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Oth. Not now, sweet Desdemona; some other


Des. But shall 't be shortly?
Oth. The sooner, sweet, for you.

Des. Shall 't be to-night at supper?
Oth. No, not to-night.

Des. To-morrow dinner then?
Oth. I shall not dine at home.

I meet the captains at the citadel.

[morn; Des. Why then, to-morrow night; or Tuesday 10 Or Tuesday noon, or night; or Wednesday morn; I pray thee, name the time; but let it not Exceed three days: in faith, he's penitent; And yet his trespass, in our common reason, (Save that, they say, the wars must make ex-15 amples

Out of their best) is not almost a fault

To incur a private check: When shall he come?
Tell me, Othello. I wonder in my soul,
What you could ask me, that I should deny,
Or stand so mammering on'. What! Michael
That 'came a-wooing with you; and so many a
When I have spoke of you dispraisingly,
Hath ta'en your part; to have so much to do
To bring him in! Trust me, I could do much,-|
Oth. Pr'ythee, no more: let him come when
he will;

I will deny thee nothing.

Des. Why, this is not a boon;

"Tis as I should entreat you wear your gloves,
Or feed on nourishing dishes, or keep you warm;]
Or sue to you to do a peculiar profit
To your own person: Nay, when I have a suit,
Wherein I mean to touch your love indeed,
It shall be full of poize and difficulty,
And fearful to be granted.

Oth. I will deny thee nothing:
Whereon, I do beseech thee, grant me this,-
To leave me but a little to myself.

Des. Shall I deny you? no: Farewell, my lord.
Oth. Farewell, my Desdemona: I will come to
thee straight.
[teach you:

Des. Emilia, come :- -Be it as your fancies
Whate'er you be, I am obedient.

[Exit with Emil. Oth. Excellent wretch'! Perdition catch my soul, But I do love thee! and when I love thee not, Chaos is come again.

Jago. My noble lord.

Oth. What dost thou say, Iago?

Know of your love?

Iago. But for a satisfaction of my thought;
No further harm.

Oth. Why of thy thought, Iago?

Iago. I did not think, he had been acquainted
with it.

Oth. O yes; and went between us very oft.
Iago. Indeed?

Oth. Indeed! ay, indeed;-Discern'st thou
aught in that?


Is he not honest?

Iago. Honest, my lord?
Oth. Honest! ay, honest.

Iago. My lord, for aught I know.
Oth. What dost thou think?
Iago. Think, my lord?


Oth. Think, my lord;-By heaven, he echoes
As if there were some monster in his thought,
Too hideous to be shewn.-Thou dost mean some-

201 heard thee say but now,-Thou lik'dst not that,
When Cassio left my wife; What didst not like?
And, when I told thee-he was of my counsel
In my whole course of wooing, thou cry'dst,



And didst contract and purse thy brow together,
As if thou then hadst shut up in thy brain
Some horrible conceit. If thou dost love me,
Shew me thy thought.

Iago. My lord, you know I love you.
Oth. I think, thou do'st;


And,-for I know thou art full of love and ho[breath,And weigh'st thy words before thou giv'st them Therefore these stops of thine fright me the more: 35 For such things, in a false disloyal knave,

Are tricks of custom; but, in a man that's just,
They are close delations, working from the heart,
That passion cannot rule.

Iago. For Michael Cassio,

401 dare be sworn, I think that he is honest.
Oth. I think so too.





Iago. Did Michael Cassio, when you woo'd my

Oth. He did, from first to last: Why dost thou

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To hesitate, to stand in suspence. 2 i. c. of weight. 3 The word wretch, in some parts of England, is a term of the softest and fondest tenderness. It expresses the utmost degree of amniableness, joined with an idea, which perhaps all tenderness includes, of feebleness, softness, and want of protection. i. e. When I cease to love thee, the world is at an end; i. e. there remains nothing va luable or important. i. e. occult and secret accusations, working involuntarily from the heart, which, though resolved to conceal the fault, cannot rule its passion of resentment. they might no longer seem, or bear the shape of men.

i. e. would


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As where's that palace, whereinto foul things
Sometin.es intrude not? who has a breast so pure,
But some uncleanly apprehensions

Keep letts, and law-days, and in session sit
With meditations lawful 1?

Oth. Thou dost conspire against thy friend, Iago,
If thou but think'st him wrong'd, and mak'st his
A stranger to thy thoughts.

