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tify the royal favour, enabled the easy and indolent Other. The last is peculiarly valuable, as the promonarch to rid himself of clamorous applicants for duction of a man who to a sound and vigorous unfuture lucrative offices in England, by referring them derstanding added rare knowledge of the world, to one who had greater ability to resist solicitation and much experience of life, both active and retired. with firmness. Of the four confidential counsellors He strongly maintains the superiority of an active by whose advice Charles was almost exclusively course, as having the greater tendency to promote directed after the death of Oliver Cromwell, Hyde not only the happiness and usefulness, but also the 'bore the greatest share of business, and was be- virtue, of the individual. Man, says he is not sent lieved to possess the greatest influence. The mea- into the world only to have a being to breathe till sures he recommended were tempered with sagacity, nature extinguisheth that breath, and reduceth that prudence, and moderation.' “The chancellor was miserable creature to the nothing he was before: he a witness of the Restoration; he was with Charles at is sent upon an errand, and to do the business of Canterbury in his progress to London, followed his life; he hath faculties given him to judge between triumphal entry to the capital, and took his seat on good and evil, to cherish and foment the first motions the first of June (1660) as speaker of the House of he feels towards the one, and to subdue the first Lords: he also sat on the same day in the Court of temptations to the other; he hath not acted his Chancery.' In the same year his daughter became part in doing no harm; his duty is not only to do the wife of the Duke of York, by which marriage good and to be innocent himself, but to propagate Hyde was rendered a progenitor of two queens of virtue, and to make others better than they would England, Mary and Anne. At the coronation in 1661, otherwise be. Indeed, an absence of folly is the first the earldom of Clarendon was conferred on him, hopeful prologue towards the obtaining wisdom ; along with a gift of £20,000 from the king. He en- yet he shall never be wise who knows not what folly joyed the office of chancellor till 1665, when, having is ; nor, it may be, commendably and judiciously incurred the popular odium by some of his measures, honest, without having taken some view of the and raised up many bitter enemies in the court by quarters of iniquity ; since true virtue pre-supposeth his opposition to the dissoluteness and extravagance an election, a declining somewhat that is ill, as well which there prevailed, he resigned the great seal by as the choice of what is good.' The choice of a

mode of life he, however, justly thinks ought to be regulated by a consideration of the abilities of each individual who is about to commence his career ; all abstract disquisitions on the subject being as unprofitable as to argue the questions, Whether a man who is obliged to make a long journey should choose to undertake it upon a black or a bay horse, and take his lodging always in a public inn, or at a friend's house; to which the resolution, after how long a time soever of considering, must be, that the black horse is to be made use of, if he be better than the bay; and that the inn is to be preferred, if the entertainment be better there than it is like to be at the friend's house. And how light and ridiculous soever this instance may seem to be, it is very worthy to accompany the other debate, which must

be resolved by the same medium. That a man of Dunkirk House, the London residence of Lord Clarendon,

a vigorous and active spirit, of perspicacity of judg. his majesty's command, and was soon afterwards ment, and high thoughts, cannot enter too soon into compelled to withdraw from the kingdom. He re- the field of action ; and to confine him to retirement, tired to France, and occupied himself in completing and to spend his life in contemplation, were to take his History of the Rebellion (for such was the epithet his life from him. On the other hand, a dull disbestowed by the royalists upon the civil war), spirited fellow, who hath no faculties of soul to which, however, was not published till the reign of exercise and improve, or such as no exercise or conQueen Anne. This great work, which usually occu- versation can improve, may withdraw himself as far pies six volumes, is not written in the studied manner as he can from the world, and spend his life in sleep, of modern historical compositions, but in an easy that was never awake; but what kind of fruit this Aowing conversational style; and it is generally dry trunk will yield by his speculation or contemesteemed for the lively descriptions which the author plation, can no more be comprehended than that he gives, from his own knowledge and observation, of will have a better and more useful understanding his most eminent contemporaries. The events are after he is dead and buried.' Lord Clarendon omits narrated with that freshness and minuteness which to add, that dispositions as well as talents ought only one concerned in them could have attained ; but always to be considered ; since, however great a some allowance must be made, in judging of the cha- man's abilities may be, the want of boldness, selfracters and the transactions described, for the political confidence, and decision of character, must operate prejudices of the author, which, as already seen, were as an insurmountable bar to success in the struggles those of a moderate and virtuous royalist. The chief of active life. * faults with which his style is chargeable are prolixity In the year 1811, a work of Lord Clarendon's, and involution, which render some portions of the which had till then remained in manuscript, was work unreadable, except with a great effort of atten- published under the title of Religion and Policy, and tion. And from having been written before notes the Countenance and Assistance they should give tr came into use, the narrative is too frequently in each other ; with a Survey of the Power and Juristerrupted by the introduction of minute discussions diction of the Pope in the Dominions of other Princes. of accessory matters. Lord Clarendon wrote also a variety of shorter works, among which are a life of Vindication of Himself from the Charge of High Treason ;

