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That my disports corrupt and taint my business,
Let housewives make a skillet of my helin,
And all indign and base adversities
Make head against my estimation!

Duke. Be it as you shall privately determine, 5
Either for her stay,orgoing: the affair cries-haste,
And speed must answer it; you must hence to-night.
Des. To-night, my
Duke. This night.
Oth. With all my heart.

[again. Duke. At nine i' the morning here we'll meet Othello, leave some officer behind,

And he shall our commission bring to you;
And such things else of quality and respect,
As doth import you.

Oth. Please your grace, my ancient;
A man he is of honesty, and trust:
To his conveyance I assign my wife,

With what else needful your good grace shall think
To be sent after me.

Duke. Let it be so.

Good night to every one.-And, noble signior,

[To Brab.

If virtue no delighted' beauty lack,
Your son-in-law is far more fair than black.
Sen. Adieu, brave Moor! use Desdemona well.
Bra. Look to her, Moor; have a quick eye to

She has deceiv'd her father, and may thee.
[Exeunt Duke and Senators.
Oth. My life upon her faith.-Honest Iago,
My Desdemona must I leave to thee:
I pr'ythee, let thy wife attend on her;
And bring them after in the best advantage2.-
Come, Desdemona; I have but an hour
Of love, of worldly matter and direction,
To spend with thee: we must obey the time.
[Exeunt Othello, and Desdemona.

Rod. Iago,-
Iago. What say'st thou, noble heart?
Rod. What will I do, think'st thou ?
Jago. Why, go to bed, and sleep.

Rod. I will incontinently drown myself. Iago. Well, if thou dost, I shall never love thee after it. Why, thou silly gentleman!

Rod. It is silliness to live, when to live is a torment: and then have we a prescription to die when death is our physician.

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Iago. Virtue? a fig! 'tis in ourselves, that we are thus, or thus. Our bodies are our gardens; to the which, our wills are gardeners: so that if we will plant nettles, or sow lettuce; set hyssop, and weed up thyme; supply it with one gender of herbs, or distract it with many; either have it sterile with idleness, or manur'd with industry; why, the 10 power and corrigible authority of this lies in our wills. If the balance of our lives had not one scale of reason to poise another of sensuality, the blood and baseness of our natures would conduct us to most preposterous conclusions: But we have rea15son, to cool our raging motions, our carnal stings, our unbitted lusts; whereof I take this, that you call-love, to be a sect* or scyon.

Rod. It cannot be.



lago. It is merely a lust of the blood, and a 20 permission of the will. Come, be a man: Drown thyself? drown cats, and blind puppies. I have profess'd me thy friend, and I confess me knit to thy deserving with cables of perdurabletoughness; I could never better stead thee than now. 25 money in thy purse: follow thou these wars; defeat thy favour with an usurped beard: I say, put money in thy purse. It cannot be, that Desdemona should long continue her love to the Moor, -put money in thy purse;-nor he his to her: it 30 was a violent commencement in her, and thou shalt see an answerable sequestration ';-put but money in thy purse. These Moors are changeable in their wills;-fill thy purse with money: the food that to him now is as luscious as locusts, shall 35 be to him shortly as bitter as coloquintida. She must change for youth: when she is sated with his body, she will find the error of her choice.— She must have change, she must therefore put money in thy purse. If thou wilt needs damn 40 thyself, do it a more delicate way than drowning. Make all the money thou canst: If sanctimony and a frail vow, betwixt an erring Barbarian and a super-subtle Venetian, be not too hard for my wits, and all the tribe of hell, thou shalt enjoy her; 45 therefore make money. A pox of drowning thyself! it is clean out of the way: seek thou rather to be hang'd in compassing thy joy, than to be drown'd and go without her.

Iago. O villainous! I have look'd upon the world for four times seven years: and since I could 50 distinguish betwixt a benefit and an injury, I never found man that knew how to love himself. Ere I would say, I would drown myself for the love of a Guinea hen, I would change my humanity with a baboon.


Rod. What should I do? I confess, it is my

Rod. Wilt thou be fast to my hopes, if I depend on the issue?

Jago. Thou art sure of me;-Go, make money: I have told thee often, and I re-tell thee again and again, I hate the Moor: My cause is hearted; thine hath no less reason: Let us be conjunctive 55 in our revenge against him: if thou canst cuckold him, thou dost thyself a pleasure, and me a sport.

Delighted, for delighting, or delightful.-Shakspeare often uses the active and passive participles indiscriminately.

for a prostitute.

is to undo, to change.

i. e. fairest opportunity.


