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TABLE 3-1.-HISTORY OF PERSONNEL FLUCTUATIONS IN THE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE-Continued

End of year

Author

ized strength (civilian

and military)

Notes

1949........

1950......

1953...

1958..............

1961....

1964. 1965..

1,551 Deputy Secretary and three assistant Secretaries au

thorized. Added Personnel Policy Board, Military Liaison Committee to Atomic Energy Commission, and

the Weapons System Evaluation Group. 2,004 Structure of organization changed to accommodate the

Deputy Secretary and three assistant secretaries. Added Consolidated Office of Public Information (a department-wide activity), U.S. Mission to NATO,

and the Mutual Defense Assistance Program. 2,200 Reorganization Plan #6 implemented. A General

Counsel and six additional assistant secretaries authorized (Health and Medical, Research and Development, Applications Engineering, Supply and Logistics, Properties and Installations, International Secu

rity Affairs). 1,669 DoD Reorganization Act implemented. Personnel reduc

tions made. Director of Defense Research and Engineering established. Two R&D assistant secretaries

eliminated. 1,751 Assistant Secretary (Civil Defense) established. Plan

ning, Programming, and Budgeting System (PPBS) initiated. Other internal reorganizations made with

no basic change in functions. 2,217 Civil Defense function transferred to Army. 2,407 Systems Analysis function expanded and given assist

ant secretary rank. Vietnam buildup begun. 3,213 Peak Vietnam buildup reached providing increased

management of supply, transportation, training, purchasing, auditing, research and development, and

policy coordination. 2,621 New organizations created to exercise staff supervision

over Intelligence and Telecommunications. Size of OSD reduced by Deputy Secretary Packard due to

Vietnam drawdown. 2,403 Second Deputy Secretary (primarily focused on Intelli

gence) established. Further_reductions directed by Deputy Secretary Packard. Defense Security Assistance Agency established as a Defense Agency with 71 Military Assistance Program (MAP) funded OSD spaces. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency established as a Defense Agency (reducing OSD by 184 spaces). Intelligence, Telecommunications, and

Test and Evaluation functions expanded. 2,184 Defense Audit Service (DAS) established and 110 spaces

transferred from OASD (Comptroller) to DAS. Inspector General for Intelligence established.

1968.

1970-1971........

1972..................

1976.................

TABLE 3-1.-HISTORY OF PERSONNEL FLUCTUATIONS IN THE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE-Continued

End of year

Author

ized strength (civilian

and military)

Notes

1977............

1,583 Personnel reductions directed by Secretary Brown.

Transferred operating functions with 261 spaces to establish Washington Headquarters Services (administrative services, computer support, statistical reporting); 76 other spaces transferred to Military De partments and Defense Agencies (small groups of spaces and functions from throughout OSD). Eliminated a net of 209 other spaces while establishing an Under Secretary of Defense (Policy), a Deputy Under Secretary (Policy Review), and providing increased emphasis on NATO. Second Deputy Secretary of De

fense eliminated. 1,667 Assistant Secretary (International Security Policy) es

tablished. Defense Legal Services Agency established, transferring 51 spaces from the OSD General Counsel. Assistant to the Secretary (Review and Over

sight)—ATSD (R&O)-established. 1,773 DoD Inspector General established. ATSD (R&O) sub

sumed by the DoD Inspector General. 1,896 Emphasis placed on intelligence; command, control,

and communications; NATO standardization; acquisition management; and technology transfer.

1981................

1982...

1983..............

1 January 1948.
b. Defense Agencies

There has been, however, substantial personnel growth in the last two decades in subordinate organizations which report directly to OSD: Defense Agencies and DoD Field Activities. The growth in these agencies and activities resulted from the McCormack-Curtis Amendment to the Reorganization Act of 1958. This amendment authorized the Secretary of Defense, whenever he determined that it would be advantageous in terms of effectiveness, economy, or efficiency, to provide for the performance of any common supply or service by a single agency or such other organization as he deemed appropriate. This amendment allowed the Department of Defense some organizational flexibility and facilitated the integration of common functions.