* Lord Clarendon's other miscellaneous works consist of 8 himself, a reply to the 'Leviathan' of Hobbes, and contemplations on the Psalms of David; Dialogues on the an admirable Essay on an Active and Contemplative Want of Respect due to Age, and on Education ; and essays on Life, ana why the One should be preferred before the various subjects.

The principal object of the work is to show the little curiosity either in the court or in the country injury which religion has sustained by the pope's to know anything of Scotland, or what was done there, assumption of temporal authority, and that it is that when the whole nation was solicitous to know incumbent on Catholics living under Protestant what passed weekly in Germany, and Poland, and all governments to pay no regard to the papal autho- other parts of Europe, no man ever inquired what rity, in opposition to their own sovereign.

was doing in Scotland. Nor had that kingdom a place Lord Clarendon's History of the Rebellion' was or mention in one page of any gazette ; and even after not intended for publication till the numerous public the advertisement of this preamble to rebellion, no individuals of whom it spoke were no more ; and ac

mention was made of it at the council-board, but such cordingly, it did not make its appearance till the year a despatch made into Scotland upon it, as expressed 1707. It was edited by Lord Rochester, Bishop Sprat, the king's dislike and displeasure, and obliged the and Dean Aldrich, who made numerous alterations lords of the council there to appear more vigorously on the text, which, however, has now been correctly in the vindication of his authority, and suppression given in an edition printed at Oxford in 1826.

of those tumults. But all was too little. That people,

after they had once begun, pursued the business vigour[Reception of the Liturgy at Edinburgh in 1637.]

ously, and with all imaginable contempt of the govern

ment; and though in the hubbub of the first day On the Sunday morning appointed for the work, the there appeared nobody of name or reckoning, but the Chancellor of Scotland, and others of the council, actors were really of the dregs of the people, yet they being present in the cathedral church, the dean began discovered by the countenance of that day, that few to read the Liturgy, which he had no sooner entered men of rank were forward to engage themselves in the upon, but a noise and clamour was raised throughout quarrel on the behalf of the bishops; whereupon more the church, that no words could be heard distinctly ; considerable persons every day appeared against them, and then a shower of stones, and sticks, and cudgels, and (as heretofore in the case of St Paul, Acts xiii. were thrown at the dean’s head. The bishop went up 50, “The Jews stirred up the devout and honourable into the pulpit, and from thence put them in mind of women') the women and ladies of the best quality the sacredness of the place, of their duty to God and declared themselves of the party, and, with all the the king; but he found no more reverence, nor was reproaches imaginable, made war upon the bishops, the clamour and disorder less than before. The chan- as introducers of popery and superstition, against which cellor, from his seat, commanded the provost and they avowed themselves to be irreconcilable enemies; magistrates of the city to descend from the gallery in and their husbands did not long defer the owning which they sat, and by their authority to suppress the the same spirit; insomuch as within few days the riot; which at last with great difficulty they did, by bishops durst not appear in the streets, nor in any driving the rudest of those who made the disturbance courts, or houses, but were in danger of their lives; out of the church, and shutting the doors, which gare and such of the lords as durst be in their company, the dean opportunity to proceed in the reading of or seemed to desire to rescue them from violence, had the Liturgy, that was not at all attended or heark- their coaches torn in picces, and their persons assaulted, ened to by those who remained within the church; | insomuch as they were glad to send for some of those and if it had, they who were turned out continued great men, who did indeed govern the rabble, though their barbarous noise, broke the windows, and endea- they appeared not in it, who readily came and revoured to break down the doors, so that it was not deemed them out of their hands; so that, by the time possible for any to follow their devotions.