A Guinea-hen was anciently the cant term
A sect is what the more modern gardeners call a cutting.
› To defeat,
The poet probably here uses sequestration for sequel.-Sequestration,
The fruit of the locust-tree is a long black pod,

however, may mean no more than separation.

which contains the reeds, among which there is a very sweet luscious juice, of much the same consistency as fresh honey,


There are many events in the womb of time,
which will be delivered. Traverse; go; provide
thy money. We will have more of this to-mor-
row. Adieu.

Rod. Where shall we meet i' the morning?
Jago. At my lodging.

Rod. I'll be with thee betimes.

Jago. Go to; farewell. Do you hear, Roderigo?
Rod. What say you?


He has done my office: I know not, if't be true;
But I for mere suspicion in that kind,

Will do, as if for surety. He holds me well;
The better shall my purpose work on him.
Cassio's a proper inan: Let me see now;
To get his place, and to plume up my will,
A double knavery,-How? how!-Let me see:-
After some time, to abuse Othello's ear,
That he is too familiar with his wife :-
10 He hath a person, and a smooth dispose,
To be suspected; fram'd to make women false.
The Moor is of a free and open nature,
That thinks men honest, that but seem to be so;
And will as tenderly be led by the nose,
As asses are.

Jago. No more of drowning, do you hear? Rod. I am chang'd. I'll go sell all my land. Iago. Go to; farewell; put money enough in [Exit Roderigo. your purse. Thus do I ever make my fool my purse: For I mine own gain'd knowledge should profane, 15 If I should time expend with such a snipe, But for my sport, and profit. I hate the Moor; And it is thought abroad, that 'twixt my


I have 't; it is engender'd: Hell and night Must bring this monstrous birth to the world's light,


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The Capital of Cyprus.

A Platform.

Enter Montano, and two Gentlemen.

at sea?

Mont. How! is this true?

3 Gent. The ship is here put in, 30 A Veronese': Michael Cassio,

Mont, WHAT from the cape can you discern
1 Gent. Nothing at all: it is a high-wrought 35
I cannot, 'twixt the heaven and the main,
Descry a sail.

Mont. Methinks, the wind hath spoke aloud at
A fuller blast ne'er shook our battlements:
If it hath ruffian'd so upon the sea,
What ribs of oak, when mountains melt on them,
Can hold the mortice? What shall we hear of this?
2 Gent. A segregation of the Turkish fleet:
For do but stand upon the foaming shore,
The chiding billow seems to pelt the clouds;
The wind-shak'd surge, with high and monstrous
Seems to cast water on the burning bear, [main,
And quench the guards of the ever-fixed pole':
I never did like molestation yiew

On the enchafed flood.

Mont. If that the Turkish fleet

Be not inshelter'd, and embay'd,they are drown'd;}
It is impossible they bear it out.

Enter a third Gentleman.

3 Gent. News, lords! our wars are done: The desperate tempest hath so bang'd the Turks, That their designment halts: A noble ship of


Hath seen a grievous wreck and sufferance
On most part of their fleet.

Alluding to the star Arctophylax.


Lieutenant to the warlike Moor, Othello,
Is come on shore; the Moor himself's at sea,
And is in full commission here for Cyprus.

Mont. I am glad on 't; 'tis a worthy governor,
3 Gent. But this same Cassio,-though he speak
of comfort,

Touching the Turkish loss,-yet he looks sadly,
And prays the Moor be safe; for they were parted
With foul and violent tempest,

Mont. Pray heaven he be;

For I have serv'd him, and the man conmands
Like a full soldier. Let's to the sea-side, ho!
As well to see the vessel that's come in,

As to throw out our eyes for brave Othello;
45 Even 'till we make the main, and the aërial blue,
An indistinct regard,


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Mont. Is he well shipp'd?

Cas. His bark is stoutly timber'd, and his pilot

Of very expert and approv'd allowance';

Therefore my hopes, not surfeited to death,
Stand in bold cure *,


[Within,] A sail, a sail, a sail!

2 By a Veronese, a ship of Verona is denoted. Expert

and approv'd allowance, is put for allow'd and approv'd expertness.

The meaning, Mr. Steevens

thinks, is, Therefore, my hopes, not being destroy'd by their own excess, but being reasonable and moderate, are likely to be fulfilled.


Cas. What noise?

Gent. The town is empty; on the brow o' the sea
Stand ranks of people, and they cry—a sail.
Cas. My hopes do shape him for the governor.
Gent. They do discharge their shot of courtesy ; 5
Our friends, at least.
[Guns heard.

