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Cummins, Senator. To Increase the Efficiency of the Military Esta

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March 31, 1916: 5219-20. Hitchcock, Senator. To Increase the Efficiency of the Military Es

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51. National Defense Act of 1920

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Floor Debates in the Congressional Record Army Reorganization (Debate in the House) v. 59, March 8, 1920:

4026-40; March 9, 1920: 4071-72; March 10, 1920: 4155-56;

March 11, 1920: 4180-93; March 16, 1920: 4404-05. Army Reorganization-Conference Report. (Debate in the Senate]

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v. 59, May 28, 1920: 7833 National Security Act of 1947

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House, v. 93, July 25, 1947: 10197. Robertson, Pat. Unification of the Armed Services. Remarks in the

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CHAPTER 5

UNIFIED AND SPECIFIED COMMANDS

A. INTRODUCTION

This chapter deals with the unified and specified commands which were established to control operations whenever military forces are employed. Commanders of the unified and specified commands report through the Joint Chiefs of Staff to the Secretary of Defense. These commands and their Service components represent one of the two distinct organizational levels of the Department of Defense: the operational level. The other is the policymaking level, comprised basically of Washington Headquarters organizations.

Unified and specified commands are, by definition, those with a broad and continuing mission. Unified commands have forces assigned from two or more Services; specified commands consist of forces from a single Service. Today, there are six unified commands and three specified commands in existence:

Unified Commands:
U.S. Atlantic Command (Norfolk, Virginia)
U.S. Central Command (MacDill Air Force Base, Florida)
U.S. European Command (Stuttgart, Germany)
U.S. Pacific Command (Camp H.M. Smith, Hawaii)
U.S. Readiness Command (MacDill Air Force Base, Florida)
U.S. Southern Command (Quarry Heights, Panama)
Specified Commands:
Aerospace Defense Command (Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado)
Military Airlift Command (Scott Air Force Base, Illinois)

Strategic Air Command (Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska) In addition, on November 20, 1984, President Reagan approved the establishment of a seventh unified command: the U.S. Space Command. This new command is to be formally established on September 23, 1985.

The purpose of this chapter is to examine the unified and specified command system as it has evolved since World War II and to see, in the context of the overall DoD organization, if this system best serves U.S. national security interests. For simplicity, throughout the remainder of this chapter the unified and specified commands will be referred to as operational commands”. Likewise, the unified and specified commanders will be referred to as "operational commanders.” In certain quotes, however, the operational commanders will be referred to as "CINC's”, an abbreviation for Commanders in Chief. B. EVOLUTION OF THE OPERATIONAL COMMANDS 1. Prior to World War II

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