new orders came from England, there was scarce a When all was done that at that time could be bishop left in Edinburgh, and not a minister who durst done there, and the council and inagistrates went out read the Liturgy in any church. of the church to their houses, the rabble followed the bishops with all the opprobrious language they could

[Character of Hampden.] invent, of bringing in superstition and popery into the kingdom, and making the people slaves; and were Mr Hampden was a man of much greater cunning, not content to use their tongues, but employed their and, it may be, of the most discerning spirit, and of hands too in throwing dirt and stones at them; and the greatest address and insinuation to bring anything treated the bishop of Edinburgh, whom they looked to pass which he desired, of any man of that time, and upon as most active that way, so rudely, that with who laid the design deepest. He was a gentleman of difficulty he got into a house, after they had torn his a good extraction, and a fair fortune; who, from a life habit, and was from thence removed to his own, with of great pleasure and license, had on a sudden retired great hazard of his life. As this was the reception to extraordinary sobriety and strictness, and yet rewhich it had in the cathedral, so it fared not better tained his usual cheerfulness and affability; which, in the other churches of the city, but was entertained together with the opinion of his wisdom and justice, with the same noise and outcries, and threatening and the courage he had showed in opposing the shipthe men, whose office it was to read it, with the same money, raised his reputation to a very great height, bitter execrations against bishops and popery.

not only in Buckinghamshire, where he lived, but Hitherto no person of condition or name appeared generally throughout the kingdom. lle was not a or seemed to countenance this seditious confusion; it man of many words, and rarely begun the discourse, was the rabble, of which nobody was named, and, or made the first entrance upon any business that was which is more strange, not one apprehended : and it assumed; but a very weighty speaker, and after he seems the bishops thought it not of moment enough had heard a full debate, and observed how the house to desire or require any help or protection from the was like to be inclined, took up the argument, and council ;-but without conferring with them, or apply- shortly, and clearly, and craftily so stated it, that he ing themselves to them, they despatched away an commonly conducted it to the conclusion he desired ; express to the king, with a full and particular infor- and if he found he could not do that, he was never mation of all that had passed, and a desire that he without the dexterity to divert the debate to another would take that course he thought best for the carry time, and to prevent the determining anything in the ing on his service.

negative, which might prove inconvenient in the future. Until this advertisement arrived from Scotland, He made so great a show of civility, and modesty, and there were very few in England who had heard of any humility, and always of mistrusting his own judgment, disorders there, or of anything done there which might and esteeming his with whom he conferred for the preproduce any. And the truth is, there was so sent, that he seemed to have no opinions or resolutions,

but such as he contracted from the information and which laziness and consent made current in vulgar instruction he received upon the discourses of others, conversation. whom he had a wonderful art of governing, and lead He was superior to all those passions and affections ing into his principles and inclinations, whilst they which attend vulgar minds, and was guilty of no believed that he wholly depended upon their counsel other ambition than of knowledge, and to be reputed and advice. No man had ever a greater power over a lover of all good men ; and that made him too much himself, or was less the man that he seemed to be; a contemner of those arts which must be indulged in which shortly after appeared to everybody, when he the transactions of human affairs. In the last short cared less to keep on the mask.

parliament he was a burgess in the House of Commons; and from the debates, which were there

managed with all imaginable gravity and sobriety, he [Character of Lord Falkland.]