Cas. I pray you, sir, go forth,

And give us truth who 'tis that is arrived.
Gent. I shall.


Mont. But, good lieutenant, is your general 10

Cas. Most fortunately: he hath atchiev'd a maid
That paragons description, and wild fame;
One that excels the quirks of blazoning pens,
And, in the essential vesture of creation,
Does bear all excellency'. How now? who has
put in?

Re-enter Gentleman.

Jago. Sir, would she give you so much of he


As of her tongue she oft bestows on me,
You'd have enough.

Des. Alas, she has no speech.
Iago. In faith, too much;

I find it still, when I have list to sleep;
Marry, before your ladyship, I grant,
She puts her tongue a little in her heart,
And chides with thinking.

Emil. You have little cause to say so.
Iago. Come on, come on; you are pictures out
of doors,

Bells in your parlours, wild cats in your kitchens, 15 Saints in your injuries, devils being offended, Players in your housewifery, and housewives in your beds.

Gent. 'Tis one lago, ancient to the general.
Cas. He has had most favourable and happy 20

Tempeststhemselves,high seas, and howlingwinds,
The gutter'd rocks, and congregated sands,—
Traitors ensteep'd to clog the guiltless keel,—
As having sense of beauty, do omit
Their mortal natures, letting go safely by
The divine Desdemona.

Mont. What is she?


Cas. She that I spake of, our great captain's
Left in the conduct of the bold lago;
Whose footing here anticipates our thoughts,
A se'nnight's speed.-Great Jove, Othello guard,
And swell his sail with thine own powerful breath;
That he may bless this bay with his tall ship,
Make love's quick pants in Desdemona's arms,
Give renew'd fire to our extincted spirits,
And bring all Cyprus comfort!-O, behold,
Enter Desdemona, Iago, Roderigo, and Æmilia.
The riches of the ship is come on shore !—
Ye men of Cyprus, let her have your knees:
Jail to thee, lady! and the grace of heaven,
Before, behind thee, and on every hand,
Enwheel thee round!

Des. I thank you, valiant Cassio.
What tidings can you tell me of my lord?

Cas. He is not yet arriv'd; nor know I aught
But that he 's well, and will be shortly here.

Des. O, but I fear;-How lost you company?
Cas. The great contention of the sea and skies
Parted our fellowship: But, hark! a sail.
[Within.] A sail, à sail!






150 [Guns heard.

Gent. They give this greeting to the citadel; This likewise is a friend.

Cas. See for the news. [An attendant goes out. Good ancient, you are welcome ;- -Welcome, 55 mistress. [To Amilia. Let not it gall your patience, good lago, That I extend my manners; 'tis my breeding That gives me this bold shew of courtesy.

Des. O, fie upon thee, slanderer!

Iago. Nay, it is true, or else I am a Turk;
You rise to play, and go to bed to work.
Emil. You shall not write my praise.
Iago. No, let me not.

Des. What would'st thou write of me, if thou
should praise me?

Iago. O gentle lady, do not put me to 't;
For I am nothing, if not critical'.

Des. Come on, assay:There's one gone to
the harbour.

Iago. Ay, madam.

Des. I am not merry; but I do beguile
The thing I am, by seeming otherwise.-
Come, how would'st thou praise me?

Iago. I am about it; but, indeed, my invention
It plucks out brains and all: But my muse labours,
Comes from my pate, as bird-lime does from frize,

And thus she is deliver'd:

If she be fair and wise,-fairness, and wit,
The one's for use, the other useth it.
Des. Well prais'd! How if she be black and


Iago. If she be black, and thereto have a wit, She'll find a white that shall her blackness fit.

Des. Worse and worse.

Emil. How, if fair and foolish?

Iago. She never yet was foolish that was fair; For even her folly help'd her to an heir. Des. These are old fond paradoxes, to make fools laugh i' the alchouse. What miserable praise hast thou for her that's foul and foolish? Iago. There's none so foul, and foolish thereunto, But does foul pranks which fair and wise ones do.

Des. O heavy ignorance!-thou praisest the worst best. But what praise could'st thou bestow on a deserving woman indeed? one, that, in the authority of her merit, did justly put on the vouch [Kisses her. 60 of very malice itself1?

That is, She excels the praises of invention, and in real (the author seeming to use essential for real) qualities, with which creation has invested her, bears all excellency. 2 That is, censorious. 'Dr. Johnson says, To put on the vouch of malice, is to assume a character vouched by the testimony of malice itself.