Think'st thou, I'd make a life of jealousy, To follow still the changes of the moon With fresh suspicions? No; to be once in doubt, is-once to be resolv'd: Exchange me for a goat, 5 When I shall turn the business of my soul To such exsuffolate and blown surmises", Matching thy inference. 'Tis not to make me jealous,

[ear 10

Iago. I do beseech you,
Though I-perchance, am vicious in my guess3,
(As, I confess, it is my nature's plague
To spy into abuses; and, oft, my jealousy
Shapes faults that are not) that your wisdom yet,
From one that so imperfectly conceits,
Would take no notice; nor build yourself a trouble
Out of his scattering and unsure observance :-
It were not for your quiet, nor your good,
Nor for my manhood, honesty or wisdom,
To let you know my thoughts.

Oth. What dost thou mean?

Iago. Good name, in man and woman, dear
my lord,

Is the immediate jewel of their souls:
Who steals my purse, steals trash; 'tis something,

'Twas mine,'tis his, and has been slave to thousands;
But he, that filches from me my good name,
Robs me of that, which not enriches him,
And makes me poor indeed.

Oth. By heaven, I'll know thy thought.
Iago. You cannot, if my heart were in your

Nor shall not, whilst 'tis in my custody.

(th. Ha!


Iago. O, beware, my lord, of jealousy;
It is the green-ey'd monster, which doth mock'
The meat it feeds on: That cuckold lives in bliss,
Who, certain of his fate, loves not his wronger;
But,O,what damned minutes tells he o'er, [loves!
Who dotes, yet doubts; suspects, yet strongly
Oth. O misery!

Iago. Poor,and content, is rich, and rich enough;
But riches, fineless, is as poor as winter,
To him that ever fears he shall be poor :-
Good heaven, the souls of all my tribe defend
From jealousy!

Oth. Why? why is this?

Tosay-my wife is fair, feeds well, loves company,
is free of speech, sings, plays, and dances well;
Where virtue is, these are more virtuous;
Nor from mine own weak merits will I draw
The smallest fear, or doubt of her revolt;
For she had eyes, and chose me: No, Iago;
15'll see, before I doubt; when I doubt, prove;
And, on the proof, there is no more but this,-
Away at once with love, or jealousy.


Iago. I am glad of this; for now I shall have
To shew the love and duty that I bear you
20 With franker spirit: therefore, as I am bound,
Receive it from me:-I speak not yet of proof.
Look to your wife; observe her well with Cassio;
Wear your eye-thus, not jealous, nor secure :
I would not have your free and noble nature,
25 Out of self-bounty', be abus'd; look to 't:
I know our country disposition well;
In Venice they do let heaven see the pranks
They dare not shew their husbands; their best


30 Is-not to leave undone, but keep unknown. Oth. Dost thou say so?




Iago. She did deceive her father, marrying you; And, when she seem'd toshake,and fear your looks," She lov'd them most'.

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'The poet's meaning is, "Who has a breast so little apt to form ill opinions of others, but that foul suspicions will sometimes mix with his fairest and most candid thoughts, and erect a court in his mind, to enquire of the offences apprehended?" i. e. am apt to put the worst construction on every thing. 3i. e. loaths that which nourishes and sustains it. This being a miserable state, lago bids him beware of it. * i. e. unbounded, endless, unnumbered treasures. "The allusion is to a bubble. 6 Self-bounty, for inherent generosity. 'Dr. Johnson observes, that "this and the following argument of lago ought to be deeply impressed on every reader. Deceit and falsehood, whatever conveniencies they may for a time promise or produce, are, in the sum of life, obstacles to happiness. Those who profit by the cheat, distrust the deceiver; and the act by which kindness was sought, puts an end to confidence. The same objection may be made with a lower degree of strengthagainst the imprudent generosity of disproportionate marriages. When the first heat of passion is over, it is easily succeeded by suspicion, that the same violence of inclination, which caused one irregularity, may stimulate to another; and those who have shewn, that their passions are too powerful for their prudence, will, with very slight appearances against them, be censured, as not very likely to restrain them by their virtue." Close as oak, means, close as the grain of the oak: To seel is an expression taken from falconry. I am

3Y 3

I am to pray you not to strain my speech
To grosser issues', nor to larger reach,
Than to suspicion.

Oth. I will not.

Iago. Should you do so, my lord,

My speech should fall into such vile success 2
As my thoughts aim not at. Cassio's my worthy

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My lord, I see you are mov'd.