contracted such a reverence to parliaments, that he

thought it really impossible they could ever produce In this unhappy battle [of Newbury] was slain the mischief or inconvenience to the kingdom; or that the Lord Viscount Falkland, a person of such prodigious kingdom could be tolerably happy in the intermission parts of learning and knowledge, of that inimitable of them. sweetness and delight in conversation, of so flowing The great opinion he had of the uprightness and in. and obliging a humanity and goodness to mankind, | tegrity of those persons who appeare i most active, and of that primitive simplicity and integrity of life, especially of Mr Hampden, kept him longer from susthat if there were no other brand upon this odious and peeting any design against the peace of the kingdom; accursed civil war than that single loss, it must be and though he differed from them commonly in conmost infamous and execrable to all posterity : clusions, he believed long their purposes were honest. Turpe mori, post te, solo non posse dolore.

When he grew better informed what was law, and dis

cerned in them a desire to control that law by a vote Before this parliament, his condition of life was so of one or both houses, no man more opposed those happy, that it was hardly capable of improvement. I attempts, and gave the adverse party more trouble by Before he came to be twenty years of age, he was reason and argumentation ; insomuch as he was by demaster of a noble fortune, which descended to himn by grees looked upon as an advocate for the court; to the gift of a grandfather, without passing through his which he contributed so little, that he declined those father or mother, who were then both alive, and not addresses, and even those invitations which he was well enough contented to find themselves passed by in obliged almost by civility to entertain. And he was the descent. His education for some years had been so jealous of the least imagination that he should inin Ireland, where his father was lord deputy; so that, cline to preferment, that he affected even a moroseness when he returned into England to the possession of to the court and to the courtiers, and left nothing his fortune, he was unentangled with any acquaintance undone which might prevent and divert the king's or or friends, which usually grow up by the custom of queen's favour towards him but the deserving it. For conversation, and therefore was to make a pure elec- when the king sent for him once or twice to speak tion of his company, which he chose by other rules with him, and to give him thanks for his excellent than were prescribed to the young nobility of that comportment in those councils, which his majesty i time. And it cannot be denied, though he admitted graciously termed doing him service,' his answers some few to his friendship for the agreeableness of were more negligent, and less satisfactory, than might their natures, and their undoubted affection to him, be expected ; as if he cared only that his actions should that his familiarity and friendship for the most part be just, not that they should be acceptable; and that was with men of the most eminent and sublime parts, his majesty should think that they proceeded only and of untouched reputation in point of integrity; and from the impulsion of conscience, without any symsuch men had a title to his bosom.

pathy in his affections. lie was a great cherisher of wit, and fancy, and good He had a courage of the most clear and keen parts in any man ; and if he found them clouded with temper, and so far from fear, that he seemed not withpoverty or want, a most liberal and bountiful patron out some appetite of danger; and therefore, upon any towards them, even above his fortune; of which, in occasion of action, he always engaged his person in those administrations, he was such a dispenser, as, if those troops which he thought by the forwardness of the he had been trusted with it to such uses, and if there commanders to be most like to be farthest engaged ; had been the least of vice in his expense, he might and in all such encounters, he had about him an exhare been thought too prodigal. He was constant and traordinary cheerfulness, without at all affecting the pertinacious in whatsoever he resolved to do, and not execution that usually attended them; in which he to be wearied by any pains that were necessary to took no delight, but took pains to prevent it, where it that end. And, therefore, having once resolved not to was not by resistance made necessary; insomuch see London, which he loved above all places, till he that at Edge-hill, when the enemy was routed, he was had perfectly learned the Greek tongue, he went to like to have incurred great peril, by interposing to his own house in the country, and pursued it with save those who had thrown away their arms, and that indefatigable industry, that it will not be be against whom, it may be, others were more fierce for lieved in how short a time he was master of it, and their having thrown them away; so that a man might accurately read all the Greek historians.