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She that, being anger'd, her revenge being
Bade her wrong stay, and her displeasure

She that in wisdom never was so frail,
To change the cod's head for the salmon's 10
tail 1;
She that could think,and ne'er disclose her
See suitors following, and not look behind;
She was a wight,-if ever such wight|


Des. To do what?.

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Oth. Come, let us to the castle.-
News, friends; our wars are done, the Turks are

How do our old acquaintance of this isle?—
Honey, you shall be well desir'd in Cyprus,
I have found great love amongst them.O mysweet,
I prattle out of fashion, and I dote
In mine own comforts.-I pr'ythee, good Iago,
15 Go to the bay, and disembark my coffers:
Bring thou the master to the citadel;
He is a good one, and his worthiness [mona,
Does challenge much respect.-Come, Desde-
Once more well met at Cyprus.

lago. Tosuckle fools, and chronicle small beer'. Des. O most lame and impotent conclusion !Do not learn of him, Emilía, though he be thy husband.-How say you, Cassio? is he not a most 20 profane and liberal counsellor?


Cas. He speaks home, madam; you may relish him more in the soldier, than in the scholar.


Iago. [Aside.] He takes her by the palm: Ay, well said, whisper: with as little a web as this, 25 will I ensnare as great a fly as Cassio. smile upon her, do; I will gyve' thee in thine own courtship. You say true; 'tis so, indeed : if such tricks as these strip you out of your lieutenantry, it had been better you had not kiss'd your 30 three fingers so oft, which now again you are most apt to play the sir in. Very good; well kiss'd! an excellent courtesy! 'tis so indeed. Yet again your fingers to your lips? 'would, they were clyster-pipes for your sake!- [Trumpet. 35 The Moor, I know his trumpet.

Cas. 'Tis truly so.

Des. Let's meet him, and receive him. Cas. Lo, where he comes!

Enter Othello, and Attendants.

Oth. O my fair warrior!

Des. My dear Othello!

Oth. It gives me wonder great as my content,
To see you here before me. O my soul's joy!
If after every tempest come such calmness,
May the winds blow till they have waken'd death!
And let the labouring bark climb hills of seas,
Olympus high; and duck again as low

As hell's from heaven! If it were now to die,
'Twere now to be most happy; for, I fear,
My soul hath her content so absolute,
That not another comfort like to this
Succeeds in unknown fate.

Des. The heavens forbid,

But that our loves and comforts should increase, Even as our days do grow!

Oth. Amen to that, sweet powers !→→→→ I cannot speak enough of this content, It stops me here; it is too much of joy;

1i. e. to exchange a delicacy for coarser fare.

gross of language, of expression broad and brutal.

[Exeunt Othello, Desdemona, and Attendants. Jugo. Do thou meet me presently at the harbour. Come hither. If thou be'st valiant; as (they say) base men, being in love, have then a nobility in their natures more than is native to them,-list me. The lieutenant to-night watches on the court of guard':-First, I must tell thee this, -Desdemona is directly in love with him. Rod. With him! Why, 'tis not possible. Iugo. Lay thy finger-thus, and let thy soul be instructed. Mark me with what violence she first lov'd the Moor, but for bragging, and telling her fantastical lies: And will she love him still for prating? let not thy discreet heart think it. Her eye must be fed; and what delight shall she have to look on the devil? When the blood is made dull with the act of sport, there should be,~~ again to inflame it, and to give satiety a fresh appetite,-loveliness in favour; sympathy in years, manners, and beauties; all which the Moor is de40fective in: Now, for want of these required conveniences, her delicate tenderness will find itself abus'd, begin to heave the gorge, disrelish and abhor the Moor; very nature will instruct her in it, and compel her to some second choice. Now, 45 sir, this granted, (as it is a most pregnant and unforc'd position,) who stands so eminently in the degree of this fortune, as Cassio does; a knave very voluble; no farther conscionable, than in putting on the mere form of civil and humane 50 seeming, for the better compassing of his salt and most hidden loose affection? Why, none; why, none: A slippery and subtle knave; a finder out of occasions; that has an eye can stamp and counterfeit advantages, though true advantage never 55 present itself: A devilish knave! Besides, the knave is handsome, young; and hath all those requisites in him, that folly and green minds' look after: A pestilent complete knave; and the wo man hath found him already.

2 i. e. to keep the accounts of a household.

i. e. * i. e. a licentious talker. 'i. e. catch, shackle. i. e. out of method, without any settled order of discourse. 'i. e. the place where the guard musters. i. e. on thy mouth, to stop it while thou art listening to a wiser mau. • Minds not yet fully formed.