Oth. No, not much mov'd:

I do not think but Desdemona's honest.

Iago. Long live she so! and long live you to think so!

Oth. And yet, how nature erring from itself,—

And knows all qualities, with a learned' spirit,
Of human dealings: If I do prove her haggard®,
Though that her jesses' were my dear heart-strings,
I'd whistle her off, and let her down the wind,
5 To prey at fortune 10, Haply, for I am black;
And have not those soft parts of conversation
That chamberers" have: Or, for I am declin'd
Into the vale of years;—yet that's not much;-
gone; I am abus'd; and my relief
10 Must be to loath her. O curse of marriage,
That we can call these delicate creatures ours,
And not their appetites! I had rather be a toad,
And live upon the vapour of a dungeon,
Than keep a corner in the thing I love,

Iago. Ay, there's the point: As,-to be bold 15 For others' uses. Yet, 'tis the plague of great ones;

with you,

Not to affect many proposed matches,

Of her own clime, complexion, and degree;
Whereto, we see, in all things nature tends :
Foh! one may smell, in such, a will most rank 3,
Foul disproportion, thoughts unnatural.-
But pardon me; I do not, in position,
Distinctly speak of her: though I may fear,
Her will, recoiling to her better judgement,


May fall to match you with her country forms,
And (happily) repent.


Oth. Farewell, farewell:

If more thou dost perceive, let me know more;
Set on thy wife to observe: Leave me, Iago.
Iago. My lord, I take my leave.
Oth. Why did I marry?—This honest creature,

[Going. 30


Sees and knows more, much more, than he un-
Iago. My lord,-I would, I might entreat your

To scan this thing no further; leave it to time:
And though it be fit that Cassio have his place,
(For, sure, he fills it up with great ability)
Yet, if you please to hold him off a while,
You shall by that perceive him and his means:
Note, if your lady strain his entertainment »
With any strong, or vehement importunity;
Much will be seen in that. In the mean time,
Let me be thought too busy in my fears,
(As worthy cause I have, to fear-I am)
And hold her free, I do beseech your honour.
Oth. Fear not my government.
Jago, I once more take my leave.
Oth. This fellow's of exceeding honesty,



2 Iago means,


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Oth. Your napkin 1 is too little;

[She drops her handkerchief, 35 Let it alone. Come, I'll go in with you. Des. I am very sorry that you are not well. [Exeunt Des. and Oth,

Emil. I am glad, I have found this napkin; This was her first remembrance from the Moor: 40 My wayward husband hath a hundred times

Woo'd me to steal it; but she so loves the token,
(For he conjur'd her, she should ever keep it)
That she reserves it evermore about her,
To kiss and talk to. I'll have the work ta'en out,
45 And give it Iago:

What he 'll do with it, heaven knows, not I;
I nothing but to please his phantasy.

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1 Issues, for conclusions. attended by such infamous degree of success, as my thoughts do not even aim at." "Should you do so, my lord, my words would be is self-will overgrown and exuberant. A rank will, i. e. You shall discover whether he thinks his best means, his most powerful interest, is by the solicitation of your lady. i. e. press hard his re-admission to pay and office.-Entertainment was the military term for admission of soldiers. distrust my ability to contain my passion. • i. e. do not 'Learned, for experienced. wild hawk, a hawk difficult to be reclaim'd.-It appears also, that haggard was a term of reproach'someA haggard hawk is a times applied to a wanton. "Jesses are short straps of leather tied about the foot of a hawk, by which she is held on the fist. 10 Dr. Johnson observes, that the falconers always let fly the hawk against the wind; if she flies with the wind behind her, she seldom returns. If therefore a hawk was for any reason to be dismissed, she was let down the wind, and from that time shifted for herself, and prey'd at fortune. "i. e. men of intrigue. 12 In allusion, according to Dr. Johnson, to a barbed or forked arrow, which, once infixed, cannot be extracted. Or, according to Dr. Percy, the forked plague may mean the cuckold's horns. "The generous islanders are the islanders of rank, distinction. 14 i. e. your pocket-handkerchief.


Amil. Do not you chide; I have a thing for [mon thing.


Jago. You have a thing for me?-It is a com

Amil. Ha!

Iago. To have a foolish wife.

For that same handkerchief?

[now 5

Emil. O, is that all? what will you give me

Iago. What handkerchief?

Emil. What handkerchief?