Two Defense Agencies antedate the McCormack-Curtis Amendment. In November 1952, the National Security Agency was established by Presidential directive and placed under the Secretary of Defense. The Advanced Research Projects Agency was established under the Secretary in February 1958, but it did not formally gain status as a Defense Agency until 1972. The first Defense Agency to be formed following the 1958 Reorganization Act was the Defense Atomic Support Agency in May 1959 (which in 1972 became the Defense Nuclear Agency). None of these initial agencies involved functions in which the Services had any great proprietary interest. But Service functions and interests were involved in the establishment of several of the Defense Agencies that followed; notable in this category were the agencies to consolidate and integrate communications, supply, and intelligence.

Currently, there are 15 Defense Agencies including the DoD Inspector General and the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. (While the Court of Military Appeals has often been included in the Defense Agency category, it is excluded from this discussion because OSD has only administrative responsibilities for this organization.) The Defense Agencies are listed below in the order that they or their predecessor organization (date in parentheses) came into existence, with the date showing when they gained official Defense Agency status:

DEFENSE AGENCIES

National Security Agency......
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (1958)
Defense Nuclear Agency (1959)a .....
Defense Communications Agency
Defense Intelligence Agency .......
Defense Logistics Agency (1961)
Defense Contract Audit Agency
Defense Security Assistance Agency
Defense Mapping Agency ......
Defense Investigative Service
Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
Defense Audiovisual Agency ....
Defense Legal Services Agency..
DoD Inspector General.
Strategic Defense Initiative Organization

1952 1972 1972 1960 1961 1977 1965 1971 1972 1972 1972 1979 1981 1983 1984

a Formerly Defense Atomic Support Agency b Formerly Defense Supply Agency

The growth in the number of Defense Agencies and an expansion of their responsibilities were accompanied

by substantial growth in assigned manpower. Between 1960 and 1983, the civilian and military personnel strengths of the Defense Agencies grew from 8,669 to 74,565. (Due to classification, personnel strengths for the National Security Agency have been excluded from these totals.) While this latter number includes both civilian and military personnel, the vast majority -92.3 percent -are civilians.

c. DoD Field Activities

DoD Field Activities also perform selected support and service functions, but of a more limited scope than Defense Agencies. The creation of DoD Field Activities is a more recent initiative with the first activity established in 1974. There are currently eight DoD Field Activities, established in the following years.

DOD FIELD ACTIVITIES

1974

Department of Defense Dependents Schools...
Office of Civilian Health and Medical Program of the

Uniformed Services (OCHAMPUS)......
American Forces Information Service (AFIS)....
Washington Headquarters Services (WHS).
Office of Economic Adjustment ...........
Defense Medical Systems Support Center
Defense Technology Security Administration
Defense Information Services Activity....

1974 1977 1977 1978 1985 1985 1985

Between 1975 and 1983, military and civilian manpower assigned to these activities increased from 417 to 11,366 personnel.

d. Summary Table 3-2 provides a detailed track of the personnel strengths of OSD and subordinate components between 1960 and 1983 in 5-year increments. These personnel strengths are summarized in the following table.

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2. Number of OSD Political Appointees

The following table shows the number of senior appointments in OSD and the percentage of those appointments that are political (non-career). This table shows: o some growth in senior executive positions and absolute num

bers of political (non-career) appointments; and o political appointments have continued over the last 10 years to

represent between 20-25 percent of total senior executive positions.

52-314 0-85-3

TABLE 3-2

:
Civilian and Military Actual End Strengths in OSD and Subordinate Organizations
1960

1965
Civilian
Military
Total
cylan Mitary

Total

civilian

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Defense Logistics Agency

52, 265 Defense Mapping Agency

7,595 Defense Nuclear Agency

620 Defense Security Assistance Agency 71 Uniformed Services University

of the Health Sciences Court of Military Appeals

37 TOTAL, Defense Agencies

70,312 DOD Field Activities Washington Headquarters Services American Forces Information Service 160 Civilian Health & Medical Program of the Uniformed Services

145 Tri-Service Medical Information

System office of Economic Adjustment DOD Dependents Schools

25 TOTAL, DOD Field Activities

330 TOTAL

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72,277

7,887 80,164

74,808

5,986 80,794

81,375

6,452

87,827

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