think he came into the field chiefly out of curiosity to 1 in thitim., his house being within little more than see the face of danger, and charity to prevent the ten miles of Uxford, he contractel familiarity and shedding of blood. Yet in his natural inclination, he friendship with the most polite and accurate men of acknowledged he was addicted to the profession of a i that university, who found such an immenseness of soldier; and shortly after he came to hie fortune, bewit, and such a solidity of judgment in him, so infinite fore he was of age, he went into the Low Countries, a fancy, bound in by a most logical ratiocination, such with a resolution of procuring command, and to give a vast knowledge, that he was not ignorant in any himself up to it; from which he was diverted by the thing, yet such an excessive humility, as if he had complete inactivity of that summer; so he returned known nothing, that they frequently resorted and into England, and shortly after entered upon that dwelt with him, as in a college situated in a purer vehement course of study we mentioned before, till the air; so that his house was a university in a less volume, first alarm from the north; then again he made ready whither they came not so much for repose as study, for the field, and though he received some repulse in and to examine and refine those grosser propositions the command of a troop of horse, of which he had

a promise, he went a volunteer with the Earl of being deprived of a prince whose example would have Essex.

had a greater influence upon the manners and piety From the entrance into this unnatural war, his of the nation, than the most strict laws can have. To natural cheerfulness and vivacity grew clouded, and a speak first of his private qualifications as a man, bekind of sadness and dejection of spirit stole upon him, fore the mention of his princely and royal virtues; he which he had never been used to; yet being one of was, if ever any, the most worthy of the title of an those who believed that one battle would end all dif- honest man; so great a lover of justice, that no tempferences, and that there would be so great a victory on tation could dispose him to a wrongful action, except one side that the other would be compelled to submit it was so disguised to him that he believed it to be to any conditions from the victor (which supposition just. He had a tenderness and compassion of nature and conclusion generally sunk into the minds of most which restrained him from ever doing a hard-hearted men, and prevented the looking after many advan- thing; and, therefore, he was so apt to grant pardon taves that might then have been laid hold of), he re to malefactors, that the judges of the land represented sisted those indispositions. But after the king's return to him the damage and insecurity to the public that from Brentford, and the furious resolution of the two Howed from such his indulgence. And then he rehouses not to admit any treaty for peace, those indis- strained himself from pardoning either murders or positions which had before touched him grew into a highway robberies, and quickly discerned the fruits perfect habit of uncheerfulness; and he who had been of his severity by a wonderful reformation of those so exactly easy and affable to all men, that his face enormnities. He was very punctual and regular in his and countenance was always present and vacant to devotions; he was nerer known to enter upon his rehis company, and held any cloudiness and less plea- creations or sports, though never so early in the mornsantness of the visage a kind of rudeness or incivility, | ing, before he had been at public prayers ; so that on became on a sudden less communicable; and thence hunting days, his chaplains were bound to a very early very sad, pale, and exceedingly affected with the attendance. He was likewise very strict in observing splein. In his clothes and habit, which he had minded the hours of his private cabinet devotions, and was before always with more neatness, and industry, and so severe an exacter of gravity and reverence in all expense, than is usual to so great a soul, he was not mention of religion, that he could never endure any now only incurious, but too negligent; and in his re- light or profane word, with what sharpness of wit soception of suitors, and the necessary or casual ad- ever it was covered ; and though he was well pleased dresses to his place, so quick, and sharp, and severe, and delighted with reading verses made upon any octhat there wanted not some men (strangers to his casion, no man durst bring before him anything that nature and disposition) who believed him proud and was profane or unclean. That kind of wit had never imperious; from which no mortal man was ever more any coutenance then. He was so great an example free.

of conjugal affection, that they who did not imitate When there was any overture or hope of peace, he him in that particular, durst not brag of their liberty ; would be more erect and vigorous, and exceedingly and he did not only permit, but direct his bishops to solicitous to press anything which he thought might prosecute those scandalous vices, in the ecclesiastical promote it; and sitting among his friends, often after courts, against persons of eminence, and near relation a deep silence, and frequent sighs, would, with a shrill to his service. and sad accent, ingeminate the word Peace, Peace; His kingly virtues had some mixture and allay that and would passionately profess, that the very agony hindered them from shining in full lustre, and from of the war, and the view of the calamities and desola- producing those fruits they should have been attended tion the kingdom did and must endure, took his sleep with. He was not in his nature very bountiful, though from him, and would shortly break his heart. This gave very much. This appeared more after the made some think, or pretend to think, that he was Duke of Buckingham's death, after which those showers so much enamoured of peace, that he would have been fell very rarely; and he paused too in giving, glad the king should have bought it at any price;' which made those to whom he gave less sensible of the which was a most unreasonable calumny. As if a man benefit. He kept state to the full, which made his that was himself the most punctual and precise in court very orderly, no man presuming to be seen in a every circumstance that might reflect upon conscience place where he had no pretence to be. He saw and or honour, could have wished the king to have com observed men long before he received them about his mitted a trespass against either.