Farewell the neighing steed, and the shrill trump,
The spirit-stirring drum, the ear-piercing fife,
The royal banner; and all quality,

Pride, pomp, and circumstance of glorious war!
And O you mortal engines, whose rude throats
The immortal Jove's dread clamours counterfeit,
Farewell! Othello's occupation's gone!

Iago. Is it possible?-My lord,

Oth. Villain, be sure thou prove my love a whore;

Why, that the Moor first gave to Desdemona; 10 Be sure of it; give me the ocular proof;

That which so often you did bid me steal.

Jago. Hast stolen it from her?

Amil. No; but she let it drop by negligence;
And, to the advantage, I, being here, took it up'.
Look, here it is.

Jago. A good wench; give it me.
Emil. What will you do with it, that you have
been so earnest

To have me filch it?


Jago. Why, what is that to you? [Snatching it. 20 Amil. If it be not for some purpose of import, Give it me again: Poor lady! she'll run mad, When she shall lack it.

Iago. Be not you known on 't; I have use for it.
Go, leave me.
[Exit Emil. 25

I will in Cassio's lodging lose this napkin,
And let him find it: Trifles, light as air,
Are, to the jealous, confirmations strong
As proofs of holy writ. This may do something.
The Moor already changes with my poison:
Dangerous conceits are, in their natures, poisons,
Which, at the first, are scarce found to distaste;}
But, with a little act upon the blood,
Burn like the mines of sulphur.-I did say so:-
Enter Othello.

Look, where he comes! Not poppy, nor man-

Nor all the drowsy syrups of the world,
Shall ever med'cine thee to that sweet sleep
Which thou ow'dst' yesterday.

Oth. Ha! ha! false to me? to me?

lago. Why, how now, general? no more of that.
Oth. Avaunt! be gone! thou hast set me on the

I swear, 'tis better to be much abus'd,
Than but to know a little.

Iago. How now, my lord?


[Catching hold on him.
Or, by the worth of mine eternal soul,
Thou hadst been better have been born a dog,
Than answer my wak'd wrath.

Iago. Is it come to this?

Oth. Make me to see it; or (at the least) so prove it,

That the probation bear no hinge, nor loop,
To hang a doubt on: or, woe upon thy life!
lago. My noble lord,-

Oth. If thou dost slander her, and torture me,
Never pray more: abandon all remorse *;
On horror's head horrors accumulate;

Do deeds to make heaven weep, all earth amaz'd;
For nothing canst thou to danination add,
Greater than that.

Iago. O grace! O heaven defend me!

Are you a man? have you a soul, or sense?—
God be wi' you; take mine office.—O wretched


That liv'st to make thine honesty a vice!—
O monstrous world! Take note, take note, O
To be direct and honest, is not safe.— [world,

I thank you for this profit: and, from hence, 35I'll love no friend, sith love breeds such offence,

Oth. Nay, stay:-Thou should'st be honest. Iago. I should be wise; for honesty's a fool, And loses that it works for.

Oth. By the world,

40I think my wife be honest, and think she is not;
I think that thou art just, and think thou art not;
I'll have some proof: Her name, that was as fresh
As Dian's visage, is now begrim'd and black
As mine own face. If there be cords, or knives,
45 Poison, or fire, or suffocating streams,

Oth. What sense had I of her stolen hours of lust?
I saw it not, thought it not, it harm'd not me:
I slept the next night well, was free, and merry;50
I found not Cassio's kisses on her lips:
He that is robb'd, not wanting what is stolen,
Let him not know it, and he's not robb'd at all.
lago. I am sorry to hear this.

Oth. I had been happy, if the general camp,
Pioneers and all, had tasted her sweet body,
So I had nothing known: O now, for ever,
Farewell the tranquil mind! farewell content!
Farewell the plumed troop, and the big wars,
That make ambition virtue! O, farewell!

1i. e. I being opportunely here, took it quality, and the ancients used it when they possessedst, or hadst. i. e. pity.

a tup.

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Jago. And may; But, how? how satisfied, my Would you, the supervisor, grossly gape on? Behold her tupp'd?

Oth. Death and damnation! O!

