peodébris. From this heap the men took ple’s' graves, but in more recent Algon5000 articles of prehistoric manufac- quin burials they are totally absent. ture, and two years later reëxplored for We have proved the existence of a very another museum, and secured 2500 ancient culture, different from any other more. So far as I am aware, the total

in this country. of 7500 stone, clay, bone, and shell ob- My purpose in mentioning these disjects (all human handiwork) from one coveries at some length is merely to call site is exceeded by only five other sites attention to the interesting and unin the whole United States, and these known field that we have at hand. It is are in the thickly settled mound-builder now proposed to spend the next eight and cliff-pueblo regions of the West. years in intensive exploration of ancient

Our stone-gouges from Maine graves Indian places in Connecticut, Rhode evince a skill in stone-working, grind- Island, and Massachusetts, with the ing, and polishing not excelled else- coöperation of local historical and sciwhere in the world. That is, the Maine entific societies and certain individuals. gouges are easily the highest Stone-Age We shall attempt - at least, in some art in gouge manufacture. I am not small measure to reconstruct the life speaking of axes or hatchets, but of the of our aborigines in pre-Colonial times; long polished gouges.

and at best our task is beset with diffiWe find slender spears 14 to 22 inches culties. There are no prominent monuin length, beautifully wrought and ments indicating where we shall excascarcely thicker than a lead pencil. vate. Our results are obtained through The famous prehistoric Japanese spears persistent testing of one region after are much shorter and of less fine work- another, for the surface indications are manship. One polished dagger of slate, meagre.

Land has been cultivated with a wide blade and handle carefully hereabouts for the past two and a half

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