person ; and did not love strangers, nor very contient In the morning before the battle, as always upon inen. He was a patient hearer of causes, which he action, he was very cheerful, and put himself into the frequently accustomed himself to at the council board, first rank of the Lord Byron's regiment, then advanc- and judged very well, and was dexterous in the mediing upon the enemy, who had lined the hedges on both ating part ; so that he often put an end to causes by sides with inusketeers; from whence he was shot with persuasion, which the stubbornness of men's humours 1 musket in the lower part of the belly, and in the made dilatory in courts of justice. instant falling from his horse, his body was not found He was very fearless in his person ; but, in his riper till the next morning; till when, there was some hope years, not very enterprising. He had an excellent he might have been a prisoner, though his nearest understanding, but was not confident enough of it ; friends, who knew his tenper, received small comfort which made him oftentimes change his own opinion from that imagination. Thus fell that incomparable for a worse, and follow the advice of men that did not young man, in the four-and-thirtieth year of his age, judge so well as himself. This made him more irrehaving so much despatched the true business of life, solute than the conjuncture of his affairs would adthat the eldest rarely attain to that immense knows mit; if he had been of a rougher and more imperious ledge, and the youngest enter not into the world with nature, he would have found more respect and duty. more innocency: whosoever leads such a life, needs be And his not applying some severe cures to approach. the less anxious upon how short warning it is taken ing evils proceeded from the lenity of his nature, and from him.

the tenderness of his conscience, which, in all cases of

blood, made him choose the softer way, and not hearken [Character of Charles I.]

to severe counsels, how reasonably soever urged. This

only restrained him from pursuing his advantage in But it will not be unnecessary to add a short cha- the first Scottish expedition, when, humanly speaking, racter of his person, that posterity may know the in- he might have reduced that nation to the most entire estimable lose which the nation then underwent, inobedience that could have been wished. But no man

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can say he had then many who advised him to it, but Scotland, which yet he could not reasonably promise the contrary, by a wonderful indisposition all his to himself in that company. But when the night council had to the war or any other fatigue. He was covered them, he found means to withdraw himself always a great lover of the Scottish nation, having not with one or two of his own servants, whom he likewise only been born there, but educated by that people, discharged when it begun to be light; and after he and besieged by them always, having few English had made them cut off his hair, he betook himself about him till he was king; and the major number alone into an adjacent wood, and relied only upon of his servants being still of that nation, who he Him for his preservation who alone could, and did thought could never fail him. And among these, no miraculously deliver him. man had such an ascendant over him, by the humblest When it was morning, and the troops which had insinuations, as Duke Hamilton had.

marched all night, and who knew that when it begun As he excelled in all other virtues, so in temperance to be dark the king was with them, found now that he was so strict, that he abhorred all debauchery to he was not there, they cared less for each other's comthat degree, that, at a great festival solemnity, where pany; and most of them who were English separated he once was, when very many of the nobility of the themselves, and went into other roads; and wherever English and Scots were entertained, being told by one twenty horse appeared of the country, which was now who withdrew from thence, what vast draughts of wine awake, and upon their guard to stop and arrest the they drank, and that there was one earl who had runaways, the whole body of the Scottish horse would drank most of the rest down, and was not himself | Aly, and run several ways; and twenty of them would moved or altered,' the king said, “that he deserved to give themselves prisoners to two country fellows; howbe hanged ;' and that earl coming shortly after into ever, David Lesley reached Yorkshire with above fifthe room where his majesty was, in some gaiety, to teen hundred horse in a body. But the jealousies inshow how unhurt he was from that battle, the king creased every day; and those of his own country were sent one to bid him withdraw from his majesty's pre so unsatisfied with his whole conduct and behaviour, sence; nor did he in some days after appear before that they did, that is, many of them, believe that he him.