Iago. It were a tedious difficulty, I think,

To bring 'em to that prospect: Damn them then,

If ever mortal eyes do see them bolster,
More than their own! What then? how then?
What shall I say? Where's satisfaction?
60 It is impossible, you should see this,

2 The mandragoras, or mandrake, has a soporific
wanted an opiate of the most powerful kind.
A ram, in Staffordshire and some other counties, is called



Were they as prime as goats, as hot as monkeys,
As salt as wolves in pride, and fools as gross
As ignorance made drunk. But yet, I say,
If imputation, and strong circumstances,
Which lead directly to the door of truth,-
Will give you satisfaction, you might have it.
Oth. Give me a living reason that she's dis-
Iago. I do not like the office:
But, sith I am enter'd in this cause so far,-
Prick'd to it by foolish honesty, and love,-
I will go on. I lay with Cassio lately;
And, being troubled with a raging tooth,
I could not sleep.


There are a kind of men so loose of soul,
That in their sleeps will mutter their affairs;
One of this kind is Cassio:

In sleep I heard him say,-Sweet Desdemona,
Let us be wary, let us hide our loves!

And then, sir, would he gripe, and wring my hand;
Cry,-O sweet creature! and then kiss me hard,
As if he pluck'd up kisses by the roots,
That grew upon my lips: then lay his leg
Over my thigh, and sigh, and kiss; and then
Cry,-Cursed fate! that gave thee to the Moor!
Oth. O monstrous! monstrous!
lago. Nay, this was but his dream.

Oth. But this denoted a foregone conclusion3; 'Tis a shrewd doubt, though it be but a dream. lago. And this may help to thicken other proofs, That do demonstrate thinly.

Oth. I'll tear her all to pieces. Iago. Nay, but be wise; yet we see nothing done;

She may be honest yet. Tell me but this, Have you not sometimes seen a handkerchief, Spotted with strawberries, in your wife's hand?

Oth. I gave her such a one; 'twas my first gift. Iago. I know not that: but such a handkerchief (I am sure, it was your wife's) did I to-day See Cassio wipe his beard with.

Oth. If it be that,—

Jago. If it be that, or any, if 'twas hers, It speaks against her, with the other proofs,

Oth. O, that the slave had forty thousand lives; One is too poor, too weak for my revenge! Now do I see 'tis true.-Look here, Iago; All my fond love thus do I blow to heaven: 'Tis gone.

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Oth. I greet thy love,


Not with vain thanks, but with acceptance boun-
And will upon the instant put thee to 't:
Within these three days let me hear thee say,
That Cassio 's not alive.

[quest: Iago. My friend is dead; 'tis done at your reBut let her live.

Oth. Damn her, lewd minx! O, damn her! Come, go with me apart; I will withdraw, 25 To furnish me with some swift means of death For the fair devil. Now art thou my lieutenant, Iago. I am your own for ever. [Excunt.



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Clown. I dare not say, he lies any where.
Des. Why, man?

Clown. He's a soldier; and for me to say a soldier lies, is stabbing.

Des. Go to; Where lodges he?

Clown. To tell you where he lodges, is to tell you where I lie.

Des. Can any thing be made of this?

Clown. I know not where he lodges; and for me to devise a lodging, and say-he lies here, or 45 he lies there, were to lie in mine own throat.

Arise, black vengeance, from thy hollow cell!
Yield up, O love, thy crown, and hearted throne, 50
Totyrannous hate! swell, bosom, with thy fraught,
Fortis for aspicks' tongues!

Iago. Pray, be content.

Oth. O, blood, Iago, blood!


Iago. Patience, I say; your mind, perhaps, may 55
Oth. Never, Iago: Like to the Pontic sea,
Whose icy current and compulsive course
Ne'er feels retiring ebb, but keeps due on

Des. Can you enquire him out? and be edify'd by report?

Clown. I will catechize the world for him; that is, make questions, and make them answer.

Des. Seek him, bid him come hither: tell him, I have mov'd my lord in his behalf, and hope, all will be well.

Clown. To do this is within the compass of man's wit; and therefore I will attempt the doing of it. [Exit, Des. Where should I lose that handkerchief, Emilia? Emil. I know not, madam.

Prime is prompt, from the Celtic or British prim.

! Conj. e. swell,

2 Living for speaking, manifest. clusion, for fact. * Hearted throne, is the heart on which thou wast enthroned. because the draught is of poison. i. e. ample; capacious. 'Mr. Tollet explains this passage thus: "Let him command any bloody business, and to obey shall be in me an act of pity and compassion for wrong'd Othello.-Remorse frequently signifies pity, mercy, compassion; or a tender, ness of heart, unattended with the stings of a guilty conscience,


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