Rod. I cannot believe that in her; she is full of

most bless'd condition'.

Iago. Bless'd figs' end! the wine she drinks is made of grapes: if she had been bless'd, she would never have lov'd the Moor: Bless'd pudding! Didst thou not see her paddle in the palm of his hand? didst not mark that?


Rod. Yes, that I did; but that was but courtesy. Iago. Lechery, by this hand! an index, and obscure prologue to the history of lust and foul 10 thoughts. They met so near with their lips, that their breaths embrac'd together. Villainous thoughts, Roderigo! When these mutualities so marshal the way, hard at hand comes the master and main exercise, the incorporate conclusion:15 Pish!-But, sir, be you rul'd by me: I have brought you from Venice. Watch you to-night; for the command, I'll lay't upon you: Cassio knows you not; I'll not be far from you: Do find some occasion to anger Cassio, either by speaking 20 too loud, or tainting his discipline; or from what other course you please, which the time shall more favourably minister.

Rod. Well.


Iago. Sir, he is rash, and very sudden in 25 choler; and, haply, with his truncheon maystrike at you: Provoke him, that he may: for, even out of that, will I cause these of Cyprus to mutiny; whose qualification shall come into no true taste again, but by the displanting of Cassio. So shall you 30 have a shorter journey to your desires, by the means I shall then have to prefer them; and the impediment most profitably removed, without the which there were no expectation of our prosperity. 35

Rod. I will do this, if you can bring it to any opportunity.

lago. I warrant thee. Meet me by-and-by at the citadel: I must fetch his necessaries ashore. Farewell.


Rod. Adieu.
Jago. That Cassio loves her, I do well believe it;
That she loves him, 'tis apt, and of great credit:
The Moor-howbeit that I endure him not,-
Is of a constant, loving, noble nature;
And, I dare think, he'll prove to Desdemona
A most dear husband. Now I do love her too;
Not out of absolute lust, (though, peradventure,
I stand accountant for as great a sin)
But partly led to diet my revenge,
For that I do suspect the lusty Moor
Hath leap'd into my seat: The thought whereof
Doth, like a poisonous mineral, gnaw iny inwards:
And nothing can or shall content my soul,
'Till I am even with him, wife for wife;



Or, failing so, yet that I put the Moor
At least into a jealousy so strong

That judgement cannot cure. Which thing to do,-
If this poor trash of Venice, whom I trash'
For his quick hunting, stand the putting on,
I'll have our Michael Cassio on the hip
Abuse him to the Moor in the rank garb
For I fear Cassio with my night-cap too;
Make the Moor thank me, love me, and reward me,
For making him egregiously an ass,
And practising upon his peace and quiet
Even to madness. 'Tis here, but yet confus'd;
Knavery's plain face is never seen, 'till us'd. [Exit

A Street.

Enter Herald, with a proclamation.


Her. It is Othello's pleasure, our noble and valiant general, that, upon certain tidings now arriv'd,importing the mere perdition of the Turkish fleet, every man put himself into triumph; some to dance, some to make bonfires, each man to what sport and revels his addiction leads him; for, besides these beneficial news, it is the celebration of his nuptials: So much was his pleasure should be proclaimed. All offices are open; and there is full liberty of feasting, from this present hour of five, 'till the bell hath told eleven. Heaven bless the isle of Cyprus, and our noble general Othello! [Exit.

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[love: 45 Let me have speech with you.-Come, my dear The purchase made, the fruits are to ensue ; [To Desdemona. That profit's yet to come 'twixt me and you.Good night. [Exeunt Othello and Desdemona. Enter Iago.


Cas. Welcome, Iago: We must to the watch. Jago. Not this hour, lieutenant; 'tis not yet ten o'clock: Our general cast us " thus early, for the 55 love of his Desdemona: whom let us not there.

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1i. e. qualities, disposition of mind. 2 Indexes were formerly prefixed to books. i. e. throwing a slur upon his discipline. Sudden, is precipitately violent. i. e. whose resentment shall not be so qualified or tempered, as to be well tasted, as not to retain some bitterness. A trifling, insignifi cant fellow may, in some respects, very well be called trash. 'To trash a hound is a term of hunting still used in the North, and perhaps not uncommon in other parts of England. It is, to correct, to rate. A phrase from the art of wrestling. Rank garb may mean grossly, i. e. without mincing the matter. 10 Mere in this place signifies entire. "That is, appointed us to our stations, according to Dr. Johnson; whereas Mr. Steevens thinks, that cast us only means dismissed us, or got rid of our company.

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