was corrupted by Cromwell; and the rest, who did So many miraculous circumstances contributed to not think so, believed him not to understand his prohis ruin, that men might well think that heaven and fession, in which he had been bred from his cradle earth conspired it. Though he was, from the first When he was in his flight, considering one morning declension of his power, so much betrayed by his own with the principal persons which way they should servants, that there were very few who remained faith- take, some proposed this and others that way, Sir ful to him, yet that treachery proceeded not always William Armorer asked him, 'which way he thought from any treasonable purpose to do him any harm, best ?' which, when he had named, the other said," he but from particular and personal animosities against would then go the other; for, he swore, he had beother men. And afterwards, the terror all men were trayed the king and the army all the time ;' and su under of the parliament, and the guilt they were con- left him. scious of themselves, made them watch all opportu It is great pity that there was never a journal made nities to make themselves gracious to those who could of that miraculous deliverance, in which there might do them good ; and so they became spies upon their be seen so many visible impressions of the immediate master, and from one piece of knavery were hardened hand of God. When the darkness of the night was and confirmed to undertake another, till at last they over, after the king had cast himself into that wood, had no hope of preservation but by the destruction of he discerned another man, who had gotten upon an their master. And after all this, when a man might oak in the same wood, near the place where the king reasonably believe that less than a universal defection had rested himself, and had slept soundly. The man of three nations could not have reduced a great king upon the tree had first seen the king, and knew him, to so ugly a fate, it is most certain that, in that very and came down to him, and was known to the king, hour, when he was thus wickedly murdered in the being a gentleman of the neighbour county of Statsight of the sun, he had as great a share in the hearts fordshire, who had served his late majesty during the and affections of his subjects in general, was as much war, and had now been one of the few who resorted to beloved, esteemed, and longed for by the people in the king after his coming to Worcester. His name general of the three nations, as any of his predecessors was Careless, who had had a command of foot, about had ever been. To conclude, he was the worthiest the degree of a captain, under the Lord Loughborough. gentleman, the best master, the best friend, the best He persuaded the king, since it could not be safe for husband, the best father, and the best Christian, that him to go out of the wood, and that, as soon as it the age in which he lived produced. And if he were should be fully light, the wood itself would probably pot the greatest king, if he were without some parts be visited by those of the country, who would be and qualities which have made some kings great and searching to find those whom they might make prihappy, no other prince was ever unhappy who was soners, that he would get up into that tree where he possessed of half his virtues and endowments, and so had been, where the boughs were so thick with leaves much without any kind of vice.

that a man would not be discovered there without a

narrower inquiry than people usually make in places [Escape of Charles II. after the Battle of Worcester.*] which they do not suspect. The king thought it good

Though the king could not get a body of horse to counsel, and, with the other's help, climbed into the fight, he could have too many to fly with him; and him, where they sat all that day, and securely saw

tree, and then helped his companion to ascend after he had not been many hours from Worcester, when he found about him near, if not above, four thousand many who came purposely into the wood to look after

them, and heard all their discourse, how they would of his horse. There was David Lesley with all his own

use the king himself if they could take him. This equipage, as if he had not fled upon the sudden; so that good order, and regularity, and obedience, might shire; and though there was

wood was either in or upon the borders of Staffordyet have made a retreat even into Scotland itself. | side of it, where the king had entered into it, yet it

a highway near one But there was paleness in every man's looks, and

was large, and all other sides of it opened amongst jealousy and confusion in their faces ; and scarce any inclosures, and Careless was not unacquainted with thing could worse befall the king than a return into the neighbour villages ; and it was part of the king's

* The particulars of this escape are here narrated ' as the good fortune that this gentleman, by being a Ronuthor had them from the king himself.'

man Catholic, was acquainted with those of